Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Crack epidemic. Illegal drug trade in Latin America. Legal status of cocaine. List of cocaine analogues. Modafinil. Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic evidence for cocaine in ancient Egypt. Prenatal cocaine exposure. Route 36, cocaine bar in Bolivia. TA-CD. Ypadu. U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Cocaine. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs (Cocaine). Erowid – Cocaine Information — A collection of data about cocaine including dose, effects, chemistry, legal status, images and more. Slang Dictionary for Cocaine. Data on cocaine trafficking worldwide.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence". The American fast food industry, the world's largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%; frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American "obesity epidemic".

War on drugs

counter-narcoticsdrug interdictiondrug war
Partnership for a Drug-Free America. Woman's Christian Temperance Union. World Federation Against Drugs. Daniel Burton-Rose, The Celling of America: An Inside Look at the U.S. Prison Industry. Common Courage Press, 1998. Stephanie R. Bush-Baskette, "The War on Drugs as a War on Black Women," in Meda Chesney-Lind and Lisa Pasko (eds.), Girls, Women, and Crime: Selected Readings. SAGE, 2004. Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso, 1998. Mitchell Earlywine, Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Kathleen J. Frydl, The Drug Wars in America, 1940–1973.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is used in several countries to relieve pain or in opioid replacement therapy. Heroin is typically injected, usually into a vein; however, it can also be smoked, snorted or inhaled. The onset of effects is usually rapid and lasts for a few hours.

Cannabis (drug)

marijuanacannabispot
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids. Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
A popular derivative, crack cocaine is typically smoked. When transformed into its freebase form, crack, the cocaine vapour may be inhaled directly. This is thought to increase bioavailability, but has also been found to be toxic, due to the production of methylecgonidine during pyrolysis. MDMA: Commonly known as ecstasy, it is a common club drug in the rave scene. Electronic cigarette: A large proportion of e-cigarette use is recreational. Most e-cigarette liquids contain nicotine, but the level of nicotine varies depending on user-preference and manufacturers. Nicotine is highly addictive, comparable to heroin or cocaine.

Rave

rave culturerave musicraves
Whereas 1970s disco scene members preferred cocaine and the depressant/sedative Quaaludes, ravers preferred MDMA, 2C-B, amphetamine, morphine and other pills. According to the FBI, raves are one of the most popular venues where club drugs are distributed, and as such feature a prominent drug subculture. Club drugs include MDMA (more commonly known as "ecstasy", "E" or "molly"), 2C-B (more commonly known as "nexus"), amphetamine (commonly referred to as "speed"), morphine (commonly known as "morphy" or "M" ), GHB (commonly referred to as "fantasy" or "liquid E"), cocaine (common short name for "coke"), DMT and LSD (commonly referred to as "lucy" or "acid").

MDMA

ecstasymethylenedioxymethamphetamineE
Some researchers such as David Nutt have criticized the current scheduling of MDMA, which he determines to be a relatively harmless drug. An editorial he wrote in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, where he compared the risk of harm for horse riding (1 adverse event in 350) to that of ecstasy (1 in 10,000) resulted in his dismissal as well as the resignation of his colleagues from the ACMD. In the United States, MDMA is currently placed in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. In a 2011 federal court hearing, the American Civil Liberties Union successfully argued that the sentencing guideline for MDMA/ecstasy is based on outdated science, leading to excessive prison sentences.

Public service announcement

PSApublic service announcementsPSAs
A public service announcement (PSA), or public service ad, is a message in the public interest disseminated without charge, with the objective of raising awareness of, and changing public attitudes and behavior towards, a social issue. In the UK, they are generally called 'public information films' (PIFs); in Hong Kong, they are known as 'announcements in the public interest' ('APIs').

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s.

Crack cocaine

crackcrack-cocainecrack pipe
Paranoia and anxiety are among the most common psychological symptoms of crack cocaine use. Psychosis is more closely associated with smoking crack cocaine than intranasal and intravenous use. "Crack baby" is a term for a child born to a mother who used crack cocaine during her pregnancy. The threat that cocaine use during pregnancy poses to the fetus is now considered exaggerated. Studies show that prenatal cocaine exposure (independent of other effects such as, for example, alcohol, tobacco, or physical environment) has no appreciable effect on childhood growth and development.

Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
ΔFosB, a gene transcription factor, is a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral and drug addictions. Two decades of research into ΔFosB's role in addiction have demonstrated that addiction arises, and the associated compulsive behavior intensifies or attenuates, along with the overexpression of ΔFosB in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens. Due to the causal relationship between ΔFosB expression and addictions, it is used preclinically as an addiction biomarker.

Disco

disco musicdisco eraanti-disco backlash
In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving club drug subculture, particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud, bass-heavy music and the flashing colored lights, such as cocaine (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite "poppers", and the "... other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and gave the sensation that one's arms and legs had turned to "Jell-O." Quaaludes were so popular at disco clubs that the drug was nicknamed "disco biscuits". Paul Gootenberg states that "[t]he relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough..."

Alcoholic drink

alcoholic beveragealcoholalcoholic beverages
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.

Substance abuse

drug abuseabusedrug use
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines like methamphetamine. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with the two predominant theories being: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others, or a habit which if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease. In 2010 about 5% of people (230 million) used an illicit substance. Of these 27 million have high-risk drug use otherwise known as recurrent drug use causing harm to their health, psychological problems, or social problems that put them at risk of those dangers.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
GHB continued to be manufactured and sold illegally and it and analogs were adopted as a club drug and came to be used as a date rape drug, and the DEA made seizures and the FDA reissued warnings several times throughout the 1990s. At the same time, research on the use of GHB in the form of sodium oxybate had formalized, as a company called Orphan Medical had filed an investigational new drug application and was running clinical trials with the intention of gaining regulatory approval for use to treat narcolepsy.

Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporific
Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, diproqualone, etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone), mebroqualone, mecloqualone (Nubarene, Casfen), and methaqualone (Quaalude). Benzodiazepines can be useful for short-term treatment of insomnia. Their use beyond 2 to 4 weeks is not recommended due to the risk of dependence. It is preferred that benzodiazepines be taken intermittently and at the lowest effective dose. They improve sleep-related problems by shortening the time spent in bed before falling asleep, prolonging the sleep time, and, in general, reducing wakefulness.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
Methaqualone. Ketamine (T41.2). Among stimulants (F14-F15). Cocaine overdose (T40.5). Amphetamine overdose (T43.6). Methamphetamine (T43.6). Among tobacco (F17). Nicotine (T65.2). Among poly drug use (F19). Drug "cocktails" (speedballs). Medications. Aspirin poisoning (T39.0). Paracetamol poisoning (Alone or mixed with oxycodone). Paracetamol toxicity (T39.1). Tricyclic antidepressant overdose (T43.0). Vitamin poisoning. Pesticide poisoning (T60). Organophosphate poisoning. DDT. List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication. Responsible drug use.

Neonatal withdrawal

neonatal abstinence syndromeneonatal withdrawal syndromewithdrawal symptoms in the newborn
Neonatal abstinence syndrome does not happen in prenatal cocaine exposure. Prematurity and exposure to other drugs may instead be the cause of symptoms. Drugs and chemicals pass through the placenta that connects the baby to its mother in the womb. The baby becomes dependent on the drug along with the mother. If the mother continues to use the drugs within the week or so before delivery, the baby will be dependent on the drug at birth. Because the baby is no longer getting the drug after birth, withdrawal symptoms may occur as the drug is slowly cleared from the baby's system.

Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether "negative" or "positive" policies are used, they are susceptible to abuse because the criteria of selection are determined by whichever group is in political power at the time. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is considered by many to be a violation of basic human rights, which include the right to reproduction. Another criticism is that eugenic policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, resulting in inbreeding depression due to lower genetic variation.

Drug Policy Alliance

DPA
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Decriminalization of marijuana in the United States. Freedom of thought. Harm reduction. Prison reform. War on Drugs. 6 September 1990 rare video of "National Public Radio's Morning Edition" at 01:40:06 of John P. Walters and opposing views by Arnold Trebach of the Drug Policy Foundation about the "War on Drugs.". Video appearances on C-SPAN. Global Commission on Drug Policy. The International Drug Policy Consortium. Global Drug Policy Program. Americans for Safe Access. LEAP - Law Enforcement Action Partnership. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Marijuana Policy Project. Students for a Sensible Drug Policy.

Illegal drug trade

drug traffickingdrug dealerdrug dealing
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Black market. Counterfeit medications. Drug Cartel. Drug trafficking organizations. Drug prohibition law. Drug liberalization. Legal drug trade. Narco-capitalism. Prohibitionism. War on Drugs. Interpol. [[United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances]]. Official website of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Illicit drug issues by country, by the CIA.

Ginna Marston

Ginna Sulcer Marston
Ginna Sulcer-Marston (born Ginna Sulcer February 19, 1958 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American advertising executive notable for anti-drug public service advertising campaigns at the Partnership for a Drug Free America, a nonprofit consortium of advertising professionals which ran targeted media campaigns to unsell illegal drugs. She was a founder of the organization in 1986 which produced the well-known commercial This is your brain on drugs and other "hard-hitting, unsentimental ads" which depicted the "unglamorous reality of drug abuse".

Prohibition of drugs

illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibition
Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Drug liberalization. Demand reduction. Drug policy of the Soviet Union. Harm reduction. List of anti-cannabis organizations. Medellin Cartel. Mexican Drug War. Puerto Rican Drug War. Prohibitionism. Tobacco control. War on Drugs. Allegations of CIA drug trafficking. School district drug policies. Drug Free America Foundation. Drug Policy Alliance. DrugWarRant. Gary Webb. Marijuana Policy Project. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Students for Sensible Drug Policy. Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, New York: The Free Press, 1963, ISBN: 978-0-684-83635-5.

Date rape drug

date rape drugsdate-rape drugstupefying
News media has been criticized for overstating the DFSA threat, for providing "how to" material for potential date rapists and for advocating "grossly excessive protective measures for women, particularly in coverage between 1996 and 1998. Law enforcement representatives and feminists have also been criticized for supporting the overstatements for their own purposes. Craig Webber states that this extensive coverage has created or amplified a moral panic rooted in societal anxieties about rape, hedonism and the increased freedoms of women in modern culture.