United States

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers, for example, New York City's The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups.

EU–US Privacy Shield

EU-US Privacy ShieldEU-U.S. Privacy ShieldPrivacy Shield
Privacy Shield is a framework for regulating transatlantic exchanges of personal data for commercial purposes between the European Union and the United States. One of its purposes is to enable US companies to more easily receive personal data from EU entities under EU privacy laws meant to protect European Union citizens. The EU–US Privacy Shield is a replacement for the International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles, which were declared invalid by the European Court of Justice in October 2015. In October 2015 the European Court of Justice declared the previous framework called the International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles invalid.

Share (finance)

The owner of shares in the company is a shareholder (or stockholder) of the corporation. A share is an indivisible unit of capital, expressing the ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder. The denominated value of a share is its face value, and the total of the face value of issued shares represent the capital of a company, which may not reflect the market value of those shares. The income received from the ownership of shares is a dividend. The process of purchasing and selling shares often involves going through a stockbroker as a middle man.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

HIPAAHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
With an early emphasis on the potentially severe penalties associated with violation, many practices and centers turned to private, for-profit "HIPAA consultants" who were intimately familiar with the details of the legislation and offered their services to ensure that physicians and medical centers were fully "in compliance". In addition to the costs of developing and revamping systems and practices, the increase in paperwork and staff time necessary to meet the legal requirements of HIPAA may impact the finances of medical centers and practices at a time when insurance companies' and Medicare reimbursement is also declining.

List of company registers

Commercial Registerbusiness registercompany registrar
Australian Business Register – Australian Business Number Lookup. Office of the Registrar of Indigenous Corporations – Search Corporations. Firmenbuch Information on accessing the official corporate registry. Wiener Zeitung – Firmenmonitor (company notices). Financial Market Authority – Supervised Companies. Ministry of Taxes – State Register of Business Entities. Ministry of Taxes – Businesses engaged in production. Ministry of Industry & Commerce. Bahrain Chamber of Commerce & Industry – Members Search. Central Bank of Bahrain – CBB Register. Crossroads Bank for Enterprises. Federal Public Service Justice – Enterprise Search.

Public company

Publicpublicly tradedpublicly traded company
This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; prior to their existence, it was very difficult to obtain large amounts of capital for private enterprises - significant capital could only come from a smaller set of wealthy investors or banks willing to risk typically large investments. The profit on stock is gained in form of dividend or capital gain to the holders.

Natural person

naturalnatural personsindividual
., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization. Historically, a human being was not necessarily a natural person in some jurisdictions where slavery existed (subject of a property right) rather than a person. In many cases, fundamental human rights are implicitly granted only to natural persons.

Information security

The UK Data Protection Act 1998 makes new provisions for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information. The European Union Data Protection Directive (EUDPD) requires that all E.U. members adopt national regulations to standardize the protection of data privacy for citizens throughout the E.U. The Computer Misuse Act 1990 is an Act of the U.K. Parliament making computer crime (e.g., hacking) a criminal offense.

Limited partnership

L.P.limited partnerLP
The limited partnership is also attractive to firms wishing to provide shares to many individuals without the additional tax liability of a corporation. Private equity companies almost exclusively use a combination of general and limited partners for their investment funds. Well-known limited partnerships include Enterprise Products and Blackstone Group (both of which are public companies), and Bloomberg L.P. (a private company). Before 2001, the limited liability enjoyed by limited partners was contingent upon their refraining from taking any active role in the management of the firm.

Offshore company

offshore companiesoffshoreoffshore corporation
Beyond the common themes, a number of jurisdictions have also enacted special corporate provisions to try and attract business through offering corporate mechanisms that allow complex business transactions or reorganisations to occur more smoothly. Offshore companies are used for a variety of commercial and private purposes, some legitimate and economically beneficial, whilst others may be harmful or even criminal. Allegations are frequently made in the press about offshore companies being used for money laundering, tax evasion, fraud, and other forms of white collar crime.

Unlimited company

unlimited liabilityunlimitedunlimited liability company
Hoare & Co (UK company number 00240822), England's oldest privately owned bank. Coutts & Co (UK company number 00036695), a private banking subsidiary of the Royal Bank of Scotland.

Information privacy law

Data Privacy & Securitydata privacy lawsdata protection law
In the Philippines, The Data Privacy Act of 2012 mandated the creation of the National Privacy Commission that would monitor and maintain policies that involve information privacy and personal data protection in the country. Modeled after the EU Data Protection Directive and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Privacy Framework, the independent body would ensure compliance of the country with international standards set for data protection.

Corporate tax

corporation taxcorporate income taxbusiness tax
Corporations property tax, payroll tax, withholding tax, excise tax, customs duties, value added tax, and other common taxes, are generally not referred to as “corporate tax.” Characterization as a corporation for tax purposes is based on the form of organization, with the exception of United States Federal and most states income taxes, under which an entity may elect to be treated as a corporation and taxed at the entity level or taxed only at the member level. See Limited liability company, Partnership taxation, S corporation, Sole proprietorship. Most jurisdictions tax corporations on their income, like the United Kingdom or the United States.

Gōdō gaisha

Godo Kaisha IP Bridgegodo kaishaGK
A gōdō gaisha, or godo kaisha, abbreviated GK, is a type of business organization in Japan modeled after the American limited liability company (LLC), hence its nickname as the "Japanese LLC" (日本版LLC). It is a type of mochibun kaisha (corporation having a simplified internal structure like that of a partnership) distinguished by offering limited liability for all investors. Gōdō gaisha was newly introduced by the Companies Act, which became effective on May 1, 2006. A GK is formed by articles of incorporation signed between its investors, called members . Each member may provide a capital contribution in the form of money or property.


Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
. * * List of investments by Microsoft Corporation. List of mergers and acquisitions by Microsoft. Microsoft engineering groups. Microsoft Enterprise Agreement.

Data Protection Commissioner

Data Protection CommissionIreland's DPAOffice of the Data Protection Commissioner
The Office of the Data Protection Commissioner (Irish: An Coimisinéir Cosanta Sonraí) is the independent national authority responsible for upholding the EU fundamental right of individuals to data privacy through the enforcement and monitoring of compliance with data protection legislation in Ireland. It was established in 1989. The independent role and powers of the Data Protection Commissioner are as set out in legislation in the Data Protection Acts 1988 and 2003. These Acts transpose the Council of Europe 1981 Data Protection Convention (Convention 108) and the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC).

Besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid

Besloten vennootschapBVB.V.
., or bv), or Société Privée à Responsabilité Limitée (SPRL), is the Dutch and Belgian version of a private limited liability company. The company is owned by shareholders, and the company's shares are privately registered and not freely transferable. The phrase means "secluded partnership" or private company with limited liability and it is the most common form of limited company in the Netherlands and Belgium. A Dutch BV may be created by one or more individuals or legal entities, Dutch or foreign, with a minimum paid in capital of €0,01. A deed of incorporation is executed and filed. The deed must be in Dutch.

Independent contractor

contractorindependent contractorscontractors
An independent contractor can itself be a business with employees; however, in most cases in the United States independent contractors operate as a sole proprietorship or single-member limited liability company. This means the independent contractor, as a business owner, incurs its own expenses to provide the contracted service, must acquire its own equipment to perform the service, and is responsible for business filings such as income tax returns. Independent contractors are responsible for their own self-employment tax, which consists of both halves of the FICA tax amount. An employee only pays the employee portion of the FICA tax.

Information sensitivity

sensitive informationsensitivitysensitive
Some of the domains have a guideline in form of pre-defined models such as "Safe Harbor" of HIPAA, based on the research of Latanya Sweeny and established privacy industry metrics. Additionally, many other countries have enacted their own legislature regarding data privacy protection, and more are still in the process of doing so. The confidentiality of sensitive business information is established through non-disclosure agreements, a legally binding contract between two parties in a professional relationship.

Right to be forgotten

Melvin v. Reidallow users to be forgottendata protection laws of Europe
Under the pressures of the mass surveillance carried out by the US government on European citizens' data, the Safe Harbor agreement has been invalidated by the European Union Court of Justice in its Schrems case. The Safe Harbor agreement has now been replaced by the Privacy Shield principles. The 2012 draft European Data Protection Regulation Article 17 detailed the "right to be forgotten and to erasure".

Cloud computing issues

*Cloud computing reliability. availability of services and data. security. complexity. costs. regulations and legal issues. performance. migration. reversion. the lack of standards. limited customization. issues of privacy. United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires a contingency plan that includes, data backups, data recovery, and data access during emergencies. The privacy laws of Switzerland demand that private data, including emails, be physically stored in Switzerland. In the United Kingdom, the Civil Contingencies Act of 2004 sets forth guidance for a business contingency plan that includes policies for data storage.

Privacy engineering

privacy protectionprivacy
Privacy Act of 1974. Privacy Protection Act of 1980. Video Privacy Protection Act. Online Privacy Protection Act. Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. Driver's Privacy Protection Act. Intimate Privacy Protection Act. Telephone Records and Privacy Protection Act of 2006. General Data Protection Regulation. Data Protection Directive. Information security. Risk management. Free and open MOOC course module on privacy management with Karlstad University's Privacy by Design on-line course.

Mass surveillance

surveillance statesurveillance societysurveillance
The right to privacy is a highly developed area of law in Europe. The Data Protection Directive regulates the processing of personal data within the European Union. For comparison, the US has no data protection law that is comparable to this; instead, the US regulates data protection on a sectoral basis. Since early 2012, the European Union has been working on a General Data Protection Regulation to replace the Data Protection Directive and harmonise data protection and privacy law.

Expectation of privacy

reasonable expectation of privacyinvasion of privacybelieved they could speak freely
Expectation of privacy is a legal test which is crucial in defining the scope of the applicability of the privacy protections of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It is related to, but is not the same as, a right to privacy, a much broader concept which is found in many legal systems (see privacy law). There are two types of expectations of privacy: Examples of places where a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy are a person's residence or hotel room, and public places which have been specifically provided by businesses or the public sector in order to ensure privacy, such as public restrooms, private portions of jailhouses, or a phone booth.

Consumer privacy

Customer privacypersonal informationPrivacy
Information privacy. Information technology management. Management information systems. Privacy. Privacy law. Privacy policy. Personally identifiable information.