CelticCeltCeltic people
Arguments for a Celtic cult of the severed head include the many sculptured representations of severed heads in La Tène carvings, and the surviving Celtic mythology, which is full of stories of the severed heads of heroes and the saints who carry their own severed heads, right down to Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, where the Green Knight picks up his own severed head after Gawain has struck it off, just as St. Denis carried his head to the top of Montmartre.

Irish mythology

IrishIrish mythologicalIrish folklore
The Celtic Literature Collection. Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts. Timeless Myths: Celtic Mythology.


poeticpoetical theoriespoetician
Most literary criticism combines poetics and hermeneutics in a single analysis; however, one or the other may predominate given the text and the aims of the one doing the reading. * List of basic poetry topics. Descriptive poetics. Historical poetics. Figure of speech. Stylistic device. Rhetorical device. Meter (poetry). Allegory. Allusion. Imagery. Musical form. Symbolist poetry. Sound poetry. Refrain. Literary theory. History of poetry. Poetics and Linguistics Association. Theopoetics. Olson, Charles (1950). Projective Verse. New York, NY: Poetry New York. Original texts from 8 English poets before the 20th Century and from 8 20th Century Americans.

Verse drama and dramatic verse

verse dramaverse playdramatic poem
Dramatic poetry is any poetry that uses the discourse of the characters involved to tell a story or portray a situation. The major types of dramatic poetry are those already discussed, to be found in plays written for the theatre, and libretti. There are further dramatic verse forms: these include dramatic monologues, such as those written by Robert Browning and Alfred Tennyson and Shakespeare. *Denis Donoghue (1959), The Third Voice: Modern British and American Verse Drama Epic poetry. Lyric poetry. Narrative poetry.

Modernist poetry

modernistModernismmodernist poet
Scully, James (ed) Modern Poets on Modern Poetry, Fontana 1970 ISBN: 978-0-00-632432-4. Steele, Timothy, Missing Measures: modern poetry and the revolt against metre, University of Arlansas, 1990 ISBN: 978-1-55728-126-5.

Iambic pentameter

Dunbar, in particular, wrote poems in true iambic pentameter. In England, the poems of the 15th and early 16th centuries are in a wide variety of meters. Thomas Wyatt, for example, often mixed iambic pentameters with other lines of similar length but different rhythm. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, on the other hand, used a strict ten-syllable line that was similar to the Old French line, with its pause after the fourth syllable, but typically had a regular iambic pattern, and had many of the modern types of variation. Thomas Sackville, in his two poems in the Mirror for Magistrates, used a similar line but with few caesuras.


At the literalist extreme, efforts are made to dissect every conceivable detail about the language of the original Chinese poem. "The dissection, though," writes Link, "normally does to the art of a poem approximately what the scalpel of an anatomy instructor does to the life of a frog." Chinese characters, in avoiding grammatical specificity, offer advantages to poets (and, simultaneously, challenges to poetry translators) that are associated primarily with absences of subject, number, and tense. It is the norm in classical Chinese poetry, and common even in modern Chinese prose, to omit subjects; the reader or listener infers a subject.

Folk music

folkfolk songtraditional
This encompasses such forms as traditional epic poetry, much of which was meant originally for oral performance, sometimes accompanied by instruments. Many epic poems of various cultures were pieced together from shorter pieces of traditional narrative verse, which explains their episodic structure, repetitive elements, and their frequent in medias res plot developments. Other forms of traditional narrative verse relate the outcomes of battles or describe tragedies or natural disasters. Sometimes, as in the triumphant Song of Deborah found in the Biblical Book of Judges, these songs celebrate victory.


scannedscanSystems of scansion
In classical poetry, these patterns are quantitative based on the different lengths of each syllable. In English poetry, they are based on the different levels of stress placed on each syllable. In both cases, the meter often has a regular foot. Over the years, many systems have been established to mark the scansion of a poem.

Oku no Hosomichi

The Narrow Road to the Deep NorthKawai SoraNarrow Roads to the Deep North
After his journey, he spent five years working and reworking the poems and prose of Oku no Hosomichi before publishing it. Based on differences between draft versions of the account, Sora's diary, and the final version, it is clear that Bashō took a number of artistic liberties in the writing. An example of this is that in the Senjūshu ("Selection of Tales") attributed to Saigyō, the narrator is passing through Eguchi when he is driven by a storm to seek shelter in the nearby cottage of a prostitute; this leads to an exchange of poems, after which he spends the night there.

Foot (prosody)

feetfootmetrical foot
The foot is a purely metrical unit; there is no inherent relation to a word or phrase as a unit of meaning or syntax, though the interplay between these is an aspect of the poet's skill and artistry. Below are listed the names given to the poetic feet by classical metrics. The feet are classified first by the number of syllables in the foot (disyllables have two, trisyllables three, and tetrasyllables four) and secondarily by the pattern of vowel lengths (in classical languages) or syllable stresses (in English poetry) which they comprise. The following lists describe the feet in terms of vowel length (as in classical languages).


Another of the first of all modern tragedies is A Castro, by Portuguese poet and playwright António Ferreira, written around 1550 (but only published in 1587) in polymetric verse (most of it being blank hendecasyllables), dealing with the murder of Inês de Castro, one of the most dramatic episodes in Portuguese history.

Free verse

vers librefree verse poetryfree-verse
Goethe—particularly in some early poems, such as "Prometheus"—and Hölderlin used free verse occasionally, due in part to a misinterpretation of the meter used in Pindar's poetry; in Hölderlin's case, he also continued to write unmetered poems after discovering this error. The German poet Heinrich Heine made an important contribution to the development of free verse with 22 poems, written in two-poem cycles, called Die Nordsee (The North Sea) (written 1825-1826). These were first published in Buch der Lieder (Book of Songs) in 1827. Although free verse requires no meter, rhyme, or other traditional poetic techniques, a poet can still use them to create some sense of structure.

Verse (poetry)

In the uncountable (mass noun) sense verse refers to "poetry" as contrasted to prose. Where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme, the common unit of prose is purely grammatical, such as a sentence or paragraph. In the second sense verse is also used pejoratively in contrast to poetry to suggest work that is too pedestrian or too incompetent to be classed as poetry. Blank verse is poetry written in regular, metrical, but unrhymed, lines, almost always composed of iambic pentameters. Free verse is usually defined as having no fixed meter and no end rhyme. Although free verse may include end rhyme, it commonly does not.

Iamb (poetry)

In ancient Greece iambus was mainly satirical poetry, lampoons, which did not automatically imply a particular metrical type. Iambic metre took its name from being characteristic of iambi, not vice versa. In accentual-syllabic verse an iamb is a foot that has the rhythmic pattern: Using the 'ictus and x' notation (see systems of scansion for a full discussion of various notations) we can write this as: The word 'attempt' is a natural iamb: In phonology, an iambic foot is notated in a flat representation as or as foot tree with two branches W and S where W = weak and S = strong. Iambic pentameter is one of the most commonly used measures in English and German poetry.


four-meter formtetrametric
In poetry, a tetrameter is a line of four metrical feet. The particular foot can vary, as follows: *Iambic pentameter * Tetrameter.com A website devoted to verse in tetrameter Anapestic tetrameter:. "And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea" (Lord Byron, "The Destruction of Sennacherib"). "Twas the night before Christmas when all through the house" ("A Visit from St. Nicholas"). Iambic tetrameter:. "Because I could not stop for Death" (Emily Dickinson, eponymous lyric). Trochaic tetrameter:. "Peter, Peter, pumpkin-eater" (English nursery rhyme). Dactylic tetrameter:. Picture your self in a boat on a river with [...] (The Beatles, "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds").

Shi (poetry)

shigushishi'' poetry
Classical Chinese poetry forms. Classical Chinese poetry genres. List of Chinese-language poets. Chinese Poems, a collection of Chinese poems with pinyin and parallel translation. " Jintishi", an introduction to regulated verse.

Lyric poetry

lyriclyric poetlyric poem
In Russia, Aleksandr Pushkin exemplified a rise of lyric poetry during the 18th and early 19th centuries. The Swedish "Phosphorists" were influenced by the Romantic movement and their chief poet Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom produced many lyric poems. Italian lyric poets of the period include Ugo Foscolo, Giacomo Leopardi, Giovanni Pascoli, and Gabriele D'Annunzio. Spanish lyric poets include Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Rosalía de Castro, and José de Espronceda. Japanese lyric poets include Taneda Santoka, Masaoka Shiki, and Ishikawa Takuboku.


the RenaissanceEarly RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance
In the Kingdom of Castile, the early Renaissance was heavily influenced by the Italian humanism, starting with writers and poets such as the Marquis of Santillana, who introduced the new Italian poetry to Spain in the early 15th century. Other writers, such as Jorge Manrique, Fernando de Rojas, Juan del Encina, Juan Boscán Almogáver and Garcilaso de la Vega, kept a close resemblance to the Italian canon. Miguel de Cervantes's masterpiece Don Quixote is credited as the first Western novel. Renaissance humanism flourished in the early 16th century, with influential writers such as philosopher Juan Luis Vives, grammarian Antonio de Nebrija and natural historian Pedro de Mexía.

Anapestic tetrameter

Seuss's poems. When used in comic form, anapestic tetrameter is often highly regular, as the regularity emphasizes the breezy, melodic feel of the meter, though the initial unstressed beat of a line may often be omitted. The verse form is not solely comic. Lord Byron's epic Don Juan contains much anapestic tetrameter. Eminem's hit song "The Way I Am" uses the meter for all parts of the song except the chorus. In non-comic works, it is likely that anapestic tetrameter will be used in a less regular manner, with caesuras and other meters breaking up the driving regularity of the beat such as in the case of Edgar Allan Poe's Annabel Lee.


An implementation for venba Class of Tamil Poetry (2003, conference paper).


Greek lyric poetry had been defined by the manner in which it was sung accompanied by the lyre or cithara, as opposed to the chanted formal epics or the more passionate elegies accompanied by the flute. The personal nature of many of the verses of the Nine Lyric Poets led to the present sense of "lyric poetry" but the original Greek sense—words set to music—eventually led to its use as "lyrics", first attested in Stainer and Barrett's 1876 Dictionary of Musical Terms. Stainer and Barrett used the word as a singular substantive: "Lyric, poetry or blank verse intended to be set to music and sung".


The mixture of anapaests and iambs in this manner is most characteristic of late-19th-century verse, particularly that of Algernon Charles Swinburne in poems such as The Triumph of Time and the choruses from Atalanta in Calydon. Swinburne also wrote several poems in more or less straight anapaests, with line-lengths varying from three feet ("Dolores") to eight feet ("March: An Ode"). ;Comic poetry The anapaest's most common role in English verse is as a comic metre: the foot of the limerick, of Lewis Carroll's poem The Hunting of the Snark, Edward Lear's nonsense poems, T. S. Eliot's Book of Practical Cats, a number of Dr. Seuss stories, and innumerable other examples.

Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy EveningStopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening.
As Frost was one of the President's favorite poets, Davis concluded his report with a passage from this poem but was overcome with emotion as he signed off. At the funeral of former Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau, on October 3, 2000, his eldest son Justin rephrased the last stanza of this poem in his eulogy: "The woods are lovely, dark and deep. He has kept his promises and earned his sleep." . Text of the poem, along with the rhyming pattern. . Discussion and analysis of the poem.

Trochaic octameter

*Glossary of poetry terms Niedostępna ludzkim oczom, że nikt po niej się nie błąka. W swym bezpieczu szmaragdowym rozkwitała w bezmiar łąka. (Bolesław Leśmian, Ballada bezludna). Stojím v šeru na skalině, o niž v pěnu, déšť a kouř. duníc, ječíc rozbíjí se nesmírného vodstva bouř. (Svatopluk Čech, Písně otroka).