Campania RegionCampanianCampagnia
The cheeses of Campania consist of Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte ("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno and Caserta. Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera pie is made during Easter. Casatiello and tortano are Easter bread-cakes made by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough and garnishing it with slices of salami. Babà cake is a well known Neapolitan delicacy, best served with Rum or limoncello (a liqueur invented in the Sorrento peninsula).


cheesesrindCheese making
Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rarebit. Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off. The saying "you can't melt cheese twice" (meaning "some things can only be done once") refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone, leaving the non-meltable solids behind. As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).


Naples, ItalyNapoliNeapolitan
Cooked traditionally in a wood-burning oven, the ingredients of Neapolitan pizza have been strictly regulated by law since 2004, and must include wheat flour type "00" with the addition of flour type "0" yeast, natural mineral water, peeled tomatoes or fresh cherry tomatoes, mozzarella cheese, sea salt and extra virgin olive oil. Spaghetti is also associated with the city and is commonly eaten with the sauce ragù: a popular Neapolitan folkloric symbol is the comic figure Pulcinella eating a plate of spaghetti. Other dishes popular in Naples include Parmigiana di melanzane, spaghetti alle vongole and casatiello.

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.


The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan, ancient Greek, ancient Roman, Byzantine, and Jewish. Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity, abundance of difference in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world, wielding strong influence abroad.

Pizza Margherita

Margherita pizzanamed after herpizza "Margherita
Pizza Margherita (more commonly known in English as Margherita pizza) is a typical Neapolitan pizza, made with San Marzano tomatoes, mozzarella cheese, fresh basil, salt and extra-virgin olive oil. Traditionally, it is made with fior di latte (cow's milk mozzarella) rather than buffalo mozzarella. A widespread belief says that in June 1889 the pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito, Pizzeria Brandi's chef, invented a dish called "Pizza Margherita in honor of the Queen of Italy, Margherita of Savoy, and the Italian unification, since toppings are tomato (red), mozzarella (white) and basil (green), representing the same colors of the national flag of Italy.

List of Italian dishes

Italian breadItalian dishesItalian-style roll
Maccheroni alla napoletana – macaroni with Neapolitan sauce; a sauce of braised beef, carrot, celery, onion, garlic, white wine, tomato paste and fresh basil. Melanzane a Scapece – Scapece eggplant; marinated eggplant with red pepper and olive oil. Melanzane al cioccolato – mid-August dessert; eggplants with chocolate and almonds. Mozzarella di Bufala Campana – Particular variety of cheese products made exclusively with milk from buffalo. Mozzarella in carrozza – fried mozzarella with slices of toasted bread and olive oil. Mustacciuoli – Neapolitan Christmas dessert; cookies with almonds and coffee covered with chocolate.

Pasta filata

stretched-curdpulled-curdstretched curd
The curds are steeped for some hours in a bath of very hot whey, or water (for Mozzarella di Bufala Campana the temperature is 95 °C). When they begin to float most of the liquid is removed and the curd is mixed and kneaded until the required soft, elastic, stringy texture is obtained. The mass of curd is divided (often by pulling out a thick strand and chopping it) and shaped into individual cheeses. In the case of mozzarella, the process is now essentially complete–ideally these cheeses should be eaten within a matter of a few days.

List of stretch-curd cheeses

List of stretch-cured cheeses
Mozzarella – a traditionally southern Italian dairy product made by the pasta filata method. Mozzarella received a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed certification from the European Union in 1998. This protection scheme requires that mozzarella sold in the European Union is produced according to a traditional recipe. Bocconcini – small mozzarella cheese the size of an egg, it is prepared in the pasta filata manner by dipping curds into hot whey, and kneading, pulling and stretching. Buffalo mozzarella is made from the milk of Mediterranea Italiana buffalo. It is traditionally manufactured in Campania, especially in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno.

Italian food products

Buffalo mozzarella. Parmigiano-Reggiano. Pecorino Romano. Pecorino d'Abruzzo. Caciocavallo. Mozzarella. Scamorza. Stracchino. Capicola. Cotechino. Guanciale. Mortadella. Pancetta. Prosciutto. Prosciutto di Parma. Prosciutto San Daniele. Ventricina. Liver sausage. Wild pig's sausage. Prosecco. Asti spumante. Lambrusco. Montepulciano d'Abruzzo. Chianti. Verdicchio. Passerina. Piadina. Pizza. Breadstick. Bruschetta. Polenta. Spaghetti. Agnolotti. Tortellini. Orecchiette. Ravioli. Tagliatelle. Macaroni. Lasagne. Gnocchi. Bucatini. Penne. Bresaola. Beefsteak Florentine style. Tuna. Cacciucco. Mantis shrimp. Economy of Italy. Cuisine of Italy. Culture of Italy.

Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Protected Designation of OriginProtected Geographical IndicationPDO
Other products are protected in Europe but not elsewhere: Buffalo Mozzarella for instance is protected in Europe, but the name is used without restrictions by US dairy companies. The geographical limitations are strict: Newcastle Brown Ale was restricted to being brewed in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in England. However, having obtained this protection for their product, the brewery decided in 2004 that it would move across the river Tyne to Gateshead. As Gateshead is a separate town—albeit only the width of the river apart—it does not fall within the required geographical restriction.


ricotta cheesericotta salatagjizë
Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life. These production methods include salting, baking, smoking, and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted, dried, and aged variety of the cheese. It is milky-white and firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern.

Raffaele Esposito

Pizzeria di Pietro e Basta Cosi
Deeming the traditional garlic topping to be unfit for the royal palate, Esposito instead prepared three different pizzas, the last of which used a combination of tomatoes, mozzarella cheese and basil to emulate the red, white, and green of the Italian flag. It is claimed by some sources that this was the first time pizza was made with mozzarella cheese. Queen Margherita, having never had pizza before, so enjoyed the dish that she had her head of table services send Esposito a letter to commend his pizzas, stating that they "were found to be delicious". Esposito used this recommendation to successfully promote his restaurant, naming the pizza most enjoyed by the Queen, "Pizza Margherita".


Fried versions of the calzone are typically filled with tomato and mozzarella: these are made in Apulia and are called panzerotti. The Sicilian cuddiruni or cudduruni pizza is distantly related to the calzone. This is a dish stuffed with onions (or sometimes other vegetables, such as potatoes or broccoli), anchovies, olives, cheese and mortadella; the rolled pizza dough is folded in two over the stuffing and the edges are sealed before the dish is fried. In the United States, calzones are typically made from pizza dough and stuffed with meats, cheeses, and vegetables.

Italian Mediterranean buffalo

Italian buffalobuffaloItalian water buffalo
The Mediterranea Italiana is now raised and selectively bred principally for the production of the buffalo milk used to make buffalo mozzarella, notably the Mozzarella di Bufala Campana of Campania, which has [[Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union#Protected designation of origin (PDO)|Denominazione di origine protetta]] (DOP) status. Other dairy products including burrata, caciotta di bufala, ricotta di bufala, scamorza di bufala, stracchino di bufala, stracciatella di bufala and yoghurt are also made from the milk. Lactation lasts on average 277 days, and usually yields of milk; yields of per lactation are not uncommon.

Southern Italy

MezzogiornoSouthern ItalianSouthern
In recent years, Southern Italy has experienced a revival of its traditions and music, such as the Neapolitan song and the Tarantella. Meridionalism. Southern Italy autonomist movements. Italian NUTS level 1 regions. Northwest Italy. Northeast Italy. Central Italy. South Italy. Insular Italy. Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History (2002) ISBN: 0-333-73971-X. Doyle, Don. Nations Divided: America, Italy, and the Southern Question (2002). Moe, Nelson. The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question (2002). Schneider, Jane. Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country (1998).

List of pizza chains

pizzeriachain of pizza parlorspizza chain
This list of pizza chains includes notable pizzerias and pizza chains. Pizza is a dish of Neapolitan origin and cuisine, made with an oven-baked, flat, generally round bread that is often covered with tomatoes or a tomato-based sauce and mozzarella cheese. Other toppings are added according to region, culture, or personal preference. A restaurant or takeout where pizzas are made and sold as main food is called a pizzeria or simply “pizza parlor” in English.


LatiumLazio RegionRegion of Lazio
Lazio (, ; Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the central peninsular section of the country, it has almost 5.9 million inhabitants – making it the second most populated region of Italy (after Lombardy and just a little ahead of Campania) – and its GDP of more than 170 billion euros per annum means that it has the nation's second largest regional economy. The capital of Lazio is Rome, which is also Italy's capital and the country's largest city.

Neapolitan pizza

Neapolitanpizza napoletanapizza
Neapolitan pizza (Italian: pizza napoletana) also known as Naples style pizza, is a style of pizza made with tomatoes and mozzarella cheese. It must be made with either San Marzano tomatoes or Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio, which grow on the volcanic plains to the south of Mount Vesuvius, and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected designation of origin cheese made with the milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild state and “Fior di Latte di Agerola”, a cow milk mozzarella made exclusively in the Agerola comune.


PugliaApulianheel of Italy
Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia. The key locally produced ingredients used there include olive oil, artichokes, tomatoes, aubergine, asparagus, and mushrooms. In summer it is very common to use also the carosello, a variety of muskmelon which is often consumed in an immature state.


cow's milkcow milkwhole milk
Milk is a nutrient-rich, white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who are breastfed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose. Interspecies consumption of milk is not uncommon, particularly among humans, many of whom consume the milk of other mammals.

Italian cuisine

ItalianItalian restaurantItalian food
The region is well-known also for its mozzarella production (especially from the milk of water buffalo) that's used in a variety of dishes, including parmigiana (shallow fried eggplant slices layered with cheese and tomato sauce, then baked). Desserts include struffoli (deep fried balls of dough), ricotta-based pastiera and sfogliatelle, and rum-dipped babà. Originating in Neapolitan cuisine, pizza has become popular in many different parts of the world. Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce, cheese (usually mozzarella), and various toppings depending on the culture. Since the original pizza, several other types of pizzas have evolved.


Like the cuisine of the rest of southern Italy, pasta plays an important part in Sicilian cuisine, as does rice; for example with arancine. As well as using some other cheeses, Sicily has spawned some of its own, using both cow's and sheep's milk, such as pecorino and caciocavallo. Spices used include saffron, nutmeg, clove, pepper, and cinnamon, which were introduced by the Arabs. Parsley is used abundantly in many dishes. Although Sicilian cuisine is commonly associated with sea food, meat dishes, including goose, lamb, goat, rabbit, and turkey, are also found in Sicily. It was the Normans and Swabians who first introduced a fondness for meat dishes to the island.

List of pizza varieties by country

Argentinian pizzaList of pizza varietiesSwedish-style pizza
Authentic Neapolitan pizzas (pizza napoletana) are typically made with tomatoes and mozzarella cheese. They can be made with ingredients like San Marzano tomatoes, which grow on the volcanic plains to the south of Mount Vesuvius, and mozzarella di bufala Campana, made with the milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild state (this mozzarella is protected with its own European protected designation of origin). According to the rules proposed by the Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana, the genuine Neapolitan pizza dough consists of wheat flour (type 0 or 00, or a mixture of both), natural Neapolitan yeast or brewer's yeast, salt and water.

List of Italian cheeses

Italian cheeseCheesecheeses
Scamorza. Scamorza calabra – Calabria. Scamorza di bufala – Campania. Scamorza molisana – Molise. Scheggia. Schiz. Schlander. Scuete frante – Friuli Venezia Giulia. Scuete fumade or Ricotta affumicata – Friuli Venezia Giulia. Scimuda d'alpe – Lombardy. Scimudin – Lombardy. Scimut. Scodellato. Secondo sale. Seras – lower Aosta Valley; cows’ milk cheese known since 1267 and often eaten with polenta. Seré (see Seras). Seirass (see Seras). Seirass del Fen (see Seras) – Piedmont. Seirass del Lausun – Piedmont. Seirass di latte. Seirass di siero di pecora. Seirass stagionato. Semicotto. Semicotto caprino. Semicotto ovino. Semitenero loiano. Semuda. Sigarot. Sigarot cenese. Sigarot miele.