cheesesrindCheese making
Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rarebit. Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off. The saying "you can't melt cheese twice" (meaning "some things can only be done once") refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone, leaving the non-meltable solids behind. As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).


Campania RegionCampanianCampagnia
The cheeses of Campania consist of Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte ("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno and Caserta. Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera pie is made during Easter. Casatiello and tortano are Easter bread-cakes made by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough and garnishing it with slices of salami. Babà cake is a well known Neapolitan delicacy, best served with Rum or limoncello (a liqueur invented in the Sorrento peninsula).


The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan, ancient Greek, ancient Roman, Byzantine, and Jewish. Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity, abundance of difference in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world, wielding strong influence abroad.

List of stretch-curd cheeses

List of stretch-cured cheeses
Mozzarella – a traditionally southern Italian dairy product made by the pasta filata method. Mozzarella received a Traditional Speciality Guaranteed certification from the European Union in 1998. This protection scheme requires that mozzarella sold in the European Union is produced according to a traditional recipe. Bocconcini – small mozzarella cheese the size of an egg, it is prepared in the pasta filata manner by dipping curds into hot whey, and kneading, pulling and stretching. Buffalo mozzarella is made from the milk of Mediterranea Italiana buffalo. It is traditionally manufactured in Campania, especially in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno.


provolone cheeseprovolone del Monacoprovola
In Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay, small discs of locally produced pulled-curd provolone of 10 to 15 cm in diameter and 1 to 2 cm in height are sometimes grilled until partially melted and eaten as a starter, often seasoned with herbs. The cheese when served this way is often called provoleta in Spanish. List of cheeses. List of stretch-curd cheeses. Pizza cheese.


Naples, ItalyNapoliNeapolitan
Cooked traditionally in a wood-burning oven, the ingredients of Neapolitan pizza have been strictly regulated by law since 2004, and must include wheat flour type "00" with the addition of flour type "0" yeast, natural mineral water, peeled tomatoes or fresh cherry tomatoes, mozzarella cheese, sea salt and extra virgin olive oil. Spaghetti is also associated with the city and is commonly eaten with the sauce ragù: a popular Neapolitan folkloric symbol is the comic figure Pulcinella eating a plate of spaghetti. Other dishes popular in Naples include Parmigiana di melanzane, spaghetti alle vongole and casatiello.


ricotta cheesericotta salatagjizë
Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life. These production methods include salting, baking, smoking, and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted, dried, and aged variety of the cheese. It is milky-white and firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern.


Fried versions of the calzone are typically filled with tomato and mozzarella: these are made in Apulia and are called panzerotti. The Sicilian cuddiruni or cudduruni pizza is distantly related to the calzone. This is a dish stuffed with onions (or sometimes other vegetables, such as potatoes or broccoli), anchovies, olives, cheese and mortadella; the rolled pizza dough is folded in two over the stuffing and the edges are sealed before the dish is fried. In the United States, calzones are typically made from pizza dough and stuffed with meats, cheeses, and vegetables.

List of cheeses

cheesesRussian cheesecheese types
They are similar in taste and are like a cross between mozzarella and an unsalted feta cheese. ''' * Džiugas The Netherlands is one of the major cheese producing countries of Europe, with a tradition of cheesemaking as shown by the Dutch cheese markets. Switzerland is home to about 450 varieties of cheese. Cows milk is used in about 99 percent of the cheeses produced. The remaining share is made up of sheep milk and goat milk. The British Cheese Board states that there are over 700 named British cheeses produced in the UK.

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of 4,475,757 km2 and an estimated total population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.


ParmesanParmesan cheeseParmigiano Reggiano
As parmesan is a common seasoning for pizzas and pastas; many major pizza and pasta chains offer it. Several manufacturers have been investigated for allegedly going beyond the 4% limit. In one case, FDA findings found "no parmesan cheese was used to manufacture" a Pennsylvania manufacturer's grated cheese labeled "Parmesan", apparently made from a mixture of other cheeses and cellulose. The manufacturer declared bankruptcy in 2014 and their president was expected to plead guilty to criminal charges, facing up to $100,000 in fines and a year in jail. Grana Padano is an Italian cheese similar to Parmigiano-Reggiano.

Pizza Margherita

Margherita pizzanamed after herpizza "Margherita
Pizza Margherita (more commonly known in English as Margherita pizza) is a typical Neapolitan pizza, made with San Marzano tomatoes, mozzarella cheese, fresh basil, salt and extra-virgin olive oil. Traditionally, it is made with fior di latte (cow's milk mozzarella) rather than buffalo mozzarella. A widespread belief says that in June 1889 the pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito, Pizzeria Brandi's chef, invented a dish called "Pizza Margherita in honor of the Queen of Italy, Margherita of Savoy, and the Italian unification, since toppings are tomato (red), mozzarella (white) and basil (green), representing the same colors of the national flag of Italy.

List of Italian dishes

Italian breadItalian dishesItalian-style roll
Maccheroni alla napoletana – macaroni with Neapolitan sauce; a sauce of braised beef, carrot, celery, onion, garlic, white wine, tomato paste and fresh basil. Melanzane a Scapece – Scapece eggplant; marinated eggplant with red pepper and olive oil. Melanzane al cioccolato – mid-August dessert; eggplants with chocolate and almonds. Mozzarella di Bufala Campana – Particular variety of cheese products made exclusively with milk from buffalo. Mozzarella in carrozza – fried mozzarella with slices of toasted bread and olive oil. Mustacciuoli – Neapolitan Christmas dessert; cookies with almonds and coffee covered with chocolate.

List of Italian cheeses

Italian cheeseCheesecheeses
Scamorza. Scamorza calabra – Calabria. Scamorza di bufala – Campania. Scamorza molisana – Molise. Scheggia. Schiz. Schlander. Scuete frante – Friuli Venezia Giulia. Scuete fumade or Ricotta affumicata – Friuli Venezia Giulia. Scimuda d'alpe – Lombardy. Scimudin – Lombardy. Scimut. Scodellato. Secondo sale. Seras – lower Aosta Valley; cows’ milk cheese known since 1267 and often eaten with polenta. Seré (see Seras). Seirass (see Seras). Seirass del Fen (see Seras) – Piedmont. Seirass del Lausun – Piedmont. Seirass di latte. Seirass di siero di pecora. Seirass stagionato. Semicotto. Semicotto caprino. Semicotto ovino. Semitenero loiano. Semuda. Sigarot. Sigarot cenese. Sigarot miele.

Italian food products

Buffalo mozzarella. Parmigiano-Reggiano. Pecorino Romano. Pecorino d'Abruzzo. Caciocavallo. Mozzarella. Scamorza. Stracchino. Capicola. Cotechino. Guanciale. Mortadella. Pancetta. Prosciutto. Prosciutto di Parma. Prosciutto San Daniele. Ventricina. Liver sausage. Wild pig's sausage. Prosecco. Asti spumante. Lambrusco. Montepulciano d'Abruzzo. Chianti. Verdicchio. Passerina. Piadina. Pizza. Breadstick. Bruschetta. Polenta. Spaghetti. Agnolotti. Tortellini. Orecchiette. Ravioli. Tagliatelle. Macaroni. Lasagne. Gnocchi. Bucatini. Penne. Bresaola. Beefsteak Florentine style. Tuna. Cacciucco. Mantis shrimp. Economy of Italy. Cuisine of Italy. Culture of Italy.

Processed cheese

processedprocessed cheese slicesBrânză topită
Another type of processed cheese created in the United States is Provel pasteurized processed pizza cheese, which uses cheddar, Swiss, and provolone cheeses as flavorants. Provel cheese is commonly used in St. Louis-style pizza. A third variety of processed pizza cheeses are mozzarella-like imitation processed cheeses, which are sometimes used in frozen pizzas. Owing to its highly mechanized (i.e., assembly line) methods of production, and additive ingredients (e.g., oils, salts, or colors), some softer varieties of processed cheese cannot legally be labeled as actual "cheese" in many countries, even those in which slightly harder varieties can be.

List of water buffalo cheeses

Bocconcini – a small mozzarella cheese the size of an egg, like other mozzarellas, it is semi-soft, white and rindless unripened mild cheese which originated in Naples, Italy and was once made only from milk of water buffalo. Nowadays they are usually made from a combination of water buffalo and cow's milk. Buffalo mozzarella – a mozzarella made from the milk of Mediterranea Italiana buffalo. It is a dairy product traditionally manufactured in Campania, Italy, especially in the provinces of Caserta and Salerno. Burrata – a fresh Italian buffalo milk cheese prepared using the pasta filata method.

St. Louis-style pizza

local pizzasSt. Louis
Louis-style pizza can be layered deeply with many different toppings because of the sturdiness of the cracker-like crust. Some of the sauces have a sweetness to them, which is likely due to the influence of Sicilian immigrants upon Italian foods in St. Louis. Imo's Pizza. St. Louis cuisine. Cuisine of the Midwestern United States. Culture of St. Louis. Pizza cheese. St. Louis-style barbecue.

Cheese analogue

Soy cheesecheese substitutespizza topping
They may be formulated for processing with basic cheese-making equipment, but without the additional equipment and processing that mozzarella cheese requires, such as the processes of mixing and molding. They tend to have a soft texture and once melted, may have a slightly "stringy" quality when pulled or bitten into. They may lack in a fusion, or melt together when cooked. It has been stated that pizza cheese appears to be the leading type of cheese analogue produced globally. In 1987 it was asserted that—at that time—each year in the United States over 700 million frozen pizzas were sold, three quarters of which contain cheese substitutes. American. Blue. Cheddar. Cheshire. Cream cheese.

Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Protected Designation of OriginProtected Geographical IndicationPDO
Other products are protected in Europe but not elsewhere: Buffalo Mozzarella for instance is protected in Europe, but the name is used without restrictions by US dairy companies. The geographical limitations are strict: Newcastle Brown Ale was restricted to being brewed in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in England. However, having obtained this protection for their product, the brewery decided in 2004 that it would move across the river Tyne to Gateshead. As Gateshead is a separate town—albeit only the width of the river apart—it does not fall within the required geographical restriction.

Raffaele Esposito

Pizzeria di Pietro e Basta Cosi
Deeming the traditional garlic topping to be unfit for the royal palate, Esposito instead prepared three different pizzas, the last of which used a combination of tomatoes, mozzarella cheese and basil to emulate the red, white, and green of the Italian flag. It is claimed by some sources that this was the first time pizza was made with mozzarella cheese. Queen Margherita, having never had pizza before, so enjoyed the dish that she had her head of table services send Esposito a letter to commend his pizzas, stating that they "were found to be delicious". Esposito used this recommendation to successfully promote his restaurant, naming the pizza most enjoyed by the Queen, "Pizza Margherita".

Italian Mediterranean buffalo

Italian buffalobuffaloItalian water buffalo
The Mediterranea Italiana is now raised and selectively bred principally for the production of the buffalo milk used to make buffalo mozzarella, notably the Mozzarella di Bufala Campana of Campania, which has [[Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union#Protected designation of origin (PDO)|Denominazione di origine protetta]] (DOP) status. Other dairy products including burrata, caciotta di bufala, ricotta di bufala, scamorza di bufala, stracchino di bufala, stracciatella di bufala and yoghurt are also made from the milk. Lactation lasts on average 277 days, and usually yields of milk; yields of per lactation are not uncommon.

Southern Italy

MezzogiornoSouthern ItalianSouthern
In recent years, Southern Italy has experienced a revival of its traditions and music, such as the Neapolitan song and the Tarantella. Meridionalism. Southern Italy autonomist movements. Italian NUTS level 1 regions. Northwest Italy. Northeast Italy. Central Italy. South Italy. Insular Italy. Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History (2002) ISBN: 0-333-73971-X. Doyle, Don. Nations Divided: America, Italy, and the Southern Question (2002). Moe, Nelson. The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question (2002). Schneider, Jane. Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country (1998).

List of pizza chains

pizzeriachain of pizza parlorspizza chain
This list of pizza chains includes notable pizzerias and pizza chains. Pizza is a dish of Neapolitan origin and cuisine, made with an oven-baked, flat, generally round bread that is often covered with tomatoes or a tomato-based sauce and mozzarella cheese. Other toppings are added according to region, culture, or personal preference. A restaurant or takeout where pizzas are made and sold as main food is called a pizzeria or simply “pizza parlor” in English.


LatiumLazio RegionRegion of Lazio
Lazio (, ; Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the central peninsular section of the country, it has almost 5.9 million inhabitants – making it the second most populated region of Italy (after Lombardy and just a little ahead of Campania) – and its GDP of more than 170 billion euros per annum means that it has the nation's second largest regional economy. The capital of Lazio is Rome, which is also Italy's capital and the country's largest city.