This system continued till 1971 when privileges and Privy Purses of ex-rulers were abolished by the Government of India. Between August 1947 and March 1948, thirteen Muslim princely states in western India acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan, created from British India by the Indian Independence Act 1947, thus becoming the Princely states of Pakistan. Between 1955 and 1974, they were all amalgamated into larger federations and provinces. All of the princely states were in the western part of the country, so all were merged into the eventual West Pakistan, which constitutes (since the breakaway of Bangla Desh) the present-day Republic of Pakistan.
salutegun salutesalute states
British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; however, the issue of sovereignty was left undefined. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States (or Princely States). In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: (4.)
IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials. Many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and having effectively been made an arm of British administration, the company began more consciously to enter non-economic arenas like education, social reform, and culture.
RajputsRajputs of GujaratHindu Rajput
On India's independence in 1947, the princely states, including those of the Rajput, were given three options: join either India or Pakistan, or remain independent. Rajput rulers of the 22 princely states of Rajputana acceded to newly independent India, amalgamated into the new state of Rajasthan in 1949–1950. Initially the maharajas were granted funding from the Privy purse in exchange for their acquiescence, but a series of land reforms over the following decades weakened their power, and their privy purse was cut off during Indira Gandhi's administration under the 1971 Constitution 26th Amendment Act.
Gujarat StateGujarat, IndiaGujrat
After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra (Kathiawar) and parts of Hyderabad state and Madhya Pradesh in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south.
Political integration of India.
BombayBombay ProvinceGovernment of Bombay
Outside the Presidency, numerous small states princely states such as those of Kathiawar and Mahikantha came under British suzerainty in a system of subsidiary alliances between 1807 and 1820. The native states eventually comprised some 353 separate units, administered internally by their own princes, with the British responsible for their external affairs. Relations between British India and the states were managed by British agents placed at the principal native capitals; their exact status varied in the different states according to the relations in which the principalities stood with the paramount power.
On the eve of independence in 1947, British India contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler, often styled Raja or Rana or Thakur (if the ruler were Hindu) or Nawab (if he were Muslim), with a host of less current titles as well. The British directly ruled two-thirds of the Indian subcontinent; the rest was under indirect rule by the above-mentioned princes under the considerable influence of British representatives, such as Residents, at their courts. The word Maharaja may be understood simply to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king".
Viceroy of IndiaGovernor-GeneralViceroy
However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government; outside the provinces of British India, there were hundreds of nominally independent princely states or "native states", whose relationship was not with the British Government or the United Kingdom, but rather one of homage directly with the British Monarch as sovereign successor to the Mughal Emperors. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled "viceroy and governor-general of India".
Rajasthan, IndiaRajasthan StateRajastan
Modern Rajasthan includes most of Rajputana, which comprises the erstwhile nineteen princely states, two chiefships, and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara. Jaisalmer, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Mewar (Chittorgarh), Alwar and Dhundhar (Jaipur) were some of the main Rajput princely states. Bharatpur and Dholpur were Jat princely states whereas Tonk was a princely state under a Muslim Nawab. The geographic features of Rajasthan are the Thar Desert and the Aravalli Range, which runs through the state from southwest to northeast, almost from one end to the other, for more than 850 km.
Indian governmentCentral GovernmentGovt. of India
The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, high courts at the state level, and district courts and sessions courts at the district level. The Supreme Court of India is situated in New Delhi, the capital region of India. The supreme court is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and 30 sanctioned other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions.
Udaipur, RajasthanUdaipur CityUdaipur, RJ
Udaipur remained the capital of the state, which became a princely state of British India in 1818. Being a mountainous region and unsuitable for heavily armoured Mughal horses, Udaipur remained safe from Mughal influence despite much pressure. At present, Maharana Mahendra Singh Mewar is the 76th custodian of the Mewar dynasty. Jharmar Kotra Stromatolite Fossil Park at Jharmar Kotra southweast of Udiapur has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India (GSI), for their protection, maintenance, promotion and enhancement of geotourism.
List of princely states of British India (alphabetical). List of Maratha dynasties and states. List of Rajput dynasties and states. Maratha Empire. Rajputana.
The term also does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
The Ambliara State, also spelt Ambalaria, Amliara, Amliyara or Ambaliyara, was a princely state under Mahi Kantha Agency of the Bombay Presidency during the era of the British Raj in India. The Ambliara State was ruled by a Chauhan family that is categorized among the "Kshatriya Koli" Thakordas (minor lords). According to the Gujarat State Gazetteers, the rulers were "Khant Kolis" by caste, and their family claimed descent from the Chauhans of Sambhar and Ajmer. A single, undated one paisa banknote was issued by the state. Ambliara State was merged with Baroda State under the Attachment Scheme on 10 July 1943. Finally, Baroda State acceded to the Indian Union on 1 May 1949.
List of Indian princely statesprincely states565 princely states
Before the Partition of India in 1947, 584 Princely States, also called Native States, existed in India, which were not fully and formally part of British India, the parts of the Indian subcontinent which had not been conquered or annexed by the British but under indirect rule, subject to subsidiary alliances. Things moved quickly after the partition of British India in 1947. By the end of 1949, all of the states had chosen to accede to one of the newly independent states of India or Pakistan or else had been conquered and annexed. In principle, the princely states had internal autonomy, while by treaty the British Crown had suzerainty and was responsible for the states' external affairs.
Political integration of India.
Political integration of India.
RajputanaAgent in RajputanaRajasthan
Dungarpur, title Maharawal, hereditary 15 guns. Pratapgarh, title Maharawat, hereditary 15 guns. Jaipur Residency, with headquarters at Jaipur, dealt with two salute states:. Jaipur, title Majaraja, hereditary 17 guns (19 local). Kishangarh, title Majaraja, hereditary 15 guns. as well as the Thikana (estate) of Lawa. Western Rajputana States Residency, with its headquarters at Jodhpur, dealt with:. Jodhpur, title Maharaja, hereditary salute of 17 guns (19 local). Jaisalmer, title Maharaja, hereditary salute of 15 guns. Sirohi, title Maharao, hereditary salute of 15 guns.
With the impending independence of India in 1947, the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten announced that the British paramountcy over the Indian states would come to an end. The states were advised to `accede' to one of the new Dominions, India and Pakistan. An Instrument of Accession was devised for this purpose. The Congress leaders agreed to the plan with the condition that Mountbatten ensure that the majority of the states within the Indian territory accede to India. Under pressure from the Viceroy, all the Indian states acceded to India save two, Junagadh and Hyderabad. The two states acceded later, under coercion from India.
Indian UnionUnion of IndiaIndia
Similarly, the State of Hyderabad sought to remain independent and was also annexed by India in 1948. The newly created states of Pakistan and India both joined the Commonwealth, a platform for cooperation between the countries that had been part of the British Empire. Nevertheless, they soon found themselves at war beginning in October 1947, over the contested princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani militants entered the state, alarming Maharaja Hari Singh who appealed to India for military intervention, in exchange for the signing of the Instrument of Accession and annexation into India.
JodhpurMaharaja of JodhpurRulers of Marwar
Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state, delayed signing the Instrument of Accession to India. He even briefly considered acceding to Pakistan, for Jodhpur shared a border with the new nation and he had been personally given a blank page to write his demands and an assurance of access to sea ports in Pakistan by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. But due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Lord Mountbatten, the Maharaja of Jodhpur agreed to the accession of his state to the new Dominion of India. The Rathore dynasty of Jodhpur are Rajputs who claim descent from the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
PatialaMaharaja Amar SinghMinister of State
Political integration of India.
Indian independenceindependenceIndian Independence Act
Political integration of India. Indian Independence Bill,1947.
Punjab Hill States AgencyPunjab StatesPunjab Hills
The agency was created in the 1930s, on the model of the Central India Agency and Rajputana Agency, and dealt with forty princely states in northwest India formerly dealt with by the British province of the Punjab. After 1947, most of the states chose to accede to the Union of India, the rest to the Dominion of Pakistan. The princely states had come under the suzerainty of the British crown after the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and went on to be known as the Punjab Native States and the Simla Hill States. They later came into direct diplomatic relations with the British province of Punjab, with the exception of Tehri Garhwal State, which had a connection instead with the United Provinces.