Outline of domestic violence

Domestic Violence Documentaries
It can also be defined as an act or instance of oppressing, the state of being oppressed, and the feeling of being heavily burdened, mentally or physically, by troubles, adverse conditions, and anxiety. Bride-buying. Domestic violence and pregnancy. Domestic violence in lesbian relationships. Misogyny, the hate and contempt of women and girls. Domestic violence against men. Misandry, the hate and contempt of men and boys. Domestic violence in same-sex relationships. Domestic violence in lesbian relationships. Parental bullying of children, where a parent is overly aggressive towards his or her child.

Procrastination

procrastinatingprocrastinatorprocrastinate
For these individuals, procrastination may be symptomatic of a psychological disorder. Procrastination has been linked to a number of negative associations, such as depression, irrational behaviour, low self-esteem, anxiety and neurological disorders such as ADHD. Others have found relationships with guilt and stress. Therefore, it is important for people whose procrastination has become chronic and is perceived to be debilitating to seek out a trained therapist or psychiatrist to investigate whether an underlying mental health issue may be present. With a distant deadline, procrastinators report significantly less stress and physical illness than do non-procrastinators.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience

Institute of PsychiatryMRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry CentreMaurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute
Psychiatric geneticist Peter McGuffin was awarded a fellowship at the Institute. The Department of Psychological Medicine, chaired by Professor Ulrike Schmidt, addresses many of the commonest mental disorders which affect adults including depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, somatoform disorders, and medically unexplained symptoms and syndromes. Its research spans basic science, experimental medicine, epidemiology and public policy. It includes the King's Centre for Military Health Research, led by the Department's former chair, Professor Simon Wessely, and is responsible for studying the psychological impacts of the 2003 Iraq War.

Cocaine dependence

cocaine addictioncocaine abusecocaine addict
The symptoms of cocaine withdrawal (also known as comedown or crash) range from moderate to severe: dysphoria, depression, anxiety, psychological and physical weakness, pain, and compulsive cravings. Cocaine is a powerful stimulant known to make users feel energetic, cheerful, talkative, etc. In time, negative side effects include increased body temperature, irregular or rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, increased risk of heart attacks, strokes and even sudden death from cardiac arrest.

Animal models of depression

animal depression modelsanimal model of clinical depressionbulbectomy
Animal models of depression are research tools used to investigate depression and action of antidepressants as a simulation to investigate the symptomatology and pathophysiology of depressive illness or used to screen novel antidepressants. Major depressive disorder, also called "clinical depression" or often simply "depression", is a common, long-lasting and diverse psychiatric syndrome that significantly affects a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Symptoms include low mood and aversion to activity. Depressed people may also feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless.

Biofeedback

bio-feedbackbiofeedback (psychology)bio
Because the baroreflex is controlled through brain stem mechanisms that communicate directly with the insula and amygdala, which control emotion, HRV biofeedback also appears to modulate emotional reactivity, and to help people suffering from anxiety, stress, and depression Emotions are intimately linked to heart health, which is linked to physical and mental health. In general, good mental and physical health are correlated with positive emotions and high heart rate variability (HRV) modulated by mostly high frequencies. High HRV has been correlated with increased executive functioning skills such as memory and reaction time.

Management of depression

Depression and natural therapiesdepression treatmenttreatment
TMS was approved by the FDA for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder in 2008 and as of 2014 clinical evidence supports this use. The American Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, and the Royal Australia and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists have endorsed rTMS for trMDD. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) uses an implanted electrode and generator to deliver electrical pulses to the vagus nerve, one of the primary nerves emanating from the brain. It is an approved therapy for treatment-resistant depression in the EU and US and is sometimes used as an adjunct to existing antidepressant treatment.

Codependency

codependentco-dependentcodependence
For some people, the social insecurity caused by codependency can progress into full-blown social anxiety disorders like social phobia, avoidant personality disorder or painful shyness. Other stress-related disorders like panic disorder, depression or PTSD may also be present. While Timmen Cermak, M.D., proposed that co-dependency be listed as a personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), it was not accepted by the committee and, as such, no medical consensus exists on the definition of codependency.

The Courage to Heal

A 1995 review by psychologist and clinician Susan Contratto states that the book was perceived as dangerous by the antifeminist backlash since it legitimized stories of abuse as told by the survivors. Bass and Davis have no formal training or qualifications in psychiatry, psychology or any form of treatment for mental illness. Psychologists Carol Tavris and Elliot Aronson state that despite the authors' lack of knowledge about the workings of memories, the scientific approach or information and lack of qualifications, neither author has ever acknowledged the errors they have made in their descriptions of memory and trauma.

Effects of domestic violence on children

They often develop anxiety, fearing that they may be injured or abandoned, that the child's parent being abused will be injured, or that they are to blame for the violence that is occurring in their homes. Grief, shame, and low self-esteem are common emotions that children exposed to domestic violence experience. Depression is a common problem for children who experience domestic violence. The child often feels helpless and powerless. More girls internalize their emotions and show signs of depression than boys. Boys are more apt to act out with aggression and hostility.

Humour

humorhumoroussense of humor
Each of these styles can have a different impact on psychological and individuals’ overall subjective wellbeing. In the study on humour and psychological well-being, research has concluded that high levels of adaptive type humour (affiliative and self-enhancing) is associated with better self-esteem, positive affect, greater self-competency, as well as anxiety control and social interactions. All of which are constituents of psychological wellbeing. Additionally, adaptive humour styles may enable people to preserve their sense of wellbeing despite psychological problems.

Functional somatic syndrome

The HPA axis plays a major role in moderating the body’s stress response to both emotional and physical pain, relating to both the experience of psychological symptoms prevalent following trauma as well as the physiological symptoms prevalent in FSS conditions. When an individual experiences a traumatic event, the HPA-axis causes the increased release of cortisol, activating the sympathetic nervous pathway and causing negative feedback to be sent to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Individual psychology

AdlerianClassical Adlerian psychologyClassical Adlerian psychotherapy
They can take the form of symptoms—such as anxiety, phobias, or depression—which can all be used as excuses for avoiding the tasks of life and transferring responsibility to others. They can also take the form of aggression or withdrawal. Aggressive safeguarding strategies include deprecation, accusations, or self-accusations and guilt, which are used as means for elevating a fragile self-esteem and safeguarding an overblown, idealized image of oneself. Withdrawal takes various forms of physical, mental, and emotional distancing from seemingly threatening people and problems.

Lormetazepam

Medications are racemates. * Inchem.org - Lormetazepam somnolence. paradoxical increase in aggression. lightheadedness. confusion. muscle weakness. ataxia (particularly in the elderly). anterograde amnesia. headache. vertigo. hypotension. salivation changes. gastro-intestinal disturbances. visual disturbances. dysarthria. tremor. changes in libido. incontinence. urinary retention. blood disorders and jaundice. skin reactions. dependence and withdrawal reactions. rebound insomnia and nightmares. anxiety, panic attacks, and agoraphobia. clinical depression. malaise. lack of concentration. abdominal discomfort. depersonalisation and feelings of unreality. emotional lability. cognitive impairment

DSM-IV codes

disruptive behavior disorderdisruptive behavior disordersDSM-IV
Major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder, recurrent. 296.36 In full remission. 296.35 In partial remission. 296.31 Mild. 296.32 Moderate. 296.33 Severe without psychotic features. 296.34 Severe with psychotic features. 296.30 Unspecified. Major depressive disorder, single episode. 296.26 In full remission. 296.25 In partial remission. 296.21 Mild. 296.22 Moderate. 296.23 Severe without psychotic features. 296.24 Severe with psychotic features. 296.20 Unspecified. 311 Depressive disorder NOS. Bipolar disorders. 296.80 Bipolar disorder NOS.

Terminal illness

terminally illterminalterminal cancer
Patients may experience grief, fear, loneliness, depression, and anxiety among many other possible responses. Terminal illness can also lend patients to become more prone to psychological illness such as depression and anxiety disorders. Insomnia is a common symptom of these. It is important for loved ones to show their support for the patient during these times and to listen to his or her concerns. People who are terminally ill may not always come to accept their impending death. For example, a person who finds strength in denial may never reach a point of acceptance or accommodation and may react negatively to any statement that threatens this defense mechanism.

Review of systems

For example: if the documenation reads 'patient states that her hip has been painful' credit is not given in both the HPI 'location' and to the (MS) review of systems." It goes on to explain that if the patient's complaint is followed by "no other MS issues" than it can be counted in the ROS as well as the HPI. In the above

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
These effects show up in post-traumatic stress disorder, and they may contribute to the hippocampal atrophy reported in schizophrenia and severe depression. A recent study has also revealed atrophy as a result of depression, but this can be stopped with anti-depressants even if they are not effective in relieving other symptoms. Chronic stress resulting in elevated levels of glucocorticoids, notably of cortisol, is seen to be a cause of neuronal atrophy in the hippocampus. This atrophy results in a smaller hippocampal volume which is also seen in Cushing’s syndrome. The higher levels of cortisol in Cushing’s syndrome is usually the result of medications taken for other conditions.

Mental status examination

mental statuspsychiatric examinationmental status exam
The core psychiatric interview skills book by Dr Seshni Moodliar (2014) is a communication skills book to assist doctors, nurses, social workers and psychologists to undertake mental status examinations and identify the symptoms and signs of mental illness. * University of Utah Medical School: Video clips demonstrating cognitive assessment Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. DSM-IV Codes. Glossary of psychiatry. ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE). The Mental State Examination Rapid Record Form (free).

Personality psychology

personalitypersonalitiespersonality theory
Dollard and Miller gave many examples of how secondary drives impact our habitual responses – and by extension our personalities, including anger, social conformity, imitativeness or anxiety, to name a few. In the case of anxiety, Dollard and Miller note that people who generalize the situation in which they experience the anxiety drive will experience anxiety far more than they should. These people are often anxious all the time, and anxiety becomes part of their personality. This example shows how drive theory can have ties with other theories of personality – many of them look at the trait of neuroticism or emotional stability in people, which is strongly linked to anxiety.

Exaggeration

exaggeratedexaggerateexaggerations
Another form of cognitive exaggeration is inflation of the difficulty of achieving a goal after attaining it, possibly to improve self-esteem. In depression, exaggerated all-or-nothing thinking can form a self-reinforcing cycle: these thoughts might be called emotional amplifiers because, as they go around and around, they become more intense. Here are some typical all-or-nothing thoughts: Reaction formation (Reaktionsbildung) is believed to be a defense mechanism in which emotions and impulses which are anxiety-producing or perceived to be unacceptable are mastered by exaggeration of the directly opposing tendency.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
The weak opioid codeine, in low doses and combined with one or more other drugs, is commonly available without a prescription and can be used to treat mild pain. Other opioids are usually reserved for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain (such as pain following surgery). For immediate relief of moderate to severe acute pain opioids are frequently the treatment of choice due to their rapid onset, efficacy and reduced risk of dependence. However a new report showed a clear risk of prolonged opioid use when opioid analgesics are initiated for an acute pain management following surgery or trauma.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
The symptoms can include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin. Diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle atrophy and weakness. There is a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without diabetes, those with the disease have a 1.2 to 1.5-fold greater rate of decline in cognitive function. Having diabetes, especially when on insulin, increases the risk of falls in older people.

Seasonal affective disorder

winter bluesseasonal depressionSAD
According to the American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV criteria, Seasonal Affective Disorder is not regarded as a separate disorder. It is called a "course specifier" and may be applied as an added description to the pattern of major depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder or patients with bipolar disorder.

Søren Kierkegaard

KierkegaardSoren KierkegaardSøren Aabye Kierkegaard
Kierkegaard had a profound influence on psychology. He is widely regarded as the founder of Christian psychology and of existential psychology and therapy. Existentialist (often called "humanistic") psychologists and therapists include Ludwig Binswanger, Viktor Frankl, Erich Fromm, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May. May based his The Meaning of Anxiety on Kierkegaard's The Concept of Anxiety. Kierkegaard's sociological work Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age critiques modernity. Ernest Becker based his 1974 Pulitzer Prize book, The Denial of Death, on the writings of Kierkegaard, Freud and Otto Rank. Kierkegaard is also seen as an important precursor of postmodernism.