Porsche 911

911Porsche 911 TurboPorsche 911 Carrera
The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a rear-mounted flat-six engine and all round independent suspension. It has undergone continuous development, though the basic concept has remained unchanged. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with the 993, produced from 1994–1998 model years, being the last of the air-cooled Porsche sports cars. The 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing, rallying, and other forms of automotive competition.

Grand tourer

Grand TouringGTGran Turismo
Winning drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari, Rudolf Caracciola, and Stirling Moss; and manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo, BMW, Ferrari and Porsche would become household names. According to Enzo Ferrari: In my opinion, the Mille Miglia was an epoch-making event, which told a wonderful story. The Mille Miglia created our cars and the Italian automobile industry. The Mille Miglia permitted the birth of GT, or grand touring cars, which are now sold all over the world.

24 Hours of Le Mans

Le MansLe Mans 24 HoursLMS
The race became the center of a major motion picture in 1971 when Steve McQueen released his simply titled Le Mans, starring McQueen as Michael Delaney, a driver in the 1970 event for the Gulf Porsche team. Likened to other motorsports films such as Grand Prix for Formula One racing and Winning for the Indianapolis 500, Le Mans is the best known film to center on sports car racing. It was filmed during the race using modified racing cars carrying cameras, as well as purchased Porsche 917s, Ferrari 512s and Lola T70s for action shots made after the race.

Automotive industry

Automotiveautomakerautomobile industry
Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% voting stake in Volkswagen Group. The Porsche automotive business is fully owned by the Volkswagen Group. Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance (Renault-Nissan Alliance) involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 43.4% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. Renault-Nissan Alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG. Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ. Renault holds an 80.1% stake in Renault Samsung. SAIPA holds a 51% stake in Pars Khodro. Toyota holds a 100% stake in Daihatsu. Toyota holds a 50.1% stake in Hino. Toyota holds a 25% stake in Perodua.

Stuttgart

Stuttgart, GermanyStuttgart, West GermanyVaihingen
Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where the annual Mercedes Cup tennis tournament is played, the Porsche Arena (hosting tennis, basketball and handball) and the Schleyerhalle (boxing, equestrianism/show jumping, gymnastics, track cycling etc.), Scharrena Stuttgart.

V8 engine

V8V-8V-8 engine
The Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione sports car has a Ferrari-built 4691 cc 450 PS cross-crank V8. Ferrari Arguably, Ferrari had their first contact with V8 power with the "inherited" Lancia D50s in 1955. Ferrari adopted the V8 configuration for themselves for racing in 1962 with the 268 SP. The first V8-powered Ferrari road car was 1974's 308 GT4, with the familiar 308 GTB following closely behind. The company continued to use this Dino V8 engine ever since with the 328, 348, and successors. Ferrari's smallest V8 (and indeed, the smallest ever) was the 2.0 L (1990 cc) unit found in the 1975 208 GT4.

Targa top

targatarga bandtarga-roofed
Ferrari introduced a hybrid variation of the targa roof and folding metal roof with the 180 degree rotating roof featured on the 2005 Ferrari 575M Maranello Superamerica. The concept was also used in the 2010 Renault Wind. AMC Eagle Sundancer (1980–84). Bentley Continental SC. BMW 3 Series Baur Cabriolets E21 TC1 (1978-1982), E30 TC2 (1983 - 1991), E36 TC4 (1992 - 1996). Bugatti Veyron Grand Sport/Vitisse (2009-2015). Chevrolet Corvette coupe (1984–current). Dodge Viper. Ferrari 250P / 250LM / 330P / 330P2 / 330P3 / 330P4 / 412P / 312P. Ferrari 308 GTS. Ferrari 328 GTS. Ferrari 348 TS. Ferrari 512S/512M. Ferrari Dino 246 GTS. Ferrari F355 GTS. Ferrari F50.

Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A.

DucatiDucati Motor HoldingDucati Meccanica S.p.A
Taglioni used the Cavallino Rampante (identified with the Ferrari brand) on his Ducati motorbikes, Taglioni chose this emblem of courage and daring as a sign of respect and admiration for Francesco Baracca, a heroic World War I fighter pilot who died during an air raid in 1918. In 1973, Ducati commemorated its 1972 win at the Imola 200 with the production model green frame Ducati 750 SuperSport. Ducati also targeted the offroad market with the two-stroke Regolarità 125, building 3,486 models from 1975 to 1979, but the bike was not successful. In 1975, the company introduced the 860 GT, designed by noted car stylist Giorgetto Giugiaro.

Ferrari 250 GTO

250 GTO1962 250 GTOFerrari GTO
Ferrari 250. Ferrari 250 GT SWB Breadvan, a 250 SWB modified by Giotto Bizzarrini and Piero Drogo for Giovanni Volpi, in order to challenge the 250 GTO. Supercars.net article on Ferrari 250 GTO. 250 GTO Chassis List, with history. A gathering of GTOs for the 45th Anniversary celebration. Ferrari 250 GTO: Ferrari History.

Mille Miglia

1000 Miglia1940 Brescia Grand Prixaccident
Like the older Targa Florio and later the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made grand tourers like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Ferrari, Maserati, Mercedes Benz and Porsche famous. The race brought out an estimated five million spectators. From 1953 until 1957, the Mille Miglia was also a round of the World Sports Car Championship. Since 1977, the "Mille Miglia" has been reborn as a regularity race for classic and vintage cars. Participation is limited to cars, produced no later than 1957, which had attended (or were registered to) the original race. The route (Brescia–Rome round trip) is similar to that of the original race, maintaining the point of departure/arrival in Viale Venezia in Brescia.

Sports car racing

sports carsports carssports car race
Chris Nixon – "Sports Car Heaven" – Aston Martin vs Ferrari. Karl Ludvigsen – "Quicksilver Century" – competition history of Mercedes-Benz. Karl Ludvigsen – "Porsche: Excellence Was Expected" (3 vols) – extensive history of Porsche. Vic Elford, "Reflections on a Golden Era of Motorsport" – covers Vic's rallying, single seater and mostly sports car career in depth. Norbert Singer, "24:16" – his role in Porsche's Le Mans wins. John Horsman, "Racing In The Rain", an account of his engineering career with Aston Martin, John Wyer and Mirage. Curami/Vergnano, "'La Sport' e i suoi artigiani" – Italian domestic sports car competition from the 1930s–1960s and the 'specials' that competed in it. J.

Formula One

Formula 1F1Formula One World Championship
Ferrari is the oldest Formula One team, the only still-active team which competed in 1950. Early manufacturer involvement came in the form of a "factory team" or "works team" (that is, one owned and staffed by a major car company), such as those of Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, or Renault. After having virtually disappeared by the early 1980s, factory teams made a comeback in the 1990s and 2000s and formed up to half the grid with Ferrari, Jaguar, BMW, Renault, Toyota, and Honda either setting up their own teams or buying out existing ones. Mercedes-Benz owned 40% of the McLaren team and manufactured the team's engines.

Jacky Ickx

IckxIckx, JackyJ.Ickx
Ickx would go on to win the Brands race on a further three occasions, in 1972 for Ferrari alongside Mario Andretti and 1977 and 1982 driving Porsches with Jochen Mass and Derek Bell respectively. In 1969 Ickx won the 24 Hours of Le Mans for the first time. This race also saw the first appearance of the Porsche 917 at Le Mans, which was regarded by far as the favourite. The Ford GT40 that Ickx drove with Jackie Oliver appeared at that time to be an obsolete car, outperformed by the new Porsche 917 but also by the older Porsche 908 and the new generation of 3-litre prototypes from Ferrari, Matra and Alfa Romeo.

Porsche 917

917Porsche 917KPorsche 917/10
In addition to Porsche's triumphant 1, 2 victory, a Porsche 908 came in third overall, a Porsche 914-6 came in sixth overall (plus it won the GT class), and a Porsche 911S was seventh. (Two Ferrari 512s took fourth and fifth place overall.) Towards the end of the 1970 season, Ferrari entered some races with a new version of the 512, the 512M (Modificata). The 512M had a new bodywork built on a similar aerodynamic doctrine as the Porsche 917K. At the end of 1970 the 512M was as fast as the 917s. but still lacked in reliability.

World Sportscar Championship

World Endurance ChampionshipWorld Championship for MakesWorld Sports Car Championship
Manufacturers such as Ferrari, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, and Aston Martin fielded entries, often featuring professional racing drivers with experience in Formula One, but the majority of the fields were made up of gentleman drivers (privateers) in the likes of Nardis and Bandinis. Cars were split into Sports Car and GT (production car) categories and were further divided into engine displacement classes. The Ferrari and Maserati works teams were fierce competitors throughout much of the decade, but although Maserati cars won many races the make never managed to clinch the World title.

Ferdinand Piëch

Ferdinand PiechFerdinandDr. Ferdinand Piëch
At Porsche, Piëch triggered significant changes in the company's policy. For example, the position of drivers in race cars was moved from the left to the right, as this gives advantages on the predominantly clockwise race tracks. After making mainly small race cars that were supposed to be closely related to road cars, Porsche made a risky investment by unexpectedly building twenty-five Porsche 917, surprising the rule makers at the FIA. Even Ferrari had needed to sell his company to Fiat before making such a move. Always thinking big, Piëch started development of a 16-cylinder engine for the Can-Am series.

Vanwall

Thinwall SpecialVandervell Products Ltd.VW 2
At the end of the 1955 season, it was plain that the engine was sound, but that the Ferrari-derived chassis needed improvement. It was suggested to Vandervell that he should hire the services of a young up-and-coming designer to improve their cars. The designer was Colin Chapman. The new 1956 cars designed by Chapman (along with the aerodynamicist Frank Costin) were of space frame construction, the De Dion rear axle's unsprung weight reduced and front torsion bar added. (None of these ideas were revolutionary, but Chapman was happy simply to be meticulous.) Furthermore, a fifth gear and Porsche synchromesh were added to the transmission.

1953 World Sportscar Championship

19531953 World Sportscar Championship seasonF.I.A. World Sports Car Championship
Porsche 550. OSCA MT4. Veritas Comet RS. Talbot Lago T26 GS. Maserati A6GCS. Gordini T24S. Frazer Nash Le Mans Mark II. 1953 World Sports Car Championship race results at www.classicscars.com. 1953 World Sports Car Championship points table at www.classicscars.com.

Michele Alboreto

Michele
However, it was announced that the Italian would partner René Arnoux at Ferrari. Replacing Patrick Tambay, he became the first Italian driver to race for the marque in over a decade. In his debut season for Ferrari, Alboreto took victory in the third round at Zolder becoming the first Italian driver to win an F1 Grand Prix for Ferrari since Ludovico Scarfiotti won the 1966 Italian Grand Prix.

Gruppo Bertone

BertoneCarrozzeria BertoneStile Bertone
At the same time, two new industrial partnerships were getting under way, with the work on the Simca 1000 Coupé and the BMW 3200 CS limited series, as was the important, but unfortunate ASA 1000, better known as the "Ferrarina", or "little Ferrari" (as the project originated with Enzo Ferrari), which, despite the high expectations of the public, was a commercial failure upon its release. The Iso Rivolta GT 300, the Iso Rivolta GT 340 and the Iso Grifo were also created in the 1960s. Nuccio Bertone designed a prototype cabriolet of the latter and a racing version known as the A3C.

Ferrari 275

Ferrari 275 GTB275275 GTB/4
The internal parts of the engine were derived from those used in other Ferrari models including the 250 GTE 2+2, 250 Lusso and 250 GTO. Three twin-choke Weber 40 DCZ 6 or 40 DFI 1 carburetors were equipped as standard. Power was claimed to be 280 hp at 7600 rpm, but provided closer to 240-250 hp in actual use. A factory option of six twin-choke Weber 40 DCN carburetors was also available, which Ferrari claimed provided 320 hp at 7500 rpm although the actual increase in power over the three-Weber setup was likely only 20-25 hp. The rear wheels were driven by a 5-speed manual transaxle with Porsche-style syncromesh and a limited-slip differential.

Porsche 907

907907sPorsche
From 1968, the big V8 and V12 prototypes of Ford and Ferrari were banned, and Porsche hoped to secure the World Sportscar Championship and maybe an overall win at Le Mans as the competition at Ford, Matra and Alfa Romeo was not prepared with suitable 3000cc prototypes yet, either. Ferrari even sat out the whole of 1968 as a protest against the rule change. Apart from the former 2000cc-class rivals Alfa Romeo T33/2 and Renault-powered Alpine, 5000cc sportscars were also permitted to enter if at least 50 of them had been built. This loophole was intended to fill the grid with cars dating mainly from 1965, like Ford GT40 and Lola T70. Porsche was serious.

Ferrari 360

Ferrari 360 ModenaFerrari 360 ChallengeFerrari 360 N-GT
The N-GT was a 360 Challenge car evolved even further to compete more seriously in the FIA N-GT racing classes alongside other marques such as Porsche. The first model of the 360 to be produced was the Modena, named after the town of Modena, the birthplace of Enzo Ferrari. Transmission choice ranges from 6-speed manual transmission, or an F1 electrohydraulic manual transmission. The 360 Modena went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430. The Modena was followed two years later by the 360 Spider, Ferrari's 20th road-going convertible which at launch overtook sales of the Modena.

1972 World Sportscar Championship

1972World Championship for Makes1972 World Championship for Makes
The 1972 World Championship for Makes and International Grand Touring Trophy seasons were the 20th season of the FIA World Sportscar Championship. It was a series for FIA Group 5 Sports Cars and FIA Group 4 Grand Touring Cars. It ran from 9 January 1972 to 22 July 1972, and was composed of 11 races.

IMSA GT Championship

IMSA GTPGTPCamel GT
At the inaugural round for WSC cars at Road Atlanta, the new Ferrari 333 SP would make its debut amongst mass media fanfare, and win its debut race. The car brand regularly achieving podium finishes every round after that, Oldsmobile, won the manufacturer's title over Ferrari by four points. In 1995, a new rival for Ferrari appeared in the Riley & Scott Mk III. The car would make its debut at Daytona, but would retire after the eleventh lap due to engine failure. Ferrari would help the category score an overall win at the 12 Hours of Sebring, and would take the manufacturer's title.