philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In 2014, Inside Higher Education described the philosophy "...discipline's own long history of misogyny and sexual harassment" of women students and professors. Women make up as little as 17% of philosophy faculty in some studies. ;Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ;General introductions ;Topical introductions * ;Historical introductions * * ;Reference works * Popular Philosophy Natural philosophy ("physics," from ta physika, "things having to do with nature (physis)" was the study of the constitution and processes of transformation in the physical world.


For example, the physicist Richard Feynman invented the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics using a combination of mathematical reasoning and physical insight, and today's string theory, a still-developing scientific theory which attempts to unify the four fundamental forces of nature, continues to inspire new mathematics. Some mathematics is relevant only in the area that inspired it, and is applied to solve further problems in that area. But often mathematics inspired by one area proves useful in many areas, and joins the general stock of mathematical concepts. A distinction is often made between pure mathematics and applied mathematics.


The invention in the late nineteenth century of the transformer meant that electrical power could be transmitted more efficiently at a higher voltage but lower current. Efficient electrical transmission meant in turn that electricity could be generated at centralised power stations, where it benefited from economies of scale, and then be despatched relatively long distances to where it was needed. Since electrical energy cannot easily be stored in quantities large enough to meet demands on a national scale, at all times exactly as much must be produced as is required.

Academic degree

degreedegreesuniversity degree
The academic degrees available at universities are: Historically, the Finnish higher education system is derived from the German system. The current system of higher education comprises two types of higher education institutions, the universities and the polytechnics, many of whom refer to themselves as Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) With the exception of few fields such as Medicine and Dentistry, the Finnish system of Higher education degrees is in compliance with the Bologna process.

Engineering education

engineering collegeengineering schoolCollege of Engineering
In this accord 29 European countries agreed to harmonize their higher education system and create a European higher education area. In this system the professional schools award bachelor's degrees like BEng or BASc after four years study. And the universities with engineering programs award the bachelor's degree BSc after the third year. A university bachelor is usually continuing his education for one or two more years to earn his master's degree MSc. Adjacent to these degrees, the old titles of the pre-populated system are still in use. A vocational bachelor may be admitted to a university master's degree program although often they are required to take additional courses.


biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
Within organisms, genetic information is physically represented as chromosomes, within which it is represented by a particular sequence of amino acids in particular DNA molecules. Developmental biology studies the process by which organisms grow and develop. Developmental biology, originated from embryology, studies the genetic control of cell growth, cellular differentiation, and "cellular morphogenesis," which is the process that progressively gives rise to tissues, organs, and anatomy.

Medical school

medical studentFaculty of Medicinemedical students
These include: Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. While the final outcomes of the qualifications themselves typically meet the Expectations of the descriptor for higher education qualification at level 7 (the UK master's degree). These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB or MBBS. There are currently 32 institutions that offer medical degrees in the United Kingdom. Completion of a medical degree in the UK results in the award of the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.


In physics the term theory is generally used for a mathematical framework—derived from a small set of basic postulates (usually symmetries, like equality of locations in space or in time, or identity of electrons, etc.)—which is capable of producing experimental predictions for a given category of physical systems. One good example is classical electromagnetism, which encompasses results derived from gauge symmetry (sometimes called gauge invariance) in a form of a few equations called Maxwell's equations.


scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
The government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in social science and humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions (e.g. biotechnology) government provides the bulk of the funds for basic scientific research. Many governments have dedicated agencies to support scientific research.

Environmental science

Environmental Sciencesenvironmental scientistenvironmental
Physical geography. Sustainable development. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Glossary of environmental terms - Global Development Research Center.

Civil engineering

Civilcivil engineerCivil and Environmental Engineering
As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms do, construction engineers often engage in more business-like transactions, for example, drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and monitoring prices of supplies. Earthquake engineering involves designing structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures. Earthquake engineering is a sub-discipline of structural engineering.


medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Medical physics is the study of the applications of physics principles in medicine. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Molecular biology is the study of molecular underpinnings of the process of replication, transcription and translation of the genetic material. Neuroscience includes those disciplines of science that are related to the study of the nervous system. A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical specialties include neurology, neurosurgery and psychiatry.

Liberal arts education

liberal artsliberal studiesArts
Thus, on the level of higher education, despite the European origin of the liberal arts college, the term liberal arts college usually denotes liberal arts colleges in the United States.

Mechanical engineering

mechanical engineermechanicalmechanical engineers
It uses a mesh setup with user-defined sizes to measure physical quantities at a node. The more nodes there are, the higher the precision. This field is not new, as the basis of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Method (FEM) dates back to 1941. But the evolution of computers has made FEA/FEM a viable option for analysis of structural problems. Many commercial codes such as NASTRAN, ANSYS, and ABAQUS are widely used in industry for research and the design of components. Some 3D modeling and CAD software packages have added FEA modules. In the recent times, cloud simulation platforms like SimScale are becoming more common.

Political science

political scientistPolitical Sciencespolitical analyst
Like all social sciences, political science faces the difficulty of observing human actors that can only be partially observed and who have the capacity for making conscious choices unlike other subjects such as non-human organisms in biology or inanimate objects as in physics. Despite the complexities, contemporary political science has progressed by adopting a variety of methods and theoretical approaches to understanding politics and methodological pluralism is a defining feature of contemporary political science.

Computer engineering

computer engineerComputerengineering
In many institutions of higher learning, computer engineering students are allowed to choose areas of in-depth study in their junior and senior year because the full breadth of knowledge used in the design and application of computers is beyond the scope of an undergraduate degree. Other institutions may require engineering students to complete one or two years of general engineering before declaring computer engineering as their primary focus. Computer engineering began in 1939 when John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry began developing the world's first electronic digital computer through physics, mathematics, and electrical engineering.

Industrial engineering

industrial engineerindustrialIndustrial Engineering and Management
Industrial engineers use specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results obtained from systems and processes. From these results, they are able to create new systems, processes or situations for the useful coordination of labour, materials and machines and also improve the quality and productivity of systems, physical or social.


pharmaciespharmaceutical sciencesdrugstore
They apply knowledge from chemistry (inorganic, physical, biochemical and analytical), biology (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular biology), epidemiology, statistics, chemometrics, mathematics, physics, and chemical engineering. The pharmaceutical sciences are further subdivided into several specific specialties, with four main branches: As new discoveries advance and extend the pharmaceutical sciences, subspecialties continue to be added to this list. Importantly, as knowledge advances, boundaries between these specialty areas of pharmaceutical sciences are beginning to blur. Many fundamental concepts are common to all pharmaceutical sciences.


In 2007, The Times Higher Education Guide published a list of 'The most cited authors of books in the Humanities' (including philosophy and psychology). Seven of the top ten are listed as sociologists: Michel Foucault (1), Pierre Bourdieu (2), Anthony Giddens (5), Erving Goffman (6), Jürgen Habermas (7), Max Weber (8), and Bruno Latour (10). The most highly ranked general journals which publish original research in the field of sociology are the American Journal of Sociology and the American Sociological Review. The Annual Review of Sociology, which publishes original review essays, is also highly ranked. Many other generalist and specialized journals exist. * Willis, Evan. 1996.

Graduate unemployment

unemployed graduatesgraduate employmentpeople with a degree are unemployed
This caused an increase in tuition fees and affected the quality of higher education, which in turn influenced the employment of graduates.

List of universities in Poland

500 universitiesList of Polish universitiesPolish Universities
In total, there are approximately 457 universities and collegiate-level institutions of higher education in Poland, including 131 government-funded and 326 privately owned universities, with almost 2 million enrolled students. According to the March 18, 2011 Act of the Polish Parliament, the universities are divided into categories based on their legal status and level of authorization. There are forty publicly funded and two private universities considered classical, granting doctoral degrees on top of bachelor's and master's degrees in at least ten fields of knowledge. The remaining universities are divided according to their educational profile usually reflected in their differing names.

Sofia University

University of SofiaSofia University "St. Kliment OhridskiSofia University St. Kliment Ohridski
Efficiency and public funding for higher education in Bulgaria.

Grandes écoles

grande écoleGrandes EcolesGrande Ecole
Scientifiques: These prepare for the engineering schools and teach mathematics, physics, chemistry, and technology. They are broken down in sub-categories according to the emphasis of their dominant subject: they are mainly focused on mathematics and either physics (MP), industrial sciences and technologies (TSI), physics and chemistry (PC), physics and engineering science (PSI), physics and technology (PT) and chemistry, physics and technology (TPC). BCPST: biology, chemistry, physics, geology, and mathematics.

Federal University of ABC

Universidade Federal do ABCUFABCUFABC - Federal University of ABC
Universities and Higher Education in Brazil. ABC Region. Interdisciplinarity. Official website. Officers Information of UFABC on Twitter. Research Group in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics of UFABC. Fubeca - Social Network for UFABC students. BC&T's Pedagogical Project (in portuguese).

Birmingham Metropolitan College

Matthew Boulton CollegeSutton Coldfield CollegeStourbridge College
Birmingham Metropolitan College is a further and higher education college with 10 campuses distributed within Birmingham, England. The college was created in 2009 as an amalgamation of Matthew Boulton College and Sutton Coldfield College. The main site is Matthew Boulton College based at Jennens Road in Birmingham City Centre. In addition to the existing campuses and facilities, there are proposals for the construction of a new campus in Perry Barr, although these plans are currently on hold due to funding issues. The college is a member of the Collab Group of high performing schools.