Salute state

salutegun salutesalute states
This system continued till 1971 when privileges and Privy Purses of ex-rulers were abolished by the Government of India. Between August 1947 and March 1948, thirteen Muslim princely states in western India acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan, created from British India by the Indian Independence Act 1947, thus becoming the Princely states of Pakistan. Between 1955 and 1974, they were all amalgamated into larger federations and provinces. All of the princely states were in the western part of the country, so all were merged into the eventual West Pakistan, which constitutes (since the breakaway of Bangla Desh) the present-day Republic of Pakistan.

Governor-General of India

Viceroy of IndiaGovernor-GeneralViceroy
However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government; outside the provinces of British India, there were hundreds of nominally independent princely states or "native states", whose relationship was not with the British Government or the United Kingdom, but rather one of homage directly with the British Monarch as sovereign successor to the Mughal Emperors. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled "viceroy and governor-general of India".

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials. Many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and having effectively been made an arm of British administration, the company began more consciously to enter non-economic arenas like education, social reform, and culture.

Suzerainty

suzerainBritish Paramountcysuzerains
With the impending independence of India in 1947, the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten announced that the British paramountcy over the Indian states would come to an end. The states were advised to `accede' to one of the new Dominions, India and Pakistan. An Instrument of Accession was devised for this purpose. The Congress leaders agreed to the plan with the condition that Mountbatten ensure that the majority of the states within the Indian territory accede to India. Under pressure from the Viceroy, all the Indian states acceded to India save two, Junagadh and Hyderabad. The two states acceded later, under coercion from India.

Dominion of India

Indian UnionUnion of IndiaIndia
Similarly, the State of Hyderabad sought to remain independent and was also annexed by India in 1948. The newly created states of Pakistan and India both joined the Commonwealth, a platform for cooperation between the countries that had been part of the British Empire. Nevertheless, they soon found themselves at war beginning in October 1947, over the contested princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani militants entered the state, alarming Maharaja Hari Singh who appealed to India for military intervention, in exchange for the signing of the Instrument of Accession and annexation into India.

Maharaja

MaharajahMaharajadhirajaMaharani
On the eve of independence in 1947, British India contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler, often styled Raja or Rana or Thakur (if the ruler were Hindu) or Nawab (if he were Muslim), with a host of less current titles as well. The British directly ruled two-thirds of the Indian subcontinent; the rest was under indirect rule by the above-mentioned princes under the considerable influence of British representatives, such as Residents, at their courts. The word Maharaja may be understood simply to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king".

Gujarat

Gujarat StateGujarat, IndiaGujrat
After Indian independence and the partition of India in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra (Kathiawar) and parts of Hyderabad state and Madhya Pradesh in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south.

Partition of India

independencepartitionIndian independence
The term also does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.

Hyderabad State

HyderabadHyderabad DeccanState of Hyderabad
The dynasty declared itself an independent monarchy during the final years of the British Raj. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. Hyderabad's location in the middle of the Indian union, as well as its diverse cultural heritage, was a driving force behind India's annexation of the state in 1948. Subsequently, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, signed an instrument of accession, joining India. Hyderabad State was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan who was the governor of Deccan under the Mughals from 1713 to 1721.

Rajasthan

Rajasthan, IndiaRajasthan StateRajastan
Modern Rajasthan includes most of Rajputana, which comprises the erstwhile nineteen princely states, two chiefships, and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara. Jaisalmer, Marwar (Jodhpur), Bikaner, Mewar (Chittorgarh), Alwar and Dhundhar (Jaipur) were some of the main Rajput princely states. Bharatpur and Dholpur were Jat princely states whereas Tonk was a princely state under a Muslim Nawab. The geographic features of Rajasthan are the Thar Desert and the Aravalli Range, which runs through the state from southwest to northeast, almost from one end to the other, for more than 850 km.

Nawanagar State

NawanagarNavanagar StateJamnagar
Political integration of India. Western India States Agency. Nawanagar, website. Heraldry of princely states of Gujarat. Genealogy of Nawanagar.

Rajput

RajputsRajputs of GujaratHindu Rajput
On India's independence in 1947, the princely states, including those of the Rajput, were given three options: join either India or Pakistan, or remain independent. Rajput rulers of the 22 princely states of Rajputana acceded to newly independent India, amalgamated into the new state of Rajasthan in 1949–1950. Initially the maharajas were granted funding from the Privy purse in exchange for their acquiescence, but a series of land reforms over the following decades weakened their power, and their privy purse was cut off during Indira Gandhi's administration under the 1971 Constitution 26th Amendment Act.

Rajputana

RajpootanaRajaputanasatta bazaar king
Rājputāna, meaning "Land of the Rajputs", was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan, as well as parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan. The main settlements to the west of the Aravalli Hills came to be known as Rajputana, early in the Medieval Period. The name was later adopted by British government as the Rajputana Agency for its dependencies in the region of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān. The Rajputana Agency included 18 princely states, two chiefships and the British district of Ajmer-Merwara.

Man Singh II

Sawai Man Singh IISawai Man Singh II of JaipurMaharaja Sawai Man Singh II
At the time of the Independence of British India in 1947, the maharaja delayed acceding Jaipur to the Dominion of India. He finally signed an Instrument of Accession in April 1949, when his princely state became part of the Rajasthan States Union, initially retaining his powers of internal government. The Maharaja became Rajpramukh of the States Union, but the office was abolished when the Indian states were further re-organised in 1956. Although the Indian princes had by then relinquished their ruling powers, they remained entitled to their titles, privy purses, and other privileges until the adoption of the 26th amendment to the Constitution of India on 28 December 1971.

Bombay Presidency

BombayBombay ProvinceGovernment of Bombay
Outside the Presidency, numerous small states princely states such as those of Kathiawar and Mahikantha came under British suzerainty in a system of subsidiary alliances between 1807 and 1820. The native states eventually comprised some 353 separate units, administered internally by their own princes, with the British responsible for their external affairs. Relations between British India and the states were managed by British agents placed at the principal native capitals; their exact status varied in the different states according to the relations in which the principalities stood with the paramount power.

Ambliara State

AmbliaraAmbaliyaraAmliyara
The Ambliara State, also spelt Ambalaria, Amliara, Amliyara or Ambaliyara, was a princely state under Mahi Kantha Agency of the Bombay Presidency during the era of the British Raj in India. The Ambliara State was ruled by a Chauhan family that is categorized among the "Kshatriya Koli" Thakordas (minor lords). According to the Gujarat State Gazetteers, the rulers were "Khant Kolis" by caste, and their family claimed descent from the Chauhans of Sambhar and Ajmer. A single, undated one paisa banknote was issued by the state. Ambliara State was merged with Baroda State under the Attachment Scheme on 10 July 1943. Finally, Baroda State acceded to the Indian Union on 1 May 1949.

Central India Agency

Central India
List of princely states of British India (alphabetical). List of Maratha dynasties and states. List of Rajput dynasties and states. Maratha Empire. Rajputana.

States Reorganisation Act, 1956

States Reorganisation ActStates Reorganisation Act of 1956linguistic reorganisation of states
Part B states, which were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, who was usually the ruler of a constituent state, and an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India. The eight Part B states were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), Rajasthan, Saurashtra, and Travancore-Cochin. Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, and each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.

Bombay State

BombayState of BombayBombay Province
During the British Raj, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency. In 1937, the Bombay Presidency became a province of British India. After India gained independence in 1947, Bombay Presidency became part of India, and Sind province became part of Pakistan. The territory retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. It included princely states such as Kolhapur in Deccan, and Baroda and the Dangs in Gujarat, which had been under the political influence of the former Bombay Presidency.

Indian Independence Act 1947

Indian independenceindependenceIndian Independence Act
Political integration of India. Indian Independence Bill,1947.