IT risk

Information technology riskriskStandards Organizations and Standards
Both Commission Decisions provide a set of voluntary model clauses which can be used to export personal data from a data controller (who is subject to E.U. data protection rules) to a data processor outside the E.U. who is not subject to these rules or to a similar set of adequate rules. International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles (see below USA and International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles ). Directive 2002/58/EC of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector. National Security.

Share capital

capital stockcapitalshares
A corporation's share capital or capital stock (in US English) is the portion of a corporation's equity that has been obtained by the issue of shares in the corporation to a shareholder, usually for cash. "Share capital" may also denote the number and types of shares that compose a corporation's share structure. In a strict accounting sense, share capital is the nominal value of issued shares (that is, the sum of their par values, as indicated on share certificates).


Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" (Latin: res publica), not the private concern or property of the rulers, and where offices of states are subsequently directly or indirectly elected or appointed rather than inherited. The people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. A common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of state is not a monarch.

Small business

small businessesmom and popsmall business owner
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation. Businesses are defined as "small" in terms of being able to apply for government support and qualify for preferential tax policy varies depending on the country and industry. Small businesses range from fifteen employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, fifty employees according to the definition used by the European Union, and fewer than five hundred employees to qualify for many U.S. Small Business Administration programs.

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act

PIPEDAPIPAfederal level
The Canadian Privacy Law Blog: A regularly updated blog on issues related to privacy law and PIPEDA written by David T.S. Fraser, a Canadian privacy lawyer.


liquidatedvoluntary liquidationliquidate
A minister, usually the one responsible for competition and business. An official receiver. The company has so resolved. The company was incorporated as a corporation, and has not been issued with a trading certificate (or equivalent) within 12 months of registration. It is an "old public company" (i.e. one that has not re-registered as a public company or become a private company under more recent companies legislation requiring this). It has not commenced business within the statutorily prescribed time (normally one year) of its incorporation, or has not carried on business for a statutorily prescribed amount of time.

Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością

Sp. z liability companySp. z o. o.
''', is the legal title of a limited liability company in Poland. The necessary steps for establishing a Sp. z o.o. (spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością) are determined by Article 163 KSH (Kodeks spółek handlowych, eng. Commercial Companies Code). It first requires the notarization of the articles of incorporation. It must take place in Poland. The conclusion of the articles of incorporation creates a legal capacity subject, the company prior registration. The second step requires the full payment of the share capital as codified by the articles of incorporation. Where required the payment includes the agreed surplus over the nominal value of the company share.


Julkinen osakeyhtiöOylimited company
., Ltd, LLC, or GmbH). The Swedish name is Aktiebolag, often abbreviated to Ab. Julkinen osakeyhtiö (pl. julkiset osakeyhtiöt) means "public stock company" and is abbreviated to oyj (pronounced ). A julkinen osakeyhtiö can be listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange. The term's Swedish equivalent is Abp (publikt aktiebolag). An oyj may be called a public limited company or public company in English and may use the abbreviation PLC in the company name, for example. *List of Finnish companies * A 19th century history of the limited liability company in Finland sv:Osakeyhtiö Avoin yhtiö, ay, general partnership. Kommandiittiyhtiö, abbreviated ky, limited partnership.

Società a responsabilità limitata

S.r.l.srlSocietà Sportiva Dilettantistica a Responsabilità Limitata
Società a responsabilità limitata (S.r.l.) is a kind of legal corporate entity in Italy, which literally means (but is not entirely equal to) limited liability company. It has a similar form to società sportiva dilettantistica a responsabilità limitata (s.s.d. a r.l.) for amateur sports-related companies and their corresponding regulations: article 90 of the Italian Law №289 of 2002. Differing from società per azioni, S.r.l. may not issue shares that have par value, but only the quota (quote) or units of the share capital. Moreover, the articles of association of S.r.l. allowed different allocations of profits and assets, which was more comparable to a limited partnership.

Public limited company

Private limited company. Public company. S.A. (corporation). United Kingdom company law. Unlimited company. Virtual business. Companies Act 2006, Office of Public Sector Information. Companies House guide to company formation.

C corporation

C corporationsC CorpC-corporation
A C corporation, under United States federal income tax law, refers to any corporation that is taxed separately from its owners. A C corporation is distinguished from an S corporation, which generally is not taxed separately. Most major companies (and many smaller companies) are treated as C corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. C corporations and S corporations both enjoy limited liability, but only C corporations are subject to corporate income taxation. Generally, all for-profit corporations are automatically classified as a C corporation unless the corporation elects the option to treat the corporation as a flow-through entity known as an S corporation.

Fair Credit Reporting Act

Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)U.S. law
Financial privacy laws in the United States. FTC Opinions on the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Text of the law from the Federal Trade Commission., U.S. Financial Literacy and Education Commission. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) list of consumer reporting companies current as of January 2019. The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) and the Privacy of Your Credit Report Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC). Consumer attorney's testimony testifying as to how credit report disputes are actually normally handled, in violation the Act.

Electronic Communications Privacy Act

Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 19861986 Electronic Communications Privacy ActECPA
In 2011, The New York Times published "1986 Privacy Law Is Outrun by the Web", highlighting that: ...the Justice Department argued in court that cellphone users had given up the expectation of privacy about their location by voluntarily giving that information to carriers. In April, it argued in a federal court in Colorado that it ought to have access to some e-mails without a search warrant. And federal law enforcement officials, citing technology advances, plan to ask for new regulations that would smooth their ability to perform legal wiretaps of various Internet communications.

Delaware General Corporation Law

Delaware corporationincorporated in DelawareDelaware
While most states require a for-profit corporation to have at least one director and two officers, Delaware laws do not have this restriction. All offices may be held by a single person who also can be the sole shareholder. The person, who does not need to be a U.S. citizen or resident, may also operate anonymously with only the listing agent through whom the company is registered named. According to Section 226 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL) the Court of Chancery is permitted to appoint a receiver or custodian for a corporation when its stockholders or directors are divided and the deadlock is injurious to the corporation.


subsidiarieswholly owned subsidiarysubsidiary company
The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability company. In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise. In some cases, particularly in the music and book publishing industries, subsidiaries are referred to as imprints. In the United States railroad industry, an operating subsidiary is a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock. In contrast, a non-operating subsidiary would exist on paper only (i.e., stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation) and would use the identity of the parent company.


Linked InLinkedIn AnswersDan Nye
LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles. LinkedIn is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, with 33 global offices in Omaha, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., São Paulo, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Graz, Milan, Paris, Munich, Madrid, Stockholm, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Australia, Canada, India and Dubai. In January 2016, the company had around 9,200 employees. LinkedIn's CEO is Jeff Weiner, previously a Yahoo! Inc. executive. Founder Reid Hoffman, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is Chairman of the Board.


self-employedSelf–employedself-employment tax
Furthermore, industries that are not commonly associated as a natural fit for self-employment, such as manufacturing, have in fact been shown to have a large proportion of self-employed individuals and home-based businesses. In the United States, any person is considered self-employed for tax purposes if that person is running a business as a sole proprietorship, independent contractor, as a member of a partnership, or as a member of a limited liability company that does not elect to be treated as a corporation. In addition to income taxes, these individuals must pay Social Security and Medicare taxes in the form of a SECA (Self-Employment Contributions Act) tax.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works. The company was historically an exemplary company-state rather than a pure for-profit corporation. Originally a government-backed military-commercial enterprise, the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General.

Transparency (behavior)

transparencytransparentTransparency (humanities)
Corporate transparency, a form of radical transparency, is the concept of removing all barriers to —and the facilitating of— free and easy public access to corporate information and the laws, rules, social connivance and processes that facilitate and protect those individuals and corporations that freely join, develop, and improve the process. Accountability and transparency are of high relevance for non-governmental organisations (NGOs). In view of their responsibilities to stakeholders, including donors, sponsors, programme beneficiaries, staff, states and the public, they are considered to be of even greater importance to them than to commercial undertakings.

S.A. (corporation)

Société AnonymeSociedad AnónimaS.A.
It is different from partnerships and private limited companies. Originally, shareholders could be literally anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to whoever held the certificate. Share certificates could be transferred privately, and therefore the management of the company would not necessarily know who owned its shares. Like bearer bonds, anonymous unregistered share ownership and dividend collection enabled money laundering, tax evasion, and concealed business transactions in general, so governments passed laws to audit the practice.


ABlimited company(publ)
Aktiebolag (, "stock company") is the Swedish term for "limited company" or "corporation". When used in company names, it is abbreviated AB (in Sweden), Ab (in Finland), or A/B (for some older companies), roughly equivalent to the abbreviations Ltd and PLC. The state authority responsible for registration of aktiebolag in Sweden is called the Swedish Companies Registration Office. All aktiebolag are divided into two categories: private limited companies and public limited companies. The name of a private limited company may not contain the word publikt ("public") and the name of a public limited company may not contain the word privat or pvt ("private").

Information Commissioner's Office

Information CommissionerData Protection RegistrarInformation Commissioner’s Office
Elizabeth Denham has welcomed the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that came into effect in May 2018, as well as the Data Protection Act 2018. In October 2018 she was elected Chair of the International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC), the leading global forum of data protection and privacy authorities, encompassing more than 120 members across all continents that works throughout the year on global data protection policy issues. During his time as Information Commissioner, Christopher Graham was noted for gaining new powers to issue monetary penalties to those who breach the Data Protection Act 1998.

Dispute resolution

resolution of disputesdisputesinternational dispute resolution
Retired judges or private lawyers often become arbitrators or mediators; however, trained and qualified non-legal dispute resolution specialists form a growing body within the field of alternative dispute resolution (ADR). In the United States, many states now have mediation or other ADR programs annexed to the courts, to facilitate settlement of lawsuits.

Professional corporation

P.C.PCProfessional corporations
In U.S. federal subject matter jurisdiction, professional corporations have two citizenships for purposes of diversity, just like ordinary corporations, namely that they are citizens of (1) the state in which they are incorporated and (2) the state in which they have their principal place of business. This is unlike other, similar organizations that are not technically "corporations," such as trade associations, labor unions, partnerships (including limited partnerships and limited liability partnerships), and limited liability companies, for which citizenship is based on the domicile of each member.

Law of Japan

Japanese lawJapanese Civil CodeCivil Code of Japan
Kabushiki kaisha (K.K.), similar to an Anglo-American corporation. Gōdō kaisha (G.K.), similar to an American limited liability company. Gōmei kaisha, similar to an Anglo-American general partnership. Gōshi kaisha, similar to an Anglo-American limited partnership. Special laws. Includes firearms and sword control law, laws for regulating business that affects public morals, anti-prostitution laws, anti-organized crime laws, and road traffic laws. There are a large number of traffic offenses, indicating serious problems on roads in Japan. Annually, there are 11,000 deaths caused by traffic accidents.