Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Anxiety disorder: Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder. Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mood disorder: Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, or despair is known as major depression (also known as unipolar or clinical depression). Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends CBT in the treatment plans for a number of mental health difficulties, including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, and clinical depression. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown as an effective treatment for clinical depression. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines (April 2000) indicated that, among psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy had the best-documented efficacy for treatment of major depressive disorder. One etiological theory of depression is Aaron T.

Child abuse

Effects of child sexual abuse on the victim(s) include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem difficulties, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, and physical injury to the child, among other problems.


neuroticneuroticallyadult neurotic
It found that high neuroticism is predictive for the development of anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, psychosis, and schizophrenia, and is predictive but less so for substance abuse and non-specific mental distress. These associations are smaller after adjustment for elevated baseline symptoms of the mental illnesses and psychiatric history. Neuroticism has also been found to be associated with death. In 2007, Mroczek & Spiro found that among older men, upward trends in neuroticism over life as well as increased neuroticism overall both contributed to higher mortality rates.


Mental illness is a broad, generic label for a category of illnesses that may include affective or emotional instability, behavioral dysregulation, cognitive dysfunction or impairment. Specific illnesses known as mental illnesses include major depression, generalized anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, to name a few. Mental illness can be of biological (e.g., anatomical, chemical, or genetic) or psychological (e.g., trauma or conflict) origin. It can impair the affected person's ability to work or study and can harm interpersonal relationships. The term insanity is used technically as a legal term. Organic.


cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition. While few people would deny that cognitive processes are a function of the brain, a cognitive theory will not necessarily make reference to the brain or to biological processes (compare neurocognitive). It may purely describe behavior in terms of information flow or function.


Depression and other mental disorders that feature depressed mood. Developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. Eating disorders, which can produce fatigue due to inadequate nutrition. Endocrine diseases: diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. Fibromyalgia. Gulf War syndrome. Heart failure. HIV. Inborn errors of metabolism such as fructose malabsorption. Infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis. Irritable bowel syndrome. Leukemia or lymphoma. Liver failure. Lyme disease. Neurological disorders such as narcolepsy, Parkinson's disease and post-concussion syndrome. Physical trauma and other pain-causing conditions, such as arthritis.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
The US military became a key center of stress research, attempting to understand and reduce combat neurosis and psychiatric casualties. The psychiatric diagnosis post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was coined in the mid-1970s, in part through the efforts of anti-Vietnam War activists and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and Chaim F. Shatan. The condition was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as posttraumatic stress disorder in 1980. PTSD was considered a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to an extreme psychological trauma, and as such often associated with soldiers, police officers, and other emergency personnel.

Index of psychology articles

List of psychological topics
- Problem-based learning - Problem finding - Problem shaping - Problem solving - Process Oriented Psychology - Process Psychology - Procrastination - Prodrome - Professional practice of behavior analysis - Program evaluation - Programmed learning - Psychiatrist - Psychological projection - Psychological trauma - Projective identification - Projective test - Pronoia (psychology) - Pronoun reversal - Properception - Propinquity - Proposition - Propositional attitude - Prosopagnosia - Prospect theory - Prospection - Protoself - Proxemics - Prudence - Pseudocertainty effect - Pseudologia - Psychiatric hospital - Psychopathy - Punitive psychiatry in the Soviet Union - Psyche (psychology) - Psychedelic

Guided imagery

Guided Affective Imageryvisualizationimagery
In addition, people suffering from depression have difficulty in evoking prospective imagery indicative of a positive future. The prospective mental imagery experienced by depressed persons when at their most despairing commonly includes vivid and graphic images related to suicide, which some psychologists and psychiatrists refer to as "flash-forwards". Bipolar disorder is characterized by manic episodes interspersed with periods of depression; 90% of patients experience comorbid anxiety disorder at some stage; and there is a significant prevalence of suicide amongst sufferers.


Psychotherapists traditionally may be: mental health professionals like psychologists and psychiatrists; professionals from other backgrounds (family therapists, social workers, nurses, etc.) who have trained in a specific psychotherapy; or (in some cases) academic or scientifically-trained professionals. Psychiatrists are trained first as physicians, and—as such—they may prescribe prescription medication; and specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies: however, their specialty is in mental disorders or forms of mental illness. Clinical psychologists have specialist doctoral degrees in psychology with some clinical and research components.

Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational Emotive TherapyRational Emotive Behavioral Therapyrational-emotive therapy
REBT claims that people to a large degree consciously and unconsciously construct emotional difficulties such as self-blame, self-pity, clinical anger, hurt, guilt, shame, depression and anxiety, and behaviors and behavior tendencies like procrastination, compulsiveness, avoidance, addiction and withdrawal by the means of their irrational and self-defeating thinking, emoting and behaving.

Major depressive episode

depressive episodedepressionmajor depressive episodes
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder. Sufferers primarily have a depressed mood for two weeks or more, and a loss of interest or pleasure in everyday activities, accompanied by other symptoms such as feelings of emptiness, hopelessness, anxiety, worthlessness, guilt and irritability, changes in appetite, problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions, and thoughts of suicide. Insomnia or hypersomnia, aches, pains, or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may also be present. The description has been formalized in psychiatric diagnostic criteria such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10.


chronic depressiondysthymic disorderdysthymic
Atypical depression. Blunted affect, a symptom of PTSD, schizophrenia, and ASPD involving decreased or absent emotional response. Cyclothymia. Double depression. Dysphoria, a state of feeling unwell or unhappy. [[List of psychiatric medications by condition treated#Major depressive disorder or dysthymia|List of medications used to treat major depressive disorder or dysthymia]].

Social rejection

rejectionsocial ostracismrejection sensitivity
The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying. New York: Psychology Press. CBS news story on rejection and the brain. Ostracism Laboratory. Psychology Today article on self-esteem and social rejection. Self, Emotion, and Behavior Lab. Social Relations Laboratory.

Psychological trauma

This is seen when institutions depended upon for survival violate, humiliate, betray, or cause major losses or separations instead of evoking aspects like positive self worth, safe boundaries and personal freedom. Psychologically traumatic experiences often involve physical trauma that threatens one's survival and sense of security.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Kay Redfield Jamison, a clinical psychologist and professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, profiled her own bipolar disorder in her memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995). In his autobiography Manicdotes: There's Madness in His Method (2008), Chris Joseph describes his struggle between the creative dynamism which allowed the creation of his multimillion-pound advertising agency Hook Advertising, and the money-squandering dark despair of his bipolar illness. Several dramatic works have portrayed characters with traits suggestive of the diagnosis that has been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike. A notable example is Mr.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
Physical activity can influence people's psychological and physical health. The U.S. National Center for PTSD recommends moderate exercise as a way to distract from disturbing emotions, build self-esteem and increase feelings of being in control again. They recommend a discussion with a doctor before starting an exercise program. Play is thought to help children link their inner thoughts with their outer world, connecting real experiences with abstract thought. Repetitive play can also be one way a child relives traumatic events, and that can be a symptom of trauma in a child or young person.


DSM-Vmental health disordersDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Catatonia may be a specifier for depressive, bipolar, and psychotic disorders; part of another medical condition; or of another specified diagnosis. New specifier "with mixed features" can be applied to bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar disorder NED (not elsewhere defined, previously called "NOS", not otherwise specified) and MDD. Allows other specified bipolar and related disorder for particular conditions. Anxiety symptoms are a specifier (called "anxious distress") added to bipolar disorder and to depressive disorders (but are not part of the bipolar diagnostic criteria). The bereavement exclusion in DSM-IV was removed from depressive disorders in DSM-5.


fibrositisFibromyalgia syndromemuscular rheumatism
Neuropathic pain and major depressive disorder often co-occur with fibromyalgia – the reason for this comorbidity appears to be due to shared genetic abnormalities, which leads to impairments in monoaminergic, glutamatergic, neurotrophic, opioid and proinflammatory cytokine signaling. In these vulnerable individuals, psychological stress or illness can cause abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways which regulate mood and pain. Eventually, a sensitization and kindling effect occur in certain neurons leading to the establishment of fibromyalgia and sometimes a mood disorder.


abusiveabuse of officemaltreatment
English et al. report that children whose families are characterised by interpersonal violence, including psychological aggression and verbal aggression, may exhibit a range of serious disorders, including chronic depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, dissociation and anger. Additionally, English et al. report that the impact of emotional abuse "did not differ significantly" from that of physical abuse. Johnson et al. report that, in a survey of female patients (n = 825), 24% suffered emotional abuse, and this group experienced higher rates of gynaecological problems.

Anorexia nervosa

Other psychological causes of anorexia include low self-esteem, feeling like there is lack of control, depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Anorexia nervosa has been increasingly diagnosed since 1950; the increase has been linked to vulnerability and internalization of body ideals. People in professions where there is a particular social pressure to be thin (such as models and dancers) were more likely to develop anorexia, and those with anorexia have much higher contact with cultural sources that promote weight loss. This trend can also be observed for people who partake in certain sports, such as jockeys and wrestlers.

Mental health

behavioral healthmentalmental hygiene
Unemployment has been shown to have a negative impact on an individual's emotional well-being, self-esteem and more broadly their mental health. Increasing unemployment has been shown to have a significant impact on mental health, predominantly depressive disorders. This is an important consideration when reviewing the triggers for mental health disorders in any population survey. In order to improve your emotional mental health, the root of the issue has to be resolved. "Prevention emphasizes the avoidance of risk factors; promotion aims to enhance an individual's ability to achieve a positive sense of self-esteem, mastery, well-being, and social inclusion."

Abnormal psychology

abnormalAbnormal psychologistpsychological
Both causes play a key role in the development of a psychological disorder. For example, high neuroticism antedates most types of psychopathology. The standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The current version of the book is known as DSM-5. It lists a set of disorders and provides detailed descriptions on what constitutes a disorder such as major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder. It also gives general descriptions of how frequently the disorder occurs in the general population, whether it is more common in males or females and other such facts.

Suicidal ideation

suicidal thoughtssuicide ideationsuicidal tendencies
Chronic illness or pain. Death of family members or friends. End of a relationship. Other studies have found that tobacco use is correlated with depression and suicidal ideation. Unplanned pregnancy. Bullying, including cyberbullying and workplace bullying. Previous suicide attempts. Having previously attempted suicide is one of the strongest indicators of future suicidal ideation or suicide attempts. Military experience. Military personnel who show symptoms of PTSD, major depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder show higher levels of suicidal ideation. Community violence. Undesired changes in body weight.