RB Kolubara

KolubaraKolubara minesKolubara coal basin
In October 2011 authorities arrested 17 people, including two former directors of the Kolubara mine Dragan Tomic and Vladan Jovicic, eight executive managers and seven owners of private firms with which Kolubara conducted business. The executive managers are suspected of abusing their positions to illegally appropriate up to 2.9 million Euros, while enabling private companies to illegally profit 9.2 million Euros. Pre-trial proceedings were initiated because of suspicion that Kolubara's assets were used illegally through the leasing of construction machinery from privately owned companies, and by enabling other corporations and persons material gain.

Board of directors

Board of Trusteesdirectorboard
The role and responsibilities of a board of directors vary depending on the nature and type of business entity and the laws applying to the entity (see types of business entity). For example, the nature of the business entity may be one that is traded on a public market (public company), not traded on a public market (a private, limited or closely held company), owned by family members (a family business), or exempt from income taxes (a non-profit, not for profit, or tax-exempt entity).

Voluntary association

associationassociationsvoluntary organisation
New York state law regarding unincorporated associations actually gives members of the association more protection against liability than that given to either stockholders of corporations or members of limited liability companies.

National data protection authority

data protection authorityNational data protection authoritiesList of data protection authorities by country
On the 12th of June of 2007, OECD recommendation regarding "trans-frontier cooperation for legislations protecting privacy enforcement" was adopted. It aimed in particular to "improve national Privacy law enforcements so that national authorities can better cooperate with foreign authorities and put in place efficient international mechanisms to ease trans-frontier cooperation for legislations protecting privacy enforcement". An Ibero-American network of data protection exists.

Safe harbor (law)

safe harborsafe-harborSafe Harbor laws
It prohibits European firms from transferring personal data to overseas jurisdictions with weaker privacy laws. Five years later, a decision created exceptions where foreign recipients of the data voluntarily agreed to meet EU standards under the International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles. In October 2015, following a court decision by the Court of Justice of the European Union, the safe harbor agreement between the EU and US was declared invalid on the grounds that the US was not supplying an equally adequate level of protection against surveillance for data being transferred there.

Profit (accounting)

Optimum profit is a theoretical measure and denotes the "right" level of profit a business can achieve. In the business, this figure takes account of marketing strategy, market position, and other methods of increasing returns above the competitive rate. Accounting profits should include economic profits, which are also called economic rents.

State-owned enterprise

Crown corporationGovernment-owned corporationstate-owned
Thus, SOEs are known under many other terms: state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, government-owned corporation, government-sponsored enterprises, commercial government agency, state-privatised industry public sector undertaking, or parastatal, among others. In the Commonwealth realms, particularly in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, country-wide SOEs often use the term "Crown corporation", or "Crown entity", as cabinet ministers (Ministers of the Crown) often control the shares in them.

Společnost s ručením omezeným

'company with limited liability') is the Czech and Slovak legal structure for a private limited company (as it is known in the UK) or a LLC (as it is known in the United States). The commercial name of a limited liability company must include the designation "společnost s ručením omezeným" (Czech) or "spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným" (Slovak), (e.g. "limited liability company"), or in abbreviated forms, : "spol. s r.o." or "s.r.o.". Compare to Akciová společnost (a. s.). in Slovakia Spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným.

FTC fair information practice

Fair Information Practice PrinciplesFTC Fair Information PracticesCode of Fair Information Practice
Data Protection Directive. FTC 2000 Privacy Report. FTC Privacy Online: A Report to Congress. OECD Fair Information Practices. OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data. The Privacy Act of 1974,.

Data security

securitydata-level securitysecure
Since the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union (EU) became law on May 25, 2018, organizations may face significant penalties of up to €20million or 4% of their annual revenue if they do not comply with the regulation. It is intended that GDPR will force organizations to understand their data privacy risks and take the appropriate measures to reduce the risk of unauthorized disclosure of consumers’ private information.

S corporation

S corporationsS-corporationSubchapter S corporation
Some states such as New York and New Jersey require a separate state-level S election in order for the corporation to be treated, for state tax purposes, as an S corporation. S corporations pay a franchise tax of 1.5% of net income in the state of California (minimum $800). This is one factor to be taken into consideration when choosing between a limited liability company and an S corporation in California. For highly profitable enterprises, the LLC franchise tax fees (minimum $800), which are based on gross revenues, may be lower than the 1.5% net income tax.

Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data

Convention 108 Consultative Committee
The Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data is a 1981 Council of Europe treaty that protects the right to privacy of individuals, taking account of the increasing flow across frontiers of personal data undergoing automatic processing. All members of the Council of Europe have ratified the treaty. Being non–Council of Europe states, Cabo Verde, Mauritius, Mexico, Senegal, Tunisia, and Uruguay have acceded to the treaty. Since 1985, this data protection convention has been updated, and a new instrument on artificial intelligence has been added. General Data Protection Regulation. Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data.

Private company limited by guarantee

company limited by guaranteelimited by guaranteecompanies limited by guarantee
The Anglo-Canadian law firm of Gowling WLG, formed in 2016, is structured as an English private company limited by guarantee, in which the two limited liability partnerships of Gowling WLG (Canada) LLP and Gowling WLG (UK) LLP are members and provide legal services; the structure is similar to the Swiss Verein structure used by several other major international law firms. *Business * UK Office of Public Sector Information: Companies Act 2006. [[de:Aktiengesellschaft (Vereinigtes Königreich)#Private company limited by guarantee]]

Article 29 Data Protection Working Party

Article 29 Working PartyEuropean Data Protection BoardEU's data protection group
Provide expert advice to the States regarding data protection. Promote the consistent application of the Data Protection Directive in all EU state members, as well as Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland. Give to the Commission an opinion on community laws (first pillar) affecting the right to protection of personal data. Make recommendations to the public on matters relating to the protection of persons with regard to the processing of personal data and privacy in the European Community. Data Protection. European Union. Right to be forgotten. Art.29 Data Protection Working Party. European Union page regarding Data Protection. European Data Protection Supervisor.

European Union

The European Commission conducts its internal business in three procedural languages: English, French, and German. Similarly, the European Court of Justice uses French as the working language, while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. Even though language policy is the responsibility of member states, EU institutions promote multilingualism among its citizens. English is the most widely spoken language in the EU, being understood by 51% of the EU population when counting both native and non-native speakers. German is the most widely spoken mother tongue (16% of the EU population).

United Kingdom

The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. It operates numerous television and radio stations in the UK and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Privately owned television services such as TV Nova, TV Prima and TV Barrandov are also very popular, with TV Nova being the most popular channel in the Czech Republic. Newspapers are quite popular in the Czech Republic. The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk (average 1.15M daily readers), Mladá fronta DNES (average 752,000 daily readers), Právo (average 260,00 daily readers) and Deník (average 72,000 daily readers). The Czech Republic is home to several globally successful video game developers, including Illusion Softworks (2K Czech), Bohemia Interactive, Keen Software House, Amanita Design and Madfinger Games.

FTC v. Balls of Kryptonite

a 2011 casean enforcement action
Another, in the course of criticizing the failings of the European Union's Data Protection Directive when it came to dealing with cloud computing, did not criticize the enforcement action as such but showed that it pointed out how much more work needed to be done in ensuring compliance with the Safe Harbor Program. In 2006, the FTC later alleged, Karnani, a resident of Pasadena, California, created two companies, Best Price Brands LLC and Bite Size Deals LLC. He then registered websites in their names with the .co.uk top-level domain, offering consumer electronics such as cameras, video game systems, and computer software.

Entity classification election

check-the-boxchecking the boxtax regime
However, the following types of business entity are treated as eligible entities: The list of foreign entities classified as corporations for federal tax purposes (so called per se corporations, not eligible to make an entity classification election) includes, as of September 2009: In 2013, the IRS added a Croatian dionicko drustvo to the list of per se corporations. An eligible entity is classified for federal tax purposes under the default rules described below unless it files Form 8832 or Form 2553, Election by a Small Business Corporation, to elect a classification or change its current classification.

Credit union

credit unionscaisse populairefederal credit union
Credit unions in the US had one-fifth the failure rate of other banks during the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and more than doubled lending to small businesses between 2008 and 2016, from $30 billion to $60 billion, while lending to small businesses overall during the same period declined by around $100 billion. Public trust in credit unions stands at 60%, compared to 30% for big banks. Furthermore, small businesses are eighty percent less likely to be dissatisfied with a credit union than with a big bank.


WYState of WyomingWyoming, USA
Until 2014, the Shoshone Business Council and Northern Arapaho Business Council met jointly as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes. Six elected council members from each tribe served on the joint council. More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth in the United States in total acres and fifth in percentage of a state's land owned by the federal government. This amounts to about 30099430 acre owned and managed by the United States government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another 3864800 acre.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The Supreme Court has found that unenumerated rights include such important rights as the right to travel, the right to vote, the right to privacy, and the right to make important decisions about one's health care or body. The Tenth Amendment (1791) was included in the Bill of Rights to further define the balance of power between the federal government and the states. The amendment states that the federal government has only those powers specifically granted by the Constitution. These powers include the power to declare war, to collect taxes, to regulate interstate business activities and others that are listed in the articles or in subsequent constitutional amendments.

Registered agent

resident agentagent for service of process
Most businesses are not individuals but instead business entities such as corporations or limited liability companies (LLCs). This is because there are substantive (and substantial) liability protections as well as tax advantages to being "incorporated" as opposed to being "self-employed". If a registered agent fails to perform their function, it can have dire consequences for the business entity.

Data governance

controlled data
Data Protection Directive (EU). Universal Data Element Framework. Asset Description Metadata Schema. Simulation Governance.

Data protection (privacy) laws in Russia

Data protection and privacy lawsPrivacy laws in Russia
Privacy. Information privacy (data protection). Data governance. National data protection authorities. Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data. Russian legislation on-line data base(in Russian). Alternative data base of the Russian laws - some available in English. Encyclopaedia of Russian law. filerskeepers, Russian records retention schedules.