Incorporation (business)

Limited liability company. List of company registers. Types of business entity.

Legal person

legal personalitylegal entitybody corporate
Companies, a form of business association that carries on an industrial enterprise, are often corporations, although companies may take other forms, such as trade unions, unlimited companies, trusts, and funds. Limited liability companies—be they a private company limited by guarantee, private company limited by shares, or public limited company—are entities having certain characteristics of both a corporation and a partnership. Different types have a complex variety of advantages and disadvantages. Sovereign states are legal persons. In the international legal system, various organizations possess legal personality.

General Data Protection Regulation

GDPRGeneral Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)General Data Protection Regulation 2016
Superseding the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC, the regulation contains provisions and requirements related to the processing of personal data of individuals (formally called data subjects in the GDPR) inside the EEA, and applies to any enterprise established in the EEA or—regardless of its location and the data subjects' citizenship—that is processing the personal information of data subjects inside the EEA. Controllers of personal data must put in place appropriate technical and organizational measures to implement the data protection principles.

Personal data

personally identifiable informationpersonal informationpersonally identifying information
Ontario Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act and similar Provincial legislation governs Provincial Government agencies. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act governs private corporations, unless there is equivalent Provincial legislation. Ontario Personal Health Information Protection Act and other similar Provincial legislation governs health information. Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The General Data Protection Regulation adopted in April 2016. Effective 25 May 2018. supersedes the Data Protection Directive95/46/EC. Directive 2002/58/EC (the E-Privacy Directive).

Limited liability partnership

LLPlimited liability partnershipsLLPs
This is the most popular business form in Kazakhstan. Almost any private business may be incorporated as an LLP (notable exceptions are banks, airlines, insurance companies, and mortgage companies, which must be incorporated in the form of a joint stock company). An LLP in Kazakhstan is a corporate body, and in fact, is an Limited Liability Corporation (LLC). Partners cannot conduct business on their own, and it is the corporate body that conducts the business. There is also a concept of "simple partnership" in Kazakhstan law, which corresponds more closely to the general concept of partnership, but it is not widely used and is not well developed in Kazakhstan.

Joint-stock company

joint stock companyJSCjoint stock
Other organizations that may carry out activities that are generally considered to be business exist under the laws of various countries: * * The History of the Corporate Business Firm ja:ジョイント・ストック・カンパニー National Joint-stock company. Open Joint-stock company. Closed Joint-stock company. Consumers' cooperative. Holding company. Limited company (Ltd). Limited liability company (LLC). Limited liability limited partnership (LLLP). Limited liability partnership (LLP). Limited partnership (LP). Low-profit limited liability company (L3C). Not-for-profit corporation. Open joint-stock company (OJSC). Partnership. Sole proprietorship. Trust company. Aktieselskab. Types of business entity.

European Commission

EU CommissionCommissionEC
The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be completely independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. The Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, and then appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament.

Private company limited by shares

PrivateLtd.Private limited company
Private company limited by guarantee. Privately held company. Limited liability company (LLC). Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH). Aktiengesellschaft (AG)/others.


Types of business entity. Dignam, A and Lowry, J. Company Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0-19-928936-3. John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company: a Short History of a Revolutionary Idea. New York: Modern Library, 2003.

Privately held company

PrivatePrivate companyprivately held
Corporation: A business corporation is a for-profit, limited liability or unlimited liability entity that has a separate legal personality from its members. A corporation is owned by one or more shareholders and is overseen by a board of directors, which hires the business's managerial staff. Corporate models have also been applied to the state sector in the form of government-owned corporations. A corporation may be privately held ("close", or closely held—that is, held by a few people) or publicly traded. Limited company. Private company limited by shares. Private equity. Public company. Unlisted public company.


partnerpartnershipssilent partner
Take part in the management of the business or have power to bind the firm. Alliance. Consortium. Business partnering. Corporation. General partnership. Joint venture. Keiretsu. Limited liability partnership (LLP). Limited partnership (LP). Partnership accounting. Partnership taxation. Strategic Alliance. Types of business entity. Up or out (aka partnership system).

Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung

GmbHLimited liability companygGmbH
It is an entity broadly equivalent with the private limited company in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries, and the limited liability company (LLC) in the United States. The name of the GmbH form emphasizes the fact that the owners (Gesellschafter, also known as members) of the entity are not personally liable or credible for the company's debts. GmbHs are considered legal persons under German, Swiss and Austrian law. Other variations include mbH (used when the term Gesellschaft is part of the company name itself), and gGmbH (gemeinnützige GmbH) for non-profit companies.

Privacy policy

privacy policiescorporate privacy policiesinformed
In general, data protection laws in Europe cover the private sector as well as the public sector. Their privacy laws apply not only to government operations but also to private enterprises and commercial transactions. California Business and Professions Code, Internet Privacy Requirements (CalOPPA) mandate that websites collecting Personally Identifiable Information (PII) from California residents must conspicuously post their privacy policy. (See also Online Privacy Protection Act) In 1968, the Council of Europe began to study the effects of technology on human rights, recognizing the new threats posed by computer technology that could link and transmit in ways not widely available before.

Limited liability

The development of limited liability facilitated the move to large-scale industrial enterprise, by removing the threat that an individual's total wealth would be confiscated if invested in an unsuccessful company. Large sums of personal financial capital became available, and the transferability of shares permitted a degree of business continuity not possible in other forms of enterprise. In the UK there was initially a widespread belief that a corporation needed to demonstrate its creditworthiness by having its shares only partly paid, as where shares are partly paid, the investor would be liable for the remainder of the nominal value in the event that the company could not pay its debts.

Privacy Act of 1974

Privacy Act1974 Privacy ActComputer Matching and Privacy Act
Data privacy. Digital identity. Privacy. Civil liberties. Information privacy law. Federal Records Act. Data Act (Sweden). Bundesdatenschutzgesetz. Privacy Act of 1974 (5 USC Sec. 552a). Privacy Office at the Department of Homeland Security. OMB Guidance for Implementing the Privacy Provisions of the E-Government Act of 2002. DOD CIO re Privacy Impact Assessments. US NSF re Privacy Impact Assessments.

Outline of commercial law

List of business law topicsCommercial law
Corporate law in Vietnam. United States corporate law. Legal aspects of computing. Ecommerce Law. Privacy law. Property law. Tax law. History of companies. History of company law in the United Kingdom. Lex mercatoria. Types of business entity. Juristic person. Company (law). Corporate law. Corporation. Incorporation (business). Delaware corporation (U.S.). Limited liability company. Fiduciary. Partnership. Agency. Escrow. Trustee of a trust or executor of an estate; see also trusts and estates. Charitable trust. Foundation. Association. Cooperative. Contract. Consideration. Duress. Warranty. Breach of contract. Remedy. Lien. Types of contracts. Adhesion contract. Intellectual property.

Index of law articles

–Damages – Damnation – Dangerous weapon – Data protection – Date rape – Daubert standard – Day in court – de bonis asportatis – de bonis non administratis – de facto – De facto corporation – de futuro – de integro – de jure – De jure corporation – de lege ferenda – de lege lata – de minimis – de novo – Deadlock – Deadlock provision – Deadly weapon –Death tax – Death penalty – Death row – Death duty – Debenture – Debt – Debt bondage – Debtor – Debtor in possession – Decapitation – Deceased – Deceit – Deception – Decide!

Société à responsabilité limitée

However, the limited liability company is not dissolved by the death of a partner (or his disability, his personal bankruptcy, etc.). The limited liability company is dissolved when it includes more than 100 partners and that the situation could not be corrected within the period of 1 year or if the partners could not validly deliberate on the decision to be taken following the loss of half the capital or were unable to regularize the situation within 1 year. A Luxembourgois société à responsibilité limitée (SARL) is a corporate form in Luxembourg with limited and closed owner participation.


A shareholder (also known as stockholder) is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation. Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. By law, a person is not a shareholder in a corporation until their name and other details are entered in the corporation's register of shareholders or members. The influence of a shareholder on the business is determined by the shareholding percentage owned. Shareholders of a corporation are legally separate from the corporation itself.

Sole proprietorship

sole proprietorsole traderproprietorship
Sole proprietors, as employers, are responsible to:- In 2016, the SSM took legal action against 478 online businesses who fail to register their businesses whether as sole proprietors, partnerships, or private limited companies. As at May 12 2017, a total of 50,882 online businesses have registered with the SSM since 2015. Sole traders in New Zealand must notify the Inland Revenue Department that they are trading and must register for Goods and Services Tax purposes if their income exceeds $60,000 per year.

Limited company

LimitedLtdlimited liability companies
(instead of the usual Inc.) to signify their corporate status. A Limited company must file annual tax returns ("corporation" tax returns) with the Securities and Exchange Commission. In Zimbabwe the term "(Pvt) Ltd" refers to a private company limited by share capital. All private entities are regulated by the Registrar of Companies in Harare. * Limited liability company UK Business Link ja:株式会社 Company formation (UK). Limited liability partnership (LLP). Share capital. Types of business entity. Unlimited company. Yūgen gaisha.

Data Protection Act 1998

Data Protection Actdata protectionData Protection Act 1984
Council of Europe – ETS no. 108 – Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (1981) – basis for Data Protection Act 1984. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data – basis for Data Protection Act 1998.

Corporate law

business lawcompany lawcorporate
In some cases, this may include matters relating to corporate governance or financial law. When used as a substitute for corporate law, business law means the law relating to the business corporation (or business enterprises), i.e. capital raising (through equity or debt), company formation, registration, etc. Academics identify four legal characteristics universal to business enterprises. These are: Widely available and user-friendly corporate law enables business participants to possess these four legal characteristics and thus transact as businesses.


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOrganisation for European Economic Co-operationOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation. Economics Department. Environment Directorate. Public Governance Directorate. Statistics Directorate. Trade and Agriculture Directorate. General Secretariat. Executive Directorate. Public Affairs and Communication Directorate. Africa Partnership Forum. Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC). Development Assistance Committee. OECD Development Centre. International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport). International Energy Agency. Nuclear Energy Agency. Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN).

Binding corporate rules

Binding Corporate Rules or "BCRs" were developed by the European Union Article 29 Working Party to allow multinational corporations, international organizations, and groups of companies to make intra-organizational transfers of personal data across borders in compliance with EU Data Protection Law. The BCRs were developed as an alternative to the U.S. Department of Commerce EU Safe Harbor (which was for US organizations only, but has been declared invalid and replaced by the EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S Privacy Shield Frameworks) and the EU Model Contract Clauses.