Business. Capitalism. Commercial law. Distribution (business). Wholesale. Retailing. Cargo. Eco commerce. Economy. Electronic commerce. Export. Fair. Finance. Fishery. Harvest. Industry. BBA. Import. Laissez-faire. Manufacturing. Marketing. Marketplace. Mass production. Master of Commerce. Merchandising. Trade.


Federal Data Protection ActGerman Data Protection Act (1990)German Federal Data Protection Act
The BDSG does not protect the data of legal persons, such as corporations, although some courts have extended protection to legal persons. The Council of Ministers and the European Parliament adopted the Data Protection Directive on October 24, 1995, that had to be transposed into internal law of the Member States by the end of 1998 (Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and Council on the protection of individuals with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data). All member states have enacted their own data protection legislation.


Privacy Preferences Project
Currently, the United States has no federal law protecting the privacy of personal information shared online. However, there are some sectoral laws at the federal and state level that offer some protection for certain types of information collected about individuals. For example, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1970 makes it legal for consumer reporting agencies to disclose personal information only under three specified circumstances: credit, employment or insurance evaluation; government grant or license; or a “legitimate business need” that involves the consumer. A list of other sectoral privacy laws in the United States can be viewed at the Consumer Privacy Guide's website.

Jan Philipp Albrecht

After a deal was found in December 2015 and adopted by Council and Parliament in April 2016, Albrecht became known as the father of the GDPR which will get into application in May/June 2018 everywhere on the EU market as the directly applicable data protection law replacing the existing provisions of the 28 member states. Albrecht has filed an amicus brief supporting Microsoft in Microsoft Corporation v. United States of America. Albrecht was rapporteur of the LIBE committee on the envisaged trade deals TTIP and TiSA where he demands a horizontal clause to except privacy and data protection rules on the basis of Article XIV of the GATS treaty.


Besides private practice, they can become a prosecutor, government counsel, corporate in-house counsel, administrative law judge, judge, arbitrator, or law professor. There are also many non-legal jobs for which legal training is good preparation, such as politician, corporate executive, government administrator, investment banker, entrepreneur, or journalist. In developing countries like India, a large majority of law students never actually practice, but simply use their law degree as a foundation for careers in other fields.

Outline of business

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to business: Business – organization of one or more individuals, engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers, and the activity of such organizations, also known as "doing business". Types of business entity Sole proprietorship. Partnership. Corporation. Accounting. Commerce. Finance. Industrial and labour relations. Management (outline). Manufacturing. Marketing. Research and development. Advertising. Banking. Barter. Big business. Business acumen. Business broker. Business ethics. Business hours. Business intelligence. Business mediator. Business model design. Business plan.

International joint venture

joint venture
Many ventures resolve this problem by forming a special purpose entity, usually a limited liability company or a corporation, which then acts as the general partner. A joint venture formed as limited liability company (LLC) offers protection to the partners by providing limited liability to all of its members. Unlike a limited liability partnership (LLP), there is no requirement to have a general partner who has unlimited liability and can be held responsible for all the liabilities. Both limited partnerships and limited companies in the U.S. enjoy the advantage of being pass-through entities for U.S. tax purposes. The limited partnership does not pay taxes.

Freedom of information laws by country

freedom of information legislationFreedom of Information Actsunshine law
Directive 95/46/EC, the Data Protection directive, provides a variety of rights in relation to personal data, including a right of access. This has been transcribed into national legislation through, for example, the Data Protection Act 1998 (United Kingdom) and the Data Protection 2003 (Ireland). In Finland, the (Act on the Openness of Public Documents of 1951) established the openness of all records and documents in the possession of officials of the state, municipalities, and registered religious communities. Exceptions to the basic principle could only be made by law, or by an executive order for specific enumerated reasons such as national security.

Division (business)

Divisiondivisionsbusiness division
Often a division operates under a separate name and is the equivalent of a corporation or limited liability company obtaining a fictitious name or "doing business as" certificate and operating a business under that fictitious name. Companies often set up business units to operate in divisions prior to the legal formation of subsidiaries. Generally, only an "entity", e.g. a corporation, public limited company (plc) or limited liability company, etc. would have a "division"; an individual operating in this manner would simply be "operating under a fictitious name". An example of this would be to look at Hewlett Packard (HP), the computer and printer company.


accountancyaccountantaccounting profession
U.S. tax law covers four basic forms of business ownership: sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and limited liability company. Corporate and personal income are taxed at different rates, both varying according to income levels and including varying marginal rates (taxed on each additional dollar of income) and average rates (set as a percentage of overall income). Forensic accounting is a specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. "Forensic" means "suitable for use in a court of law," and it is to that standard and potential outcome that forensic accountants generally have to work.

Balance sheet

statement of financial positionbalance sheetsbalance-sheet
In financial accounting, a balance sheet or statement of financial position or statement of financial condition is a summary of the financial balances of an individual or organization, whether it be a sole proprietorship, a business partnership, a corporation, private limited company or other organization such as Government or not-for-profit entity. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity are listed as of a specific date, such as the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a "snapshot of a company's financial condition".

Privacy in Australian law

Privacyprivacy lawprivacy laws
Privacy and Data Protection Act 2014. Health Records Act 2001. The Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006. Freedom of Information Act 1982. Public Records Act 1973. Surveillance Devices Act 1999. Telecommunications (Interception) (State Provisions) Act 1988. Information Privacy Act 2009. Right to Information Act 2009. Public Records Act 2002. Criminal Law (Rehabilitation of Offenders) Act 1986. Invasion of Privacy Act 1971. Whistleblowers Protection Act 1994. Police Powers and Responsibilities Act 2000. Private Employment Agents (Code of Conduct) Regulation 2005. Freedom of Information Act 1991. State Records Act 1997. Surveillance Devices Act 2016.

Digital privacy

privacyprivacy concerns
Digital Privacy is a collective definition that encompasses three sub-related categories; information privacy, communication privacy, and individual privacy. It is often used in contexts that promote advocacy on behalf of individual and consumer privacy rights in digital spheres, and is typically used in opposition to the business practices of many e-marketers/businesses/companies to collect and use such information and data. We are told our data is exposed and that we lack complete privacy. While our data is exposed through digital mediums, such as social media, we also more sensitized to privacy issues.

Records management

record keepingrecordkeepingrecords
Corporate records compliance issues including retention period requirements and the need to disclose information as a result of litigation have come to be seen as important. Statutes such as the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act have resulted in greater standardization of records management practices. Since the 1990s the shift towards electronic records has seen a need for close working relations between records managers and IT managers, particularly including the legal aspects, focused on compliance and risk management. ; Security Privacy, data protection, and identity theft have become issues of increasing interest.

Internet privacy

privacyonline privacydata trail
Index of Articles Relating to Terms of Service and Privacy Policies. Internet censorship. Internet censorship circumvention. Internet vigilantism. Privacy-enhancing technologies. Freenet. Friend-to-friend. GNUnet. Metadata Removal Tool. Privacy software. PRISM. Privacy law. Right to be forgotten. Privacy in Australian law. Australian Privacy Act 1988. Canadian privacy law. Canadian Privacy Act. Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act. European Union Data Protection Directive. ePrivacy Regulation (European Union). Privacy in English law. UK Data Protection Act 1998. Privacy laws in Russia. Privacy laws of the United States. Bank secrecy.

Canadian privacy law

federal privacy lawsInformation and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia
Privacy law. Information Privacy Laws. Law in Canada. R v Cole - privacy for personal use of workplace computers (where permitted or reasonably expected). Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada - Our Top Ten list of Privacy Act fixes.

Workplace privacy

employee privacyemployees' privacyprivacy
Courts are finding that disputes between workplace privacy and freedom are being complicated with the advancement of technology as traditional rules that govern areas of privacy law are debatable and becoming less important. The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regards to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data limits and regulates the collection of personal information on individuals, including workers.

Google Street View privacy concerns

privacy concernsGoogle Street View privacy concerns (Switzerland)Privacy and town beauty concerns
The Data Protection Directive says that identifiable people have a right to data protection. According to a Danish media lawyer, Oluf Jørgensen, Google's practice of photographing people on private property is illegal. The Danish data authorities advised people who are photographed by Google, to turn Google in to the police. Since then, Google hasn't had any legal problems and continued filming. In an April 2009 interview for the German magazine Focus, Google's Global Privacy Counsel Peter Fleischer remarked that "public opposition to Google Street View in Germany, though not hysterical, had been tougher than in any other country."

Landmark Worldwide

Landmark EducationLandmark ForumLandmark Education Corporation
The business traded as Landmark Education Corporation from May 1991. In June 2003 it was re-structured as Landmark Education LLC, and in July 2013 renamed Landmark Worldwide LLC. Landmark has stated it never paid royalties to Erhard under the licensing agreement, and that it purchased outright the intellectual property in the Forum and other courses by 2002. Landmark Worldwide's core business operation is the delivery of seminars and training courses which aim to offer improvements in personal productivity, vitality, communication skills, and decision-making.

Records manager

records assistant
Privacy and data protection. Information technology and electronic storage systems. General business principles. Records management. Records management taxonomy. Institute of Certified Records Managers.

Office 365

Microsoft Office 365Office365365
In spite of claiming to comply with European data protection standards, and in spite of existing Safe Harbor agreements, Microsoft has admitted that it will not refrain from handing over data stored on its European servers to US authorities under the Patriot Act. In Finland, FICORA has warned Office 365 users of phishings and break-ins, diverting millions of euros to criminals. In September 2019, NCSC-FI (National Cyber Security Centre of Finland) created a detailed guide on how to protect Microsoft Office 365 against phishing attempts and any data breaches. In July 2019, Hesse has outlawed the use of Office 365 in educational institutions, citing privacy risks.

Lotus Marketplace

Lotus Marketplace was a database program developed jointly by Lotus Development Corporation (as the software developer) and Equifax (as the information provider), announced on April 10, 1990, but cancelled shortly after on January 23, 1991, mainly due to massive protests and lawsuit threats, citing invasion of privacy. This program was rather large (even by today's standards), as it was supposed to be released on several CD-ROMs. Lotus Marketplace was to be released in two editions, Lotus Marketplace: Business (containing information about businesses) and Lotus Marketplace: Households (containing information about peoples and households).

Architectural firm

architecture firmarchitectural practicearchitecture
Although architects are licensed individually, state laws allow them to join together in various forms of business organisation. All states in the United States allow architects to form partnerships, most allow architects to form corporations or professional corporations, and some allow limited liability partnerships (LLPs) or limited liability companies (LLCs). Some states require the firm to obtain a registration to provide architectural services. Others merely require that the architectural work of the firm be performed under the direct supervision of an architect licensed in the state.

United States–European Union Agreement on Passenger Name Records

The tensions between Washington and Brussels are mainly caused by a lesser level of data protection in the US, especially since foreigners do not benefit from the US Privacy Act of 1974. Data privacy in the EU is regulated by the Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data, and the US Safe Harbor arrangement made to converge with European norms is still being controversial for alleged lack of protection. Other countries approached for bilateral MOU included the United Kingdom, Estonia, Germany and Greece. On 28 November 2011, a new agreement on the transfer and use of PNR data between the EU and US DHS was authored. The full text is available online.

Safe harbor (commerce)

Safe Harbor
The United States Department of Commerce runs a certification program which it calls Safe Harbor and which aims to harmonize data privacy practices in trading between the United States of America and the stricter privacy controls of the European Union Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of personal data. For more information, see Safe Harbor Principles. The Public Health Service publishes a set of Safe Harbor rules within Title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, to preclude Life Science companies from withholding important medical information from the public for fear of being prosecuted for Medicare violations.