Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
Martin Heidegger observes that Aristotle was the originator of conception of nature that prevailed in the Middle Ages into the modern era: "The Physics is a lecture in which he seeks to determine beings that arise on their own, τὰ φύσει ὄντα, with regard to their being. Aristotelian "physics" is different from what we mean today by this word, not only to the extent that it belongs to antiquity whereas the modern physical sciences belong to modernity, rather above all it is different by virtue of the fact that Aristotle's "physics" is philosophy, whereas modern physics is a positive science that presupposes a philosophy....

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICESCRInternational Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural RightsEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights
and mental health" (Article 12). education, including free universal primary education, generally available secondary education and equally accessible higher education.

Scientific Revolution

scientificscientific revolutionsscience
Galileo showed an appreciation for the relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics. He understood the parabola, both in terms of conic sections and in terms of the ordinate (y) varying as the square of the abscissa (x). Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically ideal trajectory of a uniformly accelerated projectile in the absence of friction and other disturbances.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton. Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent.

Postgraduate education

postgraduategraduate studentpost-graduate
In the Republic of Ireland higher education is operated by the Higher Education Authority. Admission to a postgraduate degree programme in Nigeria requires a bachelor's degree with at least a Second Class Lower Division (not less than 2.75/5). Admission to Doctoral programmes requires an Academic master's degree with a minimum weighted average of 60% (B average or 4.00/5). In addition to this, applicants may be subjected to written and oral examinations depending on the school. Most universities with high numbers of applicants have more stringent admission processes. Postgraduate degrees in Nigeria include M.A., M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Eng., LL.M, M.Arch., M.Agric., M.Phil., PhD.

Undergraduate education

undergraduateundergraduatesundergraduate student
Applications for undergraduate courses in UK higher education are made through the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). For their first degree, most students read for the degree of bachelor, which usually takes three years, however in the sciences and engineering integrated courses covering both undergraduate level and advanced degree level leading to the degree of master, usually taking four years and including a research project or dissertation are popular. Given the integrated nature of these programs someone who gains a master's degree via an integrated program is not usually admitted to the degree of bachelor.

Speed of light

clight speedspeed of light in vacuum
Usenet Physics FAQ. De Mora Luminis at MathPages. Light discussion on adding velocities. Speed of Light (University of Colorado Department of Physics). Speed of Light (Sixty Symbols, University of Nottingham Department of Physics [video]). Speed of Light, BBC Radio4 discussion (In Our Time, 30 November 2006). Speed of Light (Live-Counter – Illustrations).

Special relativity

special theory of relativityrelativisticspecial
The principle of relativity, which states that physical laws have the same form in each inertial reference frame, dates back to Galileo, and was incorporated into Newtonian physics. However, in the late 19th century, the existence of electromagnetic waves led some physicists to suggest that the universe was filled with a substance that they called "aether", which, they postulated, would act as the medium through which these waves, or vibrations, propagated (in many respects similar to the way sound propagates through air).

Johannes Kepler

KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler
Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics", and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics. Kepler was born on December 27, the feast day of St John the Evangelist, 1571, in the Free Imperial City of Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center). His grandfather, Sebald Kepler, had been Lord Mayor of the city. By the time Johannes was born, he had two brothers and one sister and the Kepler family fortune was in decline.


infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus
His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for working with infinitesimal quantities, allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives, and providing the product rule and chain rule, in their differential and integral forms. Unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism, often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Today, Leibniz and Newton are usually both given credit for independently inventing and developing calculus. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today.

University of al-Qarawiyyin

University of Al QuaraouiyineUniversity of Al-KaraouineAl-Qarawiyyin
Jacques Verger says that while the term 'university' is occasionally applied by scholars to the madrasa out of convenience, the European university marked a major disruption between earlier institutions of higher learning and were the earliest true modern university. Some scholars, noting certain parallels between such madrasas and European medieval universities, have proposed that the latter may have been influenced by the madrasas of Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily.

Photoelectric effect

Timeline of mechanics and physics. Astronomy Cast "". AstronomyCast. Nave, R., " Wave-Particle Duality". HyperPhysics. " Photoelectric effect". Physics 2000. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. (page not found). ACEPT W3 Group, " The Photoelectric Effect". Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. Haberkern, Thomas, and N Deepak " Grains of Mystique: Quantum Physics for the Layman". Einstein Demystifies Photoelectric Effect, Chapter 3. Department of Physics, " The Photoelectric effect". Physics 320 Laboratory, Davidson College, Davidson. Fowler, Michael, " The Photoelectric Effect".

Max Planck

PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPlanck, M.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame as a physicist rests primarily on his role as the originator of quantum theory, which revolutionized human understanding of atomic and subatomic processes. In 1948, the German scientific institution the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (of which Planck was twice president) was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPS). The MPS now includes 83 institutions representing a wide range of scientific directions.


spatialphysical spacereal space
Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date back to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the Timaeus of Plato, or Socrates in his reflections on what the Greeks called khôra (i.e.

Vocational university

University of Applied Sciencesvocational collegeHogeschool
Higher Vocational Education in Switzerland. Higher Vocational Education in China. Higher Vocational Education in China. Higher Vocational Education in Czech Republic. Higher Vocational Education in Russia. The Copenhagen Process. Education system in Finland.

Group theory

groupgroup theoreticalgroup-theoretic
In physics, groups are important because they describe the symmetries which the laws of physics seem to obey. According to Noether's theorem, every continuous symmetry of a physical system corresponds to a conservation law of the system. Physicists are very interested in group representations, especially of Lie groups, since these representations often point the way to the "possible" physical theories. Examples of the use of groups in physics include the Standard Model, gauge theory, the Lorentz group, and the Poincaré group. In chemistry and materials science, groups are used to classify crystal structures, regular polyhedra, and the symmetries of molecules.

Pierre-Simon Laplace

LaplacePierre Simon LaplacePierre-Simon de Laplace
Laplace carried his analysis into the higher-order terms, up to and including the cubic. Using this more exact analysis, Laplace concluded that any two planets and the Sun must be in mutual equilibrium and thereby launched his work on the stability of the Solar System. Gerald James Whitrow described the achievement as "the most important advance in physical astronomy since Newton". Laplace had a wide knowledge of all sciences and dominated all discussions in the Académie. Laplace seems to have regarded analysis merely as a means of attacking physical problems, though the ability with which he invented the necessary analysis is almost phenomenal.

Continuing education

university extensionextensioncontinuing
It was successful and broadened almost immediately beyond courses for Sunday school teachers to include academic subjects, music, art and physical education." Cornell University was among higher education institutions that began offering university-based continuing education, primarily to teachers, through extension courses in the 1870s. As noted in the Cornell Era of February 16, 1877, the university offered a "Tour of the Great Lakes" program for "teachers and others" under the direction of Professor Theodore B. Comstock, head of Cornell's department of geology. The University of Wisconsin–Madison began its continuing education program in 1907.

Outline of academic disciplines

academic disciplineacademic disciplinesList of academic disciplines
Physical cosmology. Stellar astrophysics. Helioseismology. Stellar evolution. Stellar nucleosynthesis. Planetary science. Acoustics. Aerodynamics. Applied physics. Astrophysics. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics. Biophysics (outline). Computational physics. Condensed matter physics. Cryogenics. Electricity. Electromagnetism. Elementary particle physics. Experimental physics. Fluid dynamics. Geophysics (outline). Mathematical physics. Mechanics. Medical physics. Molecular physics. Newtonian dynamics. Nuclear physics. Optics. Plasma physics. Quantum physics. Solid mechanics. Solid state physics. Statistical mechanics. Theoretical physics. Thermal physics. Thermodynamics.

Statistical mechanics

statistical thermodynamicsstatistical mechanicalnon-equilibrium statistical mechanics
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics. It is necessary for the fundamental study of any physical system that has many degrees of freedom. The approach is based on statistical methods, probability theory and the microscopic physical laws. It can be used to explain the thermodynamic behaviour of large systems. This branch of statistical mechanics, which treats and extends classical thermodynamics, is known as statistical thermodynamics or equilibrium statistical mechanics.


Physicists and acoustic engineers tend to discuss sound pressure levels in terms of frequencies, partly because this is how our ears interpret sound. What we experience as "higher pitched" or "lower pitched" sounds are pressure vibrations having a higher or lower number of cycles per second. In a common technique of acoustic measurement, acoustic signals are sampled in time, and then presented in more meaningful forms such as octave bands or time frequency plots. Both of these popular methods are used to analyze sound and better understand the acoustic phenomenon. The entire spectrum can be divided into three sections: audio, ultrasonic, and infrasonic.


opticalopticoptical system
Optics and photonics: Physics enhancing our lives by Institute of Physics publications. European Optical Society – link. The Optical Society (OSA) – link. SPIE – link. European Photonics Industry Consortium – link. Optical Society of India – link.

Classical physics

classicalclassical theoryclassically
Classical physics would introduce an error as in the superfluidity case. In order to produce reliable models of the world, we can not use classic physics. It is true that quantum theories consume time and computer resources, and the equations of classical physics could be resorted to provide a quick solution, but such a solution would lack reliability. Computer modeling would use only the energy criteria to determine which theory to use: relativity or quantum theory, when attempting to describe the behavior of an object. A physicist would use a classical model to provide an approximation before more exacting models are applied and those calculations proceed.

The Road to Reality

The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe
The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe is a book on modern physics by the British mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, published in 2004. It covers the basics of the Standard Model of particle physics, discussing general relativity and quantum mechanics, and discusses the possible unification of these two theories. The book discusses the physical world. Many fields that 19th century scientists believed were separate, such as electricity and magnetism, are aspects of more fundamental properties. Some texts, both popular and university level, introduce these topics as separate concepts, and then reveal their combination much later.

Fluid mechanics

fluid dynamicistfluidfluid physics
Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. It has applications in a wide range of disciplines, including mechanical, civil, chemical and biomedical engineering, geophysics, oceanography, meteorology, astrophysics, and biology. It can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms; that is, it models matter from a macroscopic viewpoint rather than from microscopic.