Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Prenatal cocaine exposure. Route 36, cocaine bar in Bolivia. TA-CD. Ypadu. U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Cocaine. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs (Cocaine). Erowid – Cocaine Information — A collection of data about cocaine including dose, effects, chemistry, legal status, images and more. Slang Dictionary for Cocaine. Data on cocaine trafficking worldwide.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence". The American fast food industry, the world's largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%; frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American "obesity epidemic".

Crack cocaine

crackcrack-cocainecrack pipe
"Crack baby" is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated. Studies show that prenatal cocaine exposure (independent of other effects such as, for example, alcohol, tobacco, or physical environment) has no appreciable effect on childhood growth and development.

War on drugs

counter-narcoticsdrug interdictiondrug war
Stories of "crack whores" and "crack babies" became commonplace; by 1986, Time had declared "crack" the issue of the year. Riding the wave of public fervor, Reagan established much harsher sentencing for crack cocaine, handing down stiffer felony penalties for much smaller amounts of the drug. Reagan protégé and former Vice-President George H. W. Bush was next to occupy the oval office, and the drug policy under his watch held true to his political background. Bush maintained the hard line drawn by his predecessor and former boss, increasing narcotics regulation when the First National Drug Control Strategy was issued by the Office of National Drug Control in 1989.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
MDMA: Commonly known as ecstasy, it is a common club drug in the rave scene. Electronic cigarette: A large proportion of e-cigarette use is recreational. Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Nicotine is highly addictive, comparable to heroin or cocaine. Some people have also used to e cigarette to smoke cannabis or other drugs and there are certain e cigarettes specifically made for the use of smoking liquid cannabis. Ketamine: An anesthetic used legally by paramedics and doctors in emergency situations for its dissociative and analgesic qualities and illegally in the club drug scene.

Rave

rave culturerave musicraves
This is due to the association of illegal drugs such as MDMA (often referred to as a "club drug" or "party drug" along with MDA ), LSD, GHB, ketamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and cannabis. In addition to drugs, raves often make use of non-authorized, secret venues, such as squat parties at unoccupied homes, unused warehouses, or aircraft hangars. These concerns are often attributed to a type of moral panic surrounding rave culture. In the late 1950s in London, England the term "rave" was used to describe the "wild bohemian parties" of the Soho beatnik set. Jazz musician Mick Mulligan, known for indulging in such excesses, had the nickname "king of the ravers".

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
GHB continued to be manufactured and sold illegally and it and analogs were adopted as a club drug and came to be used as a date rape drug, and the DEA made seizures and the FDA reissued warnings several times throughout the 1990s. At the same time, research on the use of GHB in the form of sodium oxybate had formalized, as a company called Orphan Medical had filed an investigational new drug application and was running clinical trials with the intention of gaining regulatory approval for use to treat narcolepsy.

Illegal drug trade

drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Black market. Counterfeit medications. Drug Cartel. Drug trafficking organizations. Drug prohibition law. Drug liberalization. Legal drug trade. Narco-capitalism. Prohibitionism. War on Drugs. Interpol. [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]]. Official website of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Illicit drug issues by country, by the CIA.

Disco

disco musicdisco eraanti-disco backlash
In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving club drug subculture, particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud, bass-heavy music and the flashing colored lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite "poppers", and the "... other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and gave the sensation that one's arms and legs had turned to "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so popular at disco clubs that the drug was nicknamed "disco biscuits". Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough..."

MDMA

ecstasymethylenedioxymethamphetamineE
Some researchers such as David Nutt have criticized the current scheduling of MDMA, which he determines to be a relatively harmless drug. An editorial he wrote in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, where he compared the risk of harm for horse riding (1 adverse event in 350) to that of ecstasy (1 in 10,000) resulted in his dismissal as well as the resignation of his colleagues from the ACMD. In the United States, MDMA is currently placed in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. In a 2011 federal court hearing, the American Civil Liberties Union successfully argued that the sentencing guideline for MDMA/ecstasy is based on outdated science, leading to excessive prison sentences.

Opiate

opiatesOpiate pathwayopioid
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium. Opioid, a more modern term, is used to designate all substances, both natural and synthetic, that bind to opioid receptors in the brain (including antagonists). Opiates are alkaloid compounds naturally found in the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum. The psychoactive compounds found in the opium plant include morphine, codeine, and thebaine. Opiates are considered drugs with moderate to high abuse potential and are listed on various "Substance-Control Schedules" under the Uniform Controlled Substances Act of the United States of America.

Drug

drugsagentserum
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

Nutrition

nutritionalnutrition sciencenutritional science
Because of reduced nutritional value, processed foods are often 'enriched' or 'fortified' with some of the most critical nutrients (usually certain vitamins) that were lost during processing. Nonetheless, processed foods tend to have an inferior nutritional profile compared to whole, fresh foods, regarding content of both sugar and high GI starches, potassium/sodium, vitamins, fiber, and of intact, unoxidized (essential) fatty acids. In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids.

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

DMTdimethyltryptamineN'',''N''-dimethyltryptamine
In an article published four months later, the method used in their study was strongly criticized, and the credibility of their results challenged. Few of the analytical methods used prior to 2001 to measure levels of endogenously formed DMT had enough sensitivity and selectivity to produce reliable results. Gas chromatography, preferably coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is considered a minimum requirement.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Morphine has resulted in impaired functioning on critical flicker frequency (a measure of overall CNS arousal) and impaired performance on the Maddox wing test (a measure of the deviation of the visual axes of the eyes). Few studies have investigated the effects of morphine on motor abilities; a high dose of morphine can impair finger tapping and the ability to maintain a low constant level of isometric force (i.e. fine motor control is impaired), though no studies have shown a correlation between morphine and gross motor abilities.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule IUN conventions
The INCB can also issue reports critical of noncompliant nations, and forward those reports to all Parties. This happened when the United Kingdom reclassified cannabis from Class B to class C, eliminating the threat of arrest for possession. See Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom. The most controversial decisions of the INCB are those in which it assumes the power to interpret the Single Convention.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is used in several countries to relieve pain or in opioid replacement therapy. Heroin is typically injected, usually into a vein; however, it can also be smoked, snorted or inhaled. The onset of effects is usually rapid and lasts for a few hours.

Beer

brewing industrybeersbrewing
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops.

Euphoria

euphoriceuphorianthigh
Euphoria is the experience (or affect) of pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness. Certain natural rewards and social activities, such as aerobic exercise, laughter, listening to or making music, and dancing, can induce a state of euphoria. Euphoria is also a symptom of certain neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders, such as mania. Romantic love and components of the human sexual response cycle are also associated with the induction of euphoria. Certain drugs, many of which are addictive, can cause euphoria, which at least partially motivates their recreational use.

Mephedrone

4-Methylmethcathinone4-MMCMiaow-Miaow
Mephedrone, also known as 4-methyl methcathinone (4-MMC) or 4-methyl ephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. Slang names include bath salts, drone, M-CAT, White Magic and meow meow. It is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, amphetamines and cocaine.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV positiveHIV-positive
When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common. Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses.

Vasoconstriction

vasoconstrictorvasoconstrictivevasoconstrictors
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased, thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance. This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure.