Social anxiety. Social anxiety disorder. Social isolation. Schizoid personality disorder.


Psychologists such as John B. Watson, Robert Plutchik, and Paul Ekman have suggested that there is only a small set of basic or innate emotions and that fear is one of them. This hypothesized set includes such emotions as acute stress reaction, anger, angst, anxiety, fright, horror, joy, panic, and sadness. Fear is closely related to, but should be distinguished from, the emotion anxiety, which occurs as the result of threats that are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable. The fear response serves survival by engendering appropriate behavioral responses, so it has been preserved throughout evolution.

Intellectual giftedness

giftedgifted childrengiftedness
Underachievement can also result from emotional or psychological factors, including depression, anxiety, perfectionism, low self esteem, or self-sabotage. An often-overlooked contributor to underachievement is undiagnosed learning differences. A gifted individual is less likely to be diagnosed with a learning disorder than a non-gifted classmate, as the gifted child can more readily compensate for their paucities. This masking effect is dealt with by understanding that a difference of one standard deviation between scores constitutes a learning disability even if all of the scores are above average.

Mood disorder

depressionmood disordersdepressive disorder
English psychiatrist Henry Maudsley proposed an overarching category of affective disorder. The term was then replaced by mood-disorder, as the latter term refers to the underlying or longitudinal emotional state, whereas the former refers to the external expression observed by others. * Major depressive disorder (MDD), commonly called major depression, unipolar depression, or clinical depression, wherein a person has one or more major depressive episodes. After a single episode, Major Depressive Disorder (single episode) would be diagnosed. After more than one episode, the diagnosis becomes Major Depressive Disorder (Recurrent).


Antidepressants are used to treat major depressive disorder and of other conditions, including some anxiety disorders, some chronic pain conditions, and to help manage some addictions. Antidepressants are often used in combinations with one another. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2009 guidelines indicate that antidepressants should not be routinely used for the initial treatment of mild depression, because the risk-benefit ratio is poor.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Paul Stepansky, while noting that psychoanalysis remains influential in the humanities, records the "vanishingly small number of psychiatric residents who choose to pursue psychoanalytic training" and the "nonanalytic backgrounds of psychiatric chairpersons at major universities" among the evidence he cites for his conclusion that "Such historical trends attest to the marginalisation of psychoanalysis within American psychiatry." Nonetheless Freud was ranked as the third most cited psychologist of the 20th century, according to a Review of General Psychology survey of American psychologists and psychology texts, published in 2002.

DSM-IV codes (alphabetical)

Adjustment Disorders. 309.9 Unspecified Adjustment Reaction NOS. 309.24 With Anxiety. 309.0 With Depressed Mood. 309.3 With Disturbance of Conduct. 309.28 With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood. 309.4 With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct. V71.01 Adult Antisocial Behavior. 995.2 Adverse Effects of Medication NOS. 780.93 Age-Related Cognitive Decline. 300.22 Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder.

Evolutionary approaches to depression

evolutionary advantageevolutionary theory of depressionimpaired activity and problem solving
Psychology and psychiatry have not generally embraced evolutionary explanations for behaviors, and the proposed explanations for the evolution of depression remain controversial. Major depression (also called "major depressive disorder", "clinical depression" or often simply "depression") is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and in 2000 was the fourth leading contributor to the global burden of disease (measured in DALYs); it is also an important risk factor for suicide. It is understandable, then, that clinical depression is thought to be a pathology—a major dysfunction of the brain.


In his work with animals, Cannon observed that any change of emotional state in the beast, such as anxiety, distress, or rage, was accompanied by total cessation of movements of the stomach (Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage, 1915). These studies looked into the relationship between the effects of emotions and perceptions on the autonomic nervous system, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic responses that initiated the recognition of the freeze, fight or flight response. His findings were published from time to time in professional journals, then summed up in book form in The Mechanical Factors of Digestion, published in 1911.

History of psychology

modern psychologyHistorypsychology
At a meeting of the Moscow Psychological Society in 1887, the psychiatrists Grigory Rossolimo and Ardalion Tokarskii (1859–1901) demonstrated both Wundt's experiments and hypnosis. In 1895, Tokarskii set up a psychological laboratory in the psychiatric clinic of Moscow university with the support of its head, Korsakov, to teach future psychiatrists about what he promoted as new and necessary techniques. in January 1884, the philosophers Matvei Troitskii and Iakov Grot founded the Moscow Psychological Society. They wished to discuss philosophical issues, but because anything called “philosophical” could attract official disapproval, they used “psychological” as a euphemism.

Bullying in medicine

The farewell interview from Sir Ian Kennedy (Chair of the Healthcare Commission) caused significant media interest following his statement that bullying is a 'corrosive' problem that the NHS must address. Psychiatric trainees experience rates of bullying at least as high as other medical students. In a survey of psychiatric trainees in the West Midlands, 47% had experienced bullying within the last year with even higher percentages amongst ethnic minorities and females. Qualified psychiatrists are not themselves required to be psychiatrically assessed. There have been quite a few proven cases of doctors bullying and/or sexually harassing patients and nurses.

Hate crime

hate crimesracially motivatedhate-crime
Hate crimes can have significant and wide-ranging psychological consequences, not only for their direct victims but for others as well. A 1999 U.S. study of lesbian and gay victims of violent hate crimes documented that they experienced higher levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, than lesbian and gay victims of comparable crimes which were not motivated by antigay bias. A manual issued by the Attorney-General of the Province of Ontario in Canada lists the following consequences: Hate crime victims can also develop depression and psychological trauma.

Post-concussion syndrome

chronic brain syndromepost concussion syndromepost-concussion symptoms
PCS may cause insomnia, fatigue, or other problems with sleep. Psychological conditions, which are present in about half of people with PCS, may include irritability, anxiety, depression, and a change in personality. Other emotional and behavioral symptoms include restlessness, aggression, and mood swings. Some common symptoms, such as apathy, insomnia, irritability, or lack of motivation, may result from other co-occurring conditions, such as depression. Common symptoms associated with a diagnosis of PCS are related to cognition, attention, and memory, especially short-term memory, which can also worsen other problems such as forgetting appointments or difficulties at work.

Facet (psychology)

Positive Emotional Temperament: Well-being, Social Potency, Achievement, Social Closeness. Negative Emotional Temperament: Stress Reaction, Alienation, Aggression. Constraint: Control, Harm-avoidance, Traditionalism. Absorption (subscales): Sentient, Prone to Imaginative and Altered States. Honesty-Humility: Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty. Emotionality: Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality. Extraversion: Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness. Agreeableness: Forgivingness, Gentleness, Patience. Conscientiousness: Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Flexibility, Prudence.

Sexual assault

sexually assaultedsexually assaultingsexually assault
Aside from physical traumas, rape and other sexual assault often result in long-term emotional effects, particularly in child victims. These can include: denial, learned helplessness, genophobia, anger, self-blame, anxiety, shame, nightmares, fear, depression, flashbacks, guilt, rationalization, moodswings, numbness, promiscuity, loneliness, social anxiety, difficulty trusting oneself or others, difficulty concentrating. Being the victim of sexual assault may lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder, addiction, major depressive disorder or other psychopathologies.

Combat stress reaction

combat fatiguebattle fatigueshell shock
Back pains. Inability to relax. Shaking and tremors. Sweating. Nausea and vomiting. Loss of appetite. Abdominal distress. Frequency of urination. Urinary incontinence. Heart palpitations. Hyperventilation. Dizziness. Insomnia. Nightmares. Restless sleep. Excessive sleep. Excessive startle. Hypervigilance. Heightened sense of threat. Anxiety. Irritability. Depression. Substance abuse. Loss of adaptability. Attempted suicides. Disruptive behavior. Mistrust of others. Confusion. Extreme feeling of losing control. Proximity – treat the casualties close to the front and within sound of the fighting. Immediacy – treat them without delay and not wait until the wounded were all dealt with.

Distress tolerance

sensitive to distress
Distress tolerance is an emerging research topic in clinical psychology because it has been posited to contribute to the development and maintenance of several types of mental disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders such as major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, substance use and addiction, and personality disorders. In general, research on distress tolerance have found associations with these disorders that are tied closely to specific conceptualizations of distress tolerance. For instance, Borderline Personality Disorder is posited to be maintained through a chronic unwillingness to engage in or tolerate emotionally distressful states.

Well-being contributing factors

Well-being contributing factors: religion and spirituality
Determining what is meaningful for one's self provides a sense of autonomy and control which promotes self-esteem. Purpose in life is positively correlated with education level and volunteerism. However, it has also been found to decrease with age. Purpose in life is both highly individual, and what specifically provides purpose will change over the course of one's lifetime. All three of the above theories have self-esteem at their core. Self-esteem is often viewed as the most significant measure of psychological well-being, and highly correlated with many life-regulating skills. Purpose in life promotes and is a source of self-esteem; it is not a by-product of self-esteem.

Emotional self-regulation

emotion regulationemotional regulationself-regulation
Rumination is generally considered a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy, as it tends to exacerbate emotional distress. It has also been implicated in a host of disorders including major depression. Worry, an example of attentional deployment, involves directing attention to thoughts and images concerned with potentially negative events in the future. By focusing on these events, worrying serves to aid in the downregulation of intense negative emotion and physiological activity. While worry may sometimes involve problem solving, incessant worry is generally considered maladaptive, being a common feature of anxiety disorders, particularly generalized anxiety disorder.

DASS (psychology)

The Anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety and subjective experience of anxious affect. The Stress scale's subscales highlight levels of non-chronic arousal through difficulty relaxing, nervous arousal and being easily upset/agitated, irritable/over-reactive and impatient. The main purpose of the DASS is to isolate and identify aspects of emotional disturbance; for example, to assess the degree of severity of the core symptoms of depression, anxiety or stress.


impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
In both adults and children, ADHD has a high rate of comorbidity with other mental health disorders such as learning disability, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance use disorders. The precise genetic and environmental factors contributing to ADHD are relatively unknown, but endophenotypes offer a potential middle ground between genes and symptoms. ADHD is commonly linked to "core" deficits involving "executive function," "delay aversion," or "activation/arousal" theories that attempt to explain ADHD through its symptomology.


nightmaresnightmarishbad dreams
A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. However, psychological nomenclature differentiates between nightmares and bad dreams, specifically, people remain asleep during bad dreams whereas nightmares awaken individuals. Further, the process of psychological homeostasis employs bad dreams to protect an individual's Homeostatically Protected Mood (HPMood) from the impact of elevated anxiety levels. During sleep, nightmares indicate the failure of the homeostatic system employing bad dreams to extinguish anxiety accumulated throughout the day.

Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Its indication is for acute treatment of depression or major depression disorder. Reboxetine was first approved for marketing in Europe in 1997, however, in the United States its application for approval was rejected. Selective NRIs are generally well tolerated but the most common side effects reported are headache, dry mouth, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure have been reported but are usually not clinically important. Sexual adverse effects are mostly related to male arousal difficulties and decreased libido in both men and women, but they are significantly less common than with serotonergic drugs.

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia is frequently associated with other mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, and problems with drugs or alcohol. There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm. Bulimia is more common among those who have a close relative with the condition. The percentage risk that is estimated to be due to genetics is between 30% and 80%. Other risk factors for the disease include psychological stress, cultural pressure to attain a certain body type, poor self-esteem, and obesity. Living in a culture that promotes dieting and having parents that worry about weight are also risks.

Very Short Introductions

A Very Short IntroductionVery Short IntroductionVery Short Introductions series
Psychology (006). The Boom Box. Ancient Warfare (117). Cold War (087). Crusades (140). French Revolution (054). Spanish Civil War (123). The Picture Box. Art History (102). Renaissance Art (129). Modern Art (120). Architecture (072). Design (136). For Dummies, a similar series of introductory books. Rough Guides, whose non-travel books also cover culture and science.