senilesenilitysenile dementia
Persistent pain can lead to decreased ambulation, depressed mood, sleep disturbances, impaired appetite, and exacerbation of cognitive impairment and pain-related interference with activity is a factor contributing to falls in the elderly. Although persistent pain in people with dementia is difficult to communicate, diagnose, and treat, failure to address persistent pain has profound functional, psychosocial and quality of life implications for this vulnerable population. Health professionals often lack the skills and usually lack the time needed to recognize, accurately assess and adequately monitor pain in people with dementia.

Psychological stress

stressstressfulmental stress
as anxiousness, depression, and low self-esteem.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
The most frequent mood difficulties are depression, apathy, and anxiety. Establishing the diagnosis of depression is complicated by the fact that the body language of depression may masquerade as PD including a sad expressionless anxious face, a hang dog appearance, slow movement, and monotonous speech. Up to 30% of people with PD may experience symptoms of anxiety, ranging from a generalized anxiety disorder to social phobia, panic disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders. They contribute to impaired quality of life and increased severity of motor symptoms such as on/off fluctuations or freezing episodes.

Chronic pain

chronicpainChronic pain syndrome
Some investigators have argued that it is this neuroticism that causes acute pain to turn chronic, but clinical evidence points the other way, to chronic pain causing neuroticism. When long term pain is relieved by therapeutic intervention, scores on the neurotic triad and anxiety fall, often to normal levels. Self-esteem, often low in people with chronic pain, also shows striking improvement once pain has resolved. It has been suggested that catastrophizing may play a role in the experience of pain.


Canadian psychologist Robert D. Hare later repopularized the construct of psychopathy in criminology with his Psychopathy Checklist. Although no psychiatric or psychological organization has sanctioned a diagnosis titled "psychopathy", assessments of psychopathic characteristics are widely used in criminal justice settings in some nations and may have important consequences for individuals. The study of psychopathy is an active field of research, and the term is also used by the general public, popular press, and in fictional portrayals.

Social anxiety disorder

social phobiaAnthropophobiasociophobia
SAD often occurs alongside low self-esteem and most commonly clinical depression, perhaps due to a lack of personal relationships and long periods of isolation related to social avoidance. Clinical depression is 1.49 to 3.5 times more likely to occur in those with SAD. Anxiety disorders other than SAD are also very common in patients with SAD, in particular generalized anxiety disorder. Avoidant personality disorder is likewise highly correlated with SAD, with comorbidity rates ranging from 25% to 89%. To try to reduce their anxiety and alleviate depression, people with social phobia may use alcohol or other drugs, which can lead to substance abuse.

Abu Zayd al-Balkhi

Ahmed ibn Sahl al-BalkhiAl-BalkhiAbū Zayd al-Balkhī
He classified neurosis into four emotional disorders: fear and anxiety, anger and aggression, sadness and depression, and obsession. He further classified three types of depression: normal depression or sadness (huzn), endogenous depression originating from within the body, and reactive clinical depression originating from outside the body. He also wrote that a healthy individual should always keep healthy thoughts and feelings in his mind in the case of unexpected emotional outbursts in the same way drugs and First Aid medicine are kept nearby for unexpected physical emergencies.

William James

JamesJames, WilliamWilliam
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 27, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James is considered to be a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential philosophers of the United States, and the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century.

Dysfunctional family

dysfunctional familiesdysfunctionalfamily dysfunction
Feel angry, anxious, depressed, isolated from others, or unlovable. Have a speech disorder (related to emotional abuse.). Distrust others or even have paranoia. Become a juvenile delinquent and turn to a life of crime (with or without dropping out of school), and possibly become a gang member as well. Struggle academically at school or academic performance declines unexpectedly. Have low self-esteem or a poor self image with difficulty expressing emotions. Rebel against parental authority, or conversely, uphold their family's values in the face of peer pressure, or even try to take an impossible "middle ground" that pleases no one.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
Borderline personality disorder is seen in association with mood and anxiety disorders, with impulse control disorders, eating disorders, ADHD, or a substance use disorder. Avoidant personality disorder is seen with social anxiety disorder. Individual psychotherapy has been a mainstay of treatment. There are long-term and short-term (brief) forms. Family therapy, including couples therapy. Group therapy for personality dysfunction is probably the second most used. Psychological-education may be used as an addition. Self-help groups may provide resources for personality disorders. Psychiatric medications for treating symptoms of personality dysfunction or co-occurring conditions.


Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamine to treat major depression, where subjects do not respond well to traditional SSRI medications, but evidence supporting this use is poor/mixed. Notably, two recent large phase III studies of lisdexamfetamine (a prodrug to amphetamine) as an adjunct to an SSRI or SNRI in the treatment of major depressive disorder showed no further benefit relative to placebo in effectiveness. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of drugs such as Adderall (a mixture of salts of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) in controlling symptoms associated with ADHD.

Creative visualization

Creative visualization is the cognitive process of purposefully generating visual mental imagery, with eyes open or closed, simulating or recreating visual perception, in order to maintain, inspect, and transform those images, consequently modifying their associated emotions or feelings, with intent to experience a subsequent beneficial physiological, psychological, or social effect, such as expediting the healing of wounds to the body, minimizing physical pain, alleviating psychological pain including anxiety, sadness, and low mood, improving self-esteem or self-confidence, and enhancing the capacity to cope when interacting with others.

Causes of mental disorders

causesGABA hypothesispsychiatric evaluation
Having both too low of self-esteem as well as too high of one can be detrimental to an individual's mental health. A person's self-esteem plays a much larger role in their overall happiness and quality of life. Poor self-esteem whether it be too high or too low can result in aggression, violence, self-deprecating behavior, anxiety, and other mental disorders. Not fitting in with the masses can result in bullying and other types of emotional abuse. Bullying can result in depression, feelings of anger, loneliness. Studies show that there is a direct correlation between poverty and mental illness. The lower the socioeconomic status of an individual the higher the risk of mental illness.


self-medicateself-medicatingself medication
Additionally, stimulants are useful to individuals with social anxiety by helping individuals break through their inhibitions. Some reviews suggest that students use psychostimulants to self medicate for underlying conditions, such as ADHD, depression or anxiety. Opiates, such as heroin and morphine, function as an analgesic by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and gastrointestinal tract. This binding reduces the perception of and reaction to pain, while also increasing pain tolerance. Opiates are hypothesized to be used as self-medication for aggression and rage.

Expressive suppression

Depressive symptoms occurred after the use of suppression, and suppression did not occur after future depressive symptoms (Larsen et al., 2012). Larsen et al. (2012) support that expressive suppression has physiological, social, and cognitive costs. Some evidence says that “depressed people judge their negative emotions as less socially acceptable” than non-depressed people (Larsen, 2012, 194). “Appraising one’s emotions as unacceptable mediates the relationship between negative emotion intensity and use of suppression” (194).

Childhood obesity

child obesityobesitychild
The first problems to occur in obese children are usually emotional or psychological. Obese children often experience bullying by their peers. Some are harassed or discriminated against by their own family. Stereotypes abound and may lead to low self-esteem and depression. Childhood obesity however can also lead to life-threatening conditions including diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep problems, cancer, and other disorders. Some of the other disorders would include liver disease, early puberty or menarche, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, skin infections, and asthma and other respiratory problems.

Addictive personality

addictive disorderaddictive personalities
People suffering from addictive personality disorder usually undergo depression and anxiety, managing their emotions by developing addiction to alcohol, other types of drugs, or other pleasurable activities. An addict is more prone to depression, anxiety, and anger. Both the addict's environment, genetics and biological tendency contribute to their addiction. People with very severe personality disorders are more likely to become addicts. Addictive substances usually stop primary and secondary neuroses, meaning people with personality disorders like the relief from their pain.

Audio therapy

Audio therapy imports the principles of bibliotherapy but provides the content on a recorded media, making therapeutic use of audiobooks Creative visualization is the cognitive process of purposefully generating visual mental imagery, with eyes open or closed, simulating or recreating visual perception, in order to maintain, inspect, and transform those images, consequently modifying their associated emotions or feelings, with intent to experience a subsequent beneficial physiological, psychological, or social effect, such as expediting the healing of wounds to the body, minimizing physical pain, alleviating psychological pain including anxiety, sadness, and low mood, improving self-esteem


intrinsic motivationmotivationalmotives
Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement. Self actualization/achievement of full potential. Human beings have wants and desires which, when unsatisfied, may influence behavior. Differing levels of importance to human life are reflected in a hierarchical structure of needs. Needs at higher levels in the hierarchy are held in abeyance until lower level needs are at least minimally satisfied. Needs at higher levels of the hierarchy are associated with individuality, humanness and psychological health. Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drive and emotions).


psychologistsclinical psychologistresearch psychologist
Psychologists from Psy.D. programs tend to have more training and experience in clinical practice (e.g. psychotherapy, testing) than those from Ph.D. programs. Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, have been trained more intensively in other areas, such as internal medicine and neurology, and may bring this knowledge to bear in identifying and treating medical or neurological conditions that present with primarily psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or paranoia, e.g., hypothyroidism presenting with depressive symptoms, or pulmonary embolism with significant apprehension and anxiety.


Since the 1970s, clinical psychology and psychiatry have developed meditation techniques for numerous psychological conditions. Mindfulness practice is employed in psychology to alleviate mental and physical conditions, such as reducing depression, stress, and anxiety. Mindfulness is also used in the treatment of drug addiction, although the quality of research has been poor. Studies demonstrate that meditation has a moderate effect to reduce pain. There is insufficient evidence for any effect of meditation on positive mood, attention, eating habits, sleep, or body weight.

LGBT rights in Canada

CanadaGay rights in CanadaLGBT rights
Furthermore, underlining that aversive therapies (or "conversion therapies") are inappropriate, unethical, and inhumane, the Order has advised the members of the profession in Quebec that psychotherapy, due to legal considerations, is all-indicated for the purpose of treating depression or anxiety, to relieve distress, to support self-esteem, and to help people to cope with the difficulties they may encounter and thus, to ensure their well-being, regardless of sexual orientation.

Generalized anxiety disorder

general anxiety disordergeneralized anxietyanxiety
While SNRIs have similar efficacy as SSRIs, many psychiatrists prefer to use SSRIs first in the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The slightly higher preference for SSRIs over SNRIs as a first choice for treatment of anxiety disorders may have been influenced by the observation of poorer tolerability of the SNRIs in comparison to SSRIs in systematic reviews of studies of depressed patients. Duloxetine is also indicated for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain and neuropathic pain associated with diabetes mellitus, and may be a good option for people with both conditions.

Mood (psychology)

A second type of maladaptive negative mood regulation is a disabling strategy in which individuals suppress their negative feelings and distance themselves from others in order to avoid frustrations and anxiety caused by others' unavailability. Negative moods have been connected with depression, anxiety, aggression, poor self-esteem, physiological stress and decrease in sexual arousal. In some individuals, there is evidence that depressed or anxious mood may increase sexual interest or arousal. In general, men were more likely than women to report increased sexual drive during negative mood states.

Anxiety disorder

anxiety disordersanxietynervous disorder
In casual discourse the words "anxiety" and "fear" are often used interchangeably; in clinical usage, they have distinct meanings: "anxiety" is defined as an unpleasant emotional state for which the cause is either not readily identified or perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable, whereas "fear" is an emotional and physiological response to a recognized external threat. The umbrella term "anxiety disorder" refers to a number of specific disorders that include fears (phobias) or anxiety symptoms.