State school

Publicpublic high schoolpublic school
Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, and it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school (including one run by a school district) may rely heavily on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control.

Betsy DeVos

Betsy De VosDeVosElisabeth DeVos
DeVos believes education in the United States should encourage the proliferation of charter schools and open up private schools to more students via financial assistance programs, often called vouchers. She has stated that education is "a closed system, a closed industry, a closed market. It's a monopoly, a dead end." DeVos believes that opening up the education market will offer parents increased choice, a view that critics call a drive to privatize the American public education system. DeVos is known as a "a fierce proponent of school vouchers" which would allow students to attend private schools with public funding.

School choice

Open enrollmenteducational choicechoice
The majority of states (and the District of Columbia) have charter school laws. Minnesota was the first state to have a charter school law and the first charter school in the United States, City Academy, opened in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1992. Dayton, Ohio has between 22–26% of all children in charter schools. This is the highest percentage in the nation. Other hotbeds for charter schools are Kansas City (24%), Washington, D.C. (20-24%) and the State of Arizona. Almost 1 in 4 public schools in Arizona are charter schools, comprising about 8% of total enrollment. Charter schools can also come in the form of Cyber Charters.

Segregation academy

segregation academieswave of private schoolsacademies
In 2019 the North Carolina State Board of Education voted unanimously to approve the conversion of Halifax County’s private Hobgood Academy, founded in 1969 as a segregation academy, to a public charter school. Hobgood’s student population is 88 percent white, while only 4 percent of those attending the Halifax County public Schools are white. This had led to concerns by some teachers that while charter schools in some states have helped low-income students improve academically, in North Carolina they have primarily been used as a means for whites to opt out of traditional public schools.

Milwaukee Public Schools

Milwaukee Board of School DirectorsMilwaukee School BoardMilwaukee Public School system
In 1990, Milwaukee became the first community in the United States to adopt a school voucher program. The program enables students to receive public funding to study at parochial and other private schools free of cost. The 2006−07 school year marked the first time that more than $100 million was paid in vouchers, as 26% of Milwaukee students receive public funding to attend schools outside the MPS system. If the voucher program alone were considered a school district, it would mark the sixth-largest district in Wisconsin. Under Wisconsin state law, the Milwaukee school board is one of several entities that can authorize charter schools in the city.


School voucher. Token coin. Token money.

Education in the United States

9 to 12United Stateseducation
Private schools in the United States include parochial schools (affiliated with religious denominations), non-profit independent schools, and for-profit private schools. Private schools charge varying rates depending on geographic location, the school's expenses, and the availability of funding from sources, other than tuition. For example, some churches partially subsidize private schools for their members. Some people have argued that when their child attends a private school, they should be able to take the funds that the public school no longer needs and apply that money towards private school tuition in the form of vouchers.

Index of education articles

California Virtual Academies - Cambridge International Examinations - Campus novel - Campus university - Career development - Career - Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education - Catholic education - Certificate of Higher Education - Chaining - Challenge Index - Chancellor (education) - Character education - Charter schools - Cheder - Chemistry education - Child - Childhood amnesia - Chunking (psychology) - Citizenship education - Civic, Social and Political Education - Class ring - Classical conditioning - Classical education - Classroom management - CliffsNotes - Coaching - Co-counselling - Coeducation - Cognitive apprenticeship - Cognitive load - Cognitive map - Cognitive

Christian school

Christianchurch schoolChurch of England school
Charter school. Parochial school. Catholic school. Adventist Schools. Liberal arts college. Lutheran school. Nazarene International Education Association. Homeschooling. Christian College Consortium. Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Private Biblical Homeschooling. Biblical Life Institute.

Education reform

educational reformschool reformeducational reformer
According to a 2006 study by the Goldwater Institute, Arizona's public schools spend 50% more per student than Arizona's private schools. The study also says that while teachers constitute 72% of the employees at private schools, they make up less than half of the staff at public schools. According to the study, if Arizona's public schools wanted to be like private schools, they would have to hire approximately 25,000 more teachers, and eliminate 21,210 administration employees. The study also said that public school teachers are paid about 50% more than private school teachers.

Tom Luna

As a member of the Nampa School Board from 1994 to 2002, Luna supported school vouchers and tax credits for private schools as a means to increase competition in education. Running for the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Idaho position in 2006, Luna focused on promoting charter schools. Columnist William McGurn stated that he found Luna's business experience and lack of education degree, "refreshing". The centerpiece of education reforms spearheaded by Luna following his 2006 election as Superintendent is a package of legislation known as Students Come First.

Taxonomy of schools

A government may provide full funding for a student to go to a private school, such as school vouchers, even paying for all students at such a school, but it remains private, as a private organization owns and controls the school. Conversely, a "public" school may charge high fees, and seek other private funding sources, but be "public" by virtue of the "public" owning and controlling the school (e.g., it is owned by a public school board, or other public authority). Historically, most schools were segregated by gender (and many more were all-male than all-female).

Right Now (book)

Right Now: A 12-Step Program for Defeating the Obama Agenda
In the book, Steele slams President Obama for sending his daughters to private school while rejecting school choice for poor Washington D. C. children. As lieutenant governor in Maryland, he headed a commission whose final report never mentioned school vouchers, a key component of any school choice platform. The report rightly endorsed expanding charter schools, but where was his outrage for Baltimore City children denied access to safe, effective learning environment." During a conversation with Eddie Glaude, the chair of the Center for African American Studies, Glaude asked Michael Steele about the intended audience of his book.

Privatization in the United States

Welfare services that are often privatized include workforce development, job training and job placement are often privatized. There is also some private sector involvement in the public education system including charter schools, Educational Management Organizations (EMOs), and school voucher programs. EMOs are usually for-profit and manage charter schools and sometimes traditional public schools as well. The United States Supreme Court upheld school voucher programs against an Establishment Clause challenge in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris. In the US, private prison facilities housed 12.3% of all federal prisoners and 5.8% of state prisoners in 2001.


schoolsschoolingnight school
Private schools operate independently from the government. Private schools usually rely on fees from families whose children attend the school for funding; however, sometimes such schools also receive government support (for example, through School vouchers). Many private schools are affiliated with a particular religion; these are known as parochial schools. The Toronto District School Board is an example of a school board that allows parents to design and propose new schools. When designing a school, factors that need to be decided include: Schools are organized spaces purposed for teaching and learning. The classrooms, where teachers teach and students learn, are of central importance.

Dennis Epple

To prevent private schools from "skimming off" the wealthiest and most talented students, they argue in favour of sophisticated combinations of tuition floors and ceilings, which allow school vouchers to provide the benefits of school competition without making participation in the voucher system compulsory or abiding very high levels of educational stratification.

Wisconsin Career Academy

Founded in 2000, it originally operated as a charter school under the Milwaukee Public Schools system. In June 2012, the MPS Board of School Directors and WCA administration mutually agreed to terminate the charter school contract. Prior to this termination, in February 2012, the school board of directors had decided to change its name to Wisconsin College Preparatory Academy and announced that it would operate as a private high school under the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program for the 2012-2013 year. External links. Official website.

No Child Left Behind Act

No Child Left BehindNCLBNo Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Common options include closing the school, turning the school into a charter school, hiring a private company to run the school, or asking the state office of education to run the school directly. 1) States must develop AYP statewide measurable objectives for improved achievement by all students and for specific groups: economically disadvantaged students, students with disabilities, and students with limited English proficiency. 2) The objectives must be set with the goal of having all students at the proficient level or above within 12 years (i.e. by the end of the 2013–14 school year). 3) AYP must be primarily based on state assessments, but must also include one additional academic indicator


SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala, Lund, Gothenburg and Stockholm. In 2000, 32% of Swedish people held a tertiary degree, making the country 5th in the OECD in that category.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
New York), but upheld school vouchers (Zelman v. Simmons-Harris) and reaffirmed Roe's restrictions on abortion laws (Planned Parenthood v. Casey). The Court's decision in Bush v. Gore, which ended the electoral recount during the presidential election of 2000, was especially controversial. The Roberts Court (2005–present) is regarded as more conservative than the Rehnquist Court. Some of its major rulings have concerned federal preemption (Wyeth v. Levine), civil procedure (Twombly-Iqbal), abortion (Gonzales v. Carhart), climate change (Massachusetts v. EPA), same-sex marriage (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges) and the Bill of Rights, notably in Citizens United v.

National Education Association

NEANational Educational AssociationIllinois Education Association
Discouraging school vouchers and all forms of competition with public schools. Reforming laws governing charter schools. 1910–1915: Women play increasing leadership roles in NEA. 1912: NEA endorses women's suffrage in the United States. 1918: NEA "Commission on the Emergency in Education", with George Strayer as chairman, Warns that the evidence from the wartime draft shows millions of potential soldiers were illiterate or poorly educated, and often in bad health. The NEA study said the cause was very low quality rural schools in the South, badly trained teachers, and inequitable financing. It called for $100 million of federal aid to remedy the deficiencies, but none was forthcoming.

Establishment Clause

Establishment Clause of the First Amendmentestablishment of religionestablishment
One of the largest recent controversies over the amendment centered on school vouchers—government aid for students to attend private and predominantly religious schools. The Supreme Court, in Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002), upheld the constitutionality of private school vouchers, turning away an Establishment Clause challenge. Further important decisions came in the 1960s, during the Warren Court era. One of the Court's most controversial decisions came in Engel v. Vitale in 1962.

College-preparatory school

college preparatorypreparatory schoolcollege preparatory school
The term can refer to public, private independent or parochial schools primarily designed to prepare students for higher education. In the United States, there are public, private, and charter college preparatory schools and they can be either parochial or secular. Admission is sometimes based on specific selection criteria, usually academic, but some schools have open enrollment. Fewer than 1% of students enrolled in school in the United States attend an independent, private preparatory school, compared to 9% who attend parochial schools and 88% who attend public schools.

Cream skimming

The term has been used in relation to the concept of school vouchers in which it is claimed that the vouchers could be used by parents of "better" students (i.e., students with above average grades who are not disciplinary risks) to move them out of lower performing or substandard state schools and into less-crowded private ones, leaving the "worse" students (i.e., students with learning disabilities or who are troublemakers) behind in the state schools, making the situation worse.


Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
Public and separate school boards, charter schools, and private schools all follow the Program of Studies and the curriculum approved by the provincial department of education (Alberta Education). Homeschool tutors may choose to follow the Program of Studies or develop their own Program of Studies. Public and separate schools, charter schools, and approved private schools all employ teachers who are certificated by Alberta Education, they administer Provincial Achievement Tests and Diploma Examinations set by Alberta Education, and they may grant high school graduation certificates endorsed by Alberta Education.