Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Prenatal cocaine exposure. Route 36, cocaine bar in Bolivia. TA-CD. Ypadu. U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Cocaine. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs (Cocaine). Erowid – Cocaine Information — A collection of data about cocaine including dose, effects, chemistry, legal status, images and more. Slang Dictionary for Cocaine. Data on cocaine trafficking worldwide.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
MDMA: Commonly known as ecstasy, it is a common club drug in the rave scene. Electronic cigarette: A large proportion of e-cigarette use is recreational. Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Nicotine is highly addictive, comparable to heroin or cocaine. Ketamine: An anesthetic used legally by paramedics and doctors in emergency situations for its dissociative and analgesic qualities and illegally in the club drug scene. LSD: A popular ergoline derivative, that was first synthesized in 1938 by Hofmann. However, he failed to notice its psychedelic potential until 1943.

Disco

disco musicdisco eraanti-disco backlash
In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving club drug subculture, particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud, bass-heavy music and the flashing colored lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite "poppers", and the "... other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and gave the sensation that one's arms and legs had turned to "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so popular at disco clubs that the drug was nicknamed "disco biscuits". Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough..."

War on drugs

counter-narcoticsdrug interdictiondrug war
Partnership for a Drug-Free America. Woman's Christian Temperance Union. World Federation Against Drugs. Daniel Burton-Rose, The Celling of America: An Inside Look at the U.S. Prison Industry. Common Courage Press, 1998. Stephanie R. Bush-Baskette, "The War on Drugs as a War on Black Women," in Meda Chesney-Lind and Lisa Pasko (eds.), Girls, Women, and Crime: Selected Readings. SAGE, 2004. Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso, 1998. Mitchell Earlywine, Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Kathleen J. Frydl, The Drug Wars in America, 1940–1973.

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km 2 ), the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area and slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km 2 ). With a population of over 325 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City.

Rave

rave cultureravesrave party
Among the various elements of 1970s disco subculture that ravers drew on, in addition to basing their scene around dance music mixed by DJs, ravers also inherited the positive attitude towards using club drugs to "enhanc[e]...the sensory experience" of dancing to loud music. However, disco dancers and ravers preferred different drugs. Whereas 1970s disco scene members preferred cocaine and the depressant/sedative Quaaludes, ravers preferred MDMA, 2C-B, amphetamine, morphine and other pills. According to the FBI, raves are one of the most popular venues where club drugs are distributed, and as such feature a prominent drug subculture.

Heroin

smackdiamorphinejunk
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is used in several countries to relieve pain or in opioid replacement therapy. Heroin is typically injected, usually into a vein; however, it can also be smoked, snorted or inhaled. The onset of effects is usually rapid and lasts for a few hours.

Cannabis (drug)

marijuanacannabispot
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids. Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.

Date rape drug

date rape drugsdate-rape drugdrug rape
Goode et al say it has given a powerful added incentive for the suppression of party drugs, has inappropriately undermined the long-established argument that recreational drug use is purely a consensual and victimless crime. By shining a spotlight on premeditated criminal behavior, Philip Jenkins states that it has relieved the culture from having to explore and evaluate more nuanced forms of male sexual aggression towards people, such as those displayed in date rapes that were not facilitated by the surreptitious administration of drugs.

Prohibition of drugs

illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibition
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Drug liberalization. Demand reduction. Drug policy of the Soviet Union. Harm reduction. List of anti-cannabis organizations. Medellin Cartel. Mexican Drug War. Puerto Rican Drug War. Prohibitionism. Tobacco control. War on Drugs. Allegations of CIA drug trafficking. School district drug policies. Drug Free America Foundation. Drug Policy Alliance. DrugWarRant. Gary Webb. Marijuana Policy Project. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Students for Sensible Drug Policy. Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, New York: The Free Press, 1963, ISBN: 978-0-684-83635-5.

Substance abuse

drug abuseabusedrug use
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with the two predominant theories being: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others, or a habit which if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease. In 2010 about 5% of people (230 million) used an illicit substance. Of these 27 million have high-risk drug use otherwise known as recurrent drug use causing harm to their health, psychological problems, or social problems that put them at risk of those dangers.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
GHB continued to be manufactured and sold illegally and it and analogs were adopted as a club drug and came to be used as a date rape drug, and the DEA made seizures and the FDA reissued warnings several times throughout the 1990s. At the same time, research on the use of GHB in the form of sodium oxybate had formalized, as a company called Orphan Medical had filed an investigational new drug application and was running clinical trials with the intention of gaining regulatory approval for use to treat narcolepsy.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, diproqualone, etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone), mebroqualone, mecloqualone (Nubarene, Casfen), and methaqualone (Quaalude). Benzodiazepines can be useful for short-term treatment of insomnia. Their use beyond 2 to 4 weeks is not recommended due to the risk of dependence. It is preferred that benzodiazepines be taken intermittently and at the lowest effective dose. They improve sleep-related problems by shortening the time spent in bed before falling asleep, prolonging the sleep time, and, in general, reducing wakefulness.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
Methaqualone. Ketamine (T41.2). Among stimulants (F14-F15). Cocaine overdose (T40.5). Amphetamine overdose (T43.6). Methamphetamine (T43.6). Among tobacco (F17). Nicotine (T65.2). Among poly drug use (F19). Drug "cocktails" (speedballs). Medications. Aspirin poisoning (T39.0). Paracetamol poisoning (Alone or mixed with oxycodone). Paracetamol toxicity (T39.1). Tricyclic antidepressant overdose (T43.0). Vitamin poisoning. Pesticide poisoning (T60). Organophosphate poisoning. DDT. List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication. Responsible drug use.

Drug Policy Alliance

DPA
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Decriminalization of marijuana in the United States. Freedom of thought. Harm reduction. Prison reform. War on Drugs. 6 September 1990 rare video of "National Public Radio's Morning Edition" at 01:40:06 of John P. Walters and opposing views by Arnold Trebach of the Drug Policy Foundation about the "War on Drugs.". Video appearances on C-SPAN. Global Commission on Drug Policy. The International Drug Policy Consortium. Global Drug Policy Program. Americans for Safe Access. LEAP - Law Enforcement Action Partnership. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Marijuana Policy Project. Students for a Sensible Drug Policy.

Neonatal withdrawal

neonatal abstinence syndromeneonatal withdrawal syndromewithdrawal symptoms in the newborn
Neonatal abstinence syndrome does not happen in prenatal cocaine exposure. Prematurity and exposure to other drugs may instead be the cause of symptoms. Drugs and chemicals pass through the placenta that connects the baby to its mother in the womb. The baby becomes dependent on the drug along with the mother. If the mother continues to use the drugs within the week or so before delivery, the baby will be dependent on the drug at birth. Because the baby is no longer getting the drug after birth, withdrawal symptoms may occur as the drug is slowly cleared from the baby's system.

Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Incentives for sterilization. The Denver Dollar-a-day program, i.e. paying teenage mothers for not becoming pregnant again. Incentives for women on welfare to use contraceptions. Payments for sterilization in developing countries. Curtailment of benefits to welfare mothers. Compulsory sterilization of the "mentally retarded". Compulsory sterilization of female criminals. Compulsory sterilization of male criminals. Licences for parenthood. Positive eugenics. Financial incentives to have children. Selective incentives for childbearing. Taxation of the childless. Ethical obligations of the elite. Eugenic immigration. New eugenics. Artificial insemination by donor. Egg donation.

Illegal drug trade

drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Counterfeit medications. Drug Cartel. Drug trafficking organizations. Drug prohibition law. Drug liberalization. Legal drug trade. Narco-capitalism. Prohibitionism. War on Drugs. Interpol. [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]]. Official website of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Illicit drug issues by country, by the CIA.

MDMA

ecstasymethylenedioxymethamphetamineE
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug primarily used as a recreational drug. The desired effects include altered sensations and increased energy, empathy, and pleasure. When taken by mouth, effects begin after 30–45 minutes and last 3–6 hours.

Public service announcement

PSApublic service announcementsPSAs
A public service announcement (PSA), or public service ad, is a message in the public interest disseminated without charge, with the objective of raising awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social issue. In the UK, they are generally called 'public information films' (PIFs); in Hong Kong, they are known as 'announcements in the public interest' ('APIs').

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 sqmi, New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area.

List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication

Efforts to prohibit various drugs began to be enacted in the early 20th century, though the effectiveness of such policies is debated. Deaths from drug overdoses are increasing. Between 2000 and 2014, fatal overdoses rose 137% in the United States, causing nearly half a million deaths in that period, and have also been continually increasing in Australia, Scotland, England, and Wales. While prohibited drugs are generally viewed as being the most dangerous, the misuse of prescription drugs are linked to more deaths in several countries.

Crack cocaine

crackcrack-cocainecrack pipe
"Crack baby" is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated. Studies show that prenatal cocaine exposure (independent of other effects such as, for example, alcohol, tobacco, or physical environment) has no appreciable effect on childhood growth and development.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences. Despite the involvement of a number of psychosocial factors, a biological process – one which is induced by repeated exposure to an addictive stimulus – is the core pathology that drives the development and maintenance of an addiction. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable, and pleasurable).

List of anti-cannabis organizations

This Is Your Brain on Drugs. Winners Don't Use Drugs. Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act. List of addiction and substance abuse organizations. List of cannabis seizures. List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations. List of Schedule I drugs (US).