Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an antidepressant primarily used to treat depression. Its full effect may take more than four weeks to occur, with some benefit possibly as early as one to two weeks. Often it is used in depression complicated by anxiety or trouble sleeping. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include increased weight, sleepiness, and dizziness. Serious side effects may include mania, low white blood count, and increased suicide among children. Withdrawal symptoms may occur with stopping. It is not recommended together with an MAO inhibitor. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

hierarchy of needsbasic needsself-actualization
Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can distract the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem. Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others.


self-mutilationself-injuryself harm
Self-esteem. Self-esteem functions. Self-esteem instability. Self-hatred. Self-image. Suicide prevention. Positive disintegration.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
People with BPD might do this because it gives them the feeling of immediate relief from their emotional pain, but in the long term they feel increased shame and guilt over the inevitable consequences of continuing this behavior. A cycle often begins in which people with BPD feel emotional pain, engage in impulsive behavior to relieve that pain, feel shame and guilt over their actions, feel emotional pain from the shame and guilt, and then experience stronger urges to engage in impulsive behavior to relieve the new pain. As time goes on, impulsive behavior may become an automatic response to emotional pain.

Emotional intelligence

EQEmotional Quotientemotionally intelligent
. 6) Better social relations during work performance and in negotiations – Higher emotional intelligence is correlated with better social dynamics at work as well as better negotiating ability. 7) Better psychological well-being - Emotional intelligence is positively correlated with higher life satisfaction, self-esteem and lower levels of insecurity or depression.


ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Those who experience a stroke are at risk of paralysis which could result in a self disturbed body image which may also lead to other social issues. 30 to 50% of stroke survivors suffer post-stroke depression, which is characterized by lethargy, irritability, sleep disturbances, lowered self-esteem and withdrawal. Depression can reduce motivation and worsen outcome, but can be treated with social and family support, psychotherapy and, in severe cases, antidepressants. Psychotherapy sessions may have a small effect on improving mood and preventing depression after a stroke, however psychotherapy does not appear to be effective at treating depression after a stroke.


Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow. An individual experiencing sadness may become quiet or lethargic, and withdraw themselves from others. An example of severe sadness is depression, a mood which can be brought on by major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder. Crying can be an indication of sadness. Sadness is one of the "six basic emotions" described by Paul Ekman, along with happiness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust. Sadness is a common experience in childhood.

Evolutionary psychology

evolutionary psychologistevolutionary psychologistsevolutionary
Evolutionary psychologists hold that behaviors or traits that occur universally in all cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations including the abilities to infer others' emotions, discern kin from non-kin, identify and prefer healthier mates, and cooperate with others. There have been studies of human social behaviour related to infanticide, intelligence, marriage patterns, promiscuity, perception of beauty, bride price, and parental investment, with impressive findings. The theories and findings of evolutionary psychology have applications in many fields, including economics, environment, health, law, management, psychiatry, politics, and literature.

Beta blocker

beta blockersbeta-blockersbeta-blocker
However, many controlled trials in the past 25 years indicate beta blockers are effective in anxiety disorders, though the mechanism of action is not known. The physiological symptoms of the fight-or-flight response (pounding heart, cold/clammy hands, increased respiration, sweating, etc.) are significantly reduced, thus enabling anxious individuals to concentrate on the task at hand. Musicians, public speakers, actors, and professional dancers have been known to use beta blockers to avoid performance anxiety, stage fright, and tremor during both auditions and public performances.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
It is common for individuals with drugs use disorder to have other psychological problems. The terms “dual diagnosis” or “co-occurring disorders,” refer to having a mental health and substance use disorder at the same time. According to the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP), “symptoms of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and psychosis are the rule rather than the exception in patients misusing drugs and/or alcohol.” Individuals who have a comorbid psychological disorder often have a poor prognosis if either disorder is untreated.

Humanistic psychology

humanistichumanistic psychologisthumanistic social work
It proffered such ideas as moving to a slow-growth or no-growth economy, decentralizing and "deprofessionalizing" society, and teaching social and emotional competencies in order to provide a foundation for more humane public policies and a healthier culture. There have been many other attempts to articulate humanistic-psychology-oriented approaches to social change. For example, in 1979 psychologist Kenneth Lux and economist Mark A. Lutz called for a new economics based on humanistic psychology rather than utilitarianism. Also in 1979, California state legislator John Vasconcellos published a book calling for the integration of liberal politics and humanistic-psychological insight.

Multiple sclerosis

MSmultiple sclerosis (MS)disseminated sclerosis
The specific symptoms are determined by the locations of the lesions within the nervous system, and may include loss of sensitivity or changes in sensation such as tingling, pins and needles or numbness, muscle weakness, blurred vision, very pronounced reflexes, muscle spasms, or difficulty in moving; difficulties with coordination and balance (ataxia); problems with speech or swallowing, visual problems (nystagmus, optic neuritis or double vision), feeling tired, acute or chronic pain, and bladder and bowel difficulties (such as neurogenic bladder), among others. Difficulties thinking and emotional problems such as depression or unstable mood are also common.


asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
People with asthma have higher rates of anxiety, psychological stress, and depression. This is associated with poorer asthma control. Cognitive behavioral therapy may improve quality of life, asthma control, and anxiety levels in people with asthma. Improving people's knowledge about asthma and using a written action plan has been identified as an important component of managing asthma. Providing educational sessions that include information specific to a person's culture is likely effective.

Positive psychology

positive psychologistpositivePositive psychological
Positive psychology complements, without intending to replace or ignore, the traditional areas of psychology. By emphasizing the study of positive human development this field helps to balance other approaches that focus on disorder, and which may produce only limited understanding. Positive psychology has also placed a significant emphasis on fostering positive self-esteem and self-image, though positive psychologists with a less humanist bent are less likely to focus as intently on the matter. The basic premise of positive psychology is that human beings are often drawn by the future more than they are driven by the past.


Fatal familial insomnia is a hereditary prion disease in which degeneration of the thalamus occurs, causing the patient to gradually lose his ability to sleep and progressing to a state of total insomnia, which invariably leads to death. In contrast, damage to the thalamus can result in coma. * List of regions in the human brain. Primate basal ganglia system. Thalamic stimulator. Thalamotomy. 5-HT7 receptor. Nonmotor region of the ventral nuclear group of the thalamus.


behavioristbehaviourismbehavior analysis
Emergency psychiatry. Ethology. Functional analysis (psychology). Habituation. The Logic of Modern Physics. Law of effect. Mentalism (psychology). Observational learning. Operationalization. Perceptual control theory. Professional practice of behavior analysis. Punishment. Reinforcement. Relational frame theory. Token economy. Verbal Behavior. ZebraBox. Zoosemiotics. Verbal Behavior. ZebraBox. Zoosemiotics. Acceptance and commitment therapy. Applied animal behavior. Behavioral activation. Behavior modification. Behavior therapy. Biofeedback. Clinical behavior analysis. Contingency management. Desensitization. Dialectical behavior therapy. Direct instruction. Discrete trial training.


Accutane13-cis retinoic acidRoaccutane
Rare psychological side effects may include depression, worsening of pre-existing depression, aggressive tendencies, irritable mood and anxiety. Very rare effects include abnormal behaviour, psychosis, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and suicide. In a total of 5577 adverse reactions reported to the UK's MHRA up to 31 March 2017, the plurality (1207, or 22%) concerned psychiatric effects. There were 85 reports of suicidal ideation, 56 of completed suicide and 43 of suicide attempts. The association between isotretinoin use and psychopathology has been controversial.

Trait theory

personality traitpersonality traitstraits
Many psychologists currently believe that five factors are sufficient: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. 16 Personality Factors. Alternative five model of personality. Big Five personality traits. Cultural schema theory. HEXACO model of personality structure. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. NEO-PI. Personality psychology. Szondi test. Trait activation theory. Social investment theory.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

fMRIfunctional MRIfunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
In the echo planar imaging method of magnetic resonance imaging can also provide information not only about the regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood flow, but also has a higher spatial resolution than the conventional method. 3, anxious task of live images, the human body when doing an activity in the cerebral cortex special area will be appropriate to reflect. Studies of brain function can be measured directly using fMRI cerebral blood oxygenation level. The brain does not store glucose, its primary source of energy.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorderobsessive compulsive disorderOCD
OCD frequently co-occurs with both bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Between 60–80% of those with OCD experience a major depressive episode in their lifetime. Comorbidity rates have been reported at between 19–90% due to methodological differences. Between 9–35% of those with bipolar disorder also have OCD, compared to the 1–2% in the general population. Around 50% of those with OCD experience cyclothymic traits or hypomanic episodes. OCD is also associated with anxiety disorders. Lifetime comorbidity for OCD has been reported at 22% for specific phobia, 18% for social anxiety disorder, 12% for panic disorder, and 30% for generalized anxiety disorder.

Palliative care

palliativepalliative medicinehospice
This is the idea that a patient's experience of total pain has distinctive roots in the physical, psychological, social and spiritual realm but that they are all still closely linked to one another. Identifying the cause of pain can help guide care for some patients, and impact their quality of life overall. Physical pain can be managed using pain medications as long as they do not put the patient at further risk for developing or increasing medical diagnoses such as heart problems or difficulty breathing.

Beck Depression Inventory

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)Aaron Beck's BDIBeck Depression Inventory-11
The Psychological Corporation.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

As an example of the problem of the superficial characterization of psychiatric signs and symptoms, the authors gave the example of a patient saying they "feel depressed, sad, or down", showing that such a statement could indicate various underlying experiences: "not only depressed mood but also, for instance, irritation, anger, loss of meaning, varieties of fatigue, ambivalence, ruminations of different kinds, hyper-reflectivity, thought pressure, psychological anxiety, varieties of depersonalization, and even voices with negative content, and so forth."

Defence mechanism

defense mechanismdefense mechanismsdefence mechanisms
A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli. Defence mechanisms may result in healthy or unhealthy consequences depending on the circumstances and frequency with which the mechanism is used. In psychoanalytic theory, defence mechanisms (Abwehrmechanismen) are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality in order to defend against feelings of anxiety and unacceptable impulses and to maintain one's self-schema or other schemas.

Child sexual abuse

child molestationchild molestermolested
The American Psychological Association states that "children cannot consent to sexual activity with adults", and condemns any such action by an adult: "An adult who engages in sexual activity with a child is performing a criminal and immoral act which never can be considered normal or socially acceptable behavior." Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life. Indicators and effects include depression, anxiety, eating disorders, poor self-esteem, somatization, sleep disturbances, and dissociative and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder.