Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Anxiety disorder: Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder. Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mood disorder: Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, or despair is known as major depression (also known as unipolar or clinical depression). Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia.

Child abuse

Effects of child sexual abuse on the victim(s) include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem difficulties, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, and physical injury to the child, among other problems.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends CBT in the treatment plans for a number of mental health difficulties, including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, and clinical depression. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown as an effective treatment for clinical depression. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines (April 2000) indicated that, among psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy had the best-documented efficacy for treatment of major depressive disorder. One etiological theory of depression is Aaron T.


cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
Traditionally, emotion was not thought of as a cognitive process, but now much research is being undertaken to examine the cognitive psychology of emotion; research is also focused on one's awareness of one's own strategies and methods of cognition, which is called metacognition. While few people would deny that cognitive processes are a function of the brain, a cognitive theory will not necessarily make reference to the brain or to biological processes (compare neurocognitive). It may purely describe behavior in terms of information flow or function.

Index of psychology articles

List of psychological topics
- Problem-based learning - Problem finding - Problem shaping - Problem solving - Process Oriented Psychology - Process Psychology - Procrastination - Prodrome - Professional practice of behavior analysis - Program evaluation - Programmed learning - Psychiatrist - Psychological projection - Psychological trauma - Projective identification - Projective test - Pronoia (psychology) - Pronoun reversal - Properception - Propinquity - Proposition - Propositional attitude - Prosopagnosia - Prospect theory - Prospection - Protoself - Proxemics - Prudence - Pseudocertainty effect - Pseudologia - Psychiatric hospital - Psychopathy - Punitive psychiatry in the Soviet Union - Psyche (psychology) - Psychedelic


Psychotherapists traditionally may be: mental health professionals like psychologists and psychiatrists; professionals from other backgrounds (family therapists, social workers, nurses, etc.) who have trained in a specific psychotherapy; or (in some cases) academic or scientifically-trained professionals. Psychiatrists are trained first as physicians, and—as such—they may prescribe prescription medication; and specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies: however, their specialty is in mental disorders or forms of mental illness. Clinical psychologists have specialist doctoral degrees in psychology with some clinical and research components.

Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational Emotive TherapyRational Emotive Behavioral Therapyrational-emotive therapy
REBT claims that people to a large degree consciously and unconsciously construct emotional difficulties such as self-blame, self-pity, clinical anger, hurt, guilt, shame, depression and anxiety, and behaviors and behavior tendencies like procrastination, compulsiveness, avoidance, addiction and withdrawal by the means of their irrational and self-defeating thinking, emoting and behaving.

Major depressive episode

depressive episodedepressionmajor depressive episodes
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder. Sufferers primarily have a depressed mood for two weeks or more, and a loss of interest or pleasure in everyday activities, accompanied by other symptoms such as feelings of emptiness, hopelessness, anxiety, worthlessness, guilt and irritability, changes in appetite, problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions, and thoughts of suicide. Insomnia or hypersomnia, aches, pains, or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may also be present. The description has been formalized in psychiatric diagnostic criteria such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10.

Social rejection

rejectionsocial ostracismrejection sensitivity
The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying. New York: Psychology Press. CBS news story on rejection and the brain. Ostracism Laboratory. Psychology Today article on self-esteem and social rejection. Self, Emotion, and Behavior Lab. Social Relations Laboratory.

Psychological trauma

This is seen when institutions depended upon for survival violate, humiliate, betray, or cause major losses or separations instead of evoking aspects like positive self worth, safe boundaries and personal freedom. Psychologically traumatic experiences often involve physical trauma that threatens one's survival and sense of security.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Kay Redfield Jamison, a clinical psychologist and professor of psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, profiled her own bipolar disorder in her memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995). In his autobiography Manicdotes: There's Madness in His Method (2008), Chris Joseph describes his struggle between the creative dynamism which allowed the creation of his multimillion-pound advertising agency Hook Advertising, and the money-squandering dark despair of his bipolar illness. Several dramatic works have portrayed characters with traits suggestive of the diagnosis that has been the subject of discussion by psychiatrists and film experts alike. A notable example is Mr.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
Physical activity can influence people's psychological and physical health. The U.S. National Center for PTSD recommends moderate exercise as a way to distract from disturbing emotions, build self-esteem and increase feelings of being in control again. They recommend a discussion with a doctor before starting an exercise program. Play is thought to help children link their inner thoughts with their outer world, connecting real experiences with abstract thought. Repetitive play can also be one way a child relives traumatic events, and that can be a symptom of trauma in a child or young person.


Because disrupted sleep is a significant contributor to fatigue, a diagnostic evaluation considers the quality of sleep, the emotional state of the person, sleep pattern, and stress level. The amount of sleep, the hours that are set aside for sleep, and the number of times that a person awakens during the night are important. A sleep study may be ordered to rule out a sleep disorder. Depression and other psychological conditions can produce fatigue, so people who report fatigue are routinely screened for these conditions, along with drug abuse, poor diet, and lack of physical exercise, which paradoxically increases fatigue.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
The US military became a key center of stress research, attempting to understand and reduce combat neurosis and psychiatric casualties. The psychiatric diagnosis post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was coined in the mid-1970s, in part through the efforts of anti-Vietnam War activists and the Vietnam Veterans Against the War, and Chaim F. Shatan. The condition was added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as posttraumatic stress disorder in 1980. PTSD was considered a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to an extreme psychological trauma, and as such often associated with soldiers, police officers, and other emergency personnel.


neuroticneuroticallyadult neurotic
It found that high neuroticism is predictive for the development of anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, psychosis, and schizophrenia, and is predictive but less so for substance abuse and non-specific mental distress. These associations are smaller after adjustment for elevated baseline symptoms of the mental illnesses and psychiatric history. Neuroticism has also been found to be associated with death. In 2007, Mroczek & Spiro found that among older men, upward trends in neuroticism over life as well as increased neuroticism overall both contributed to higher mortality rates.


DSM-Vmental health disordersDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Catatonia may be a specifier for depressive, bipolar, and psychotic disorders; part of another medical condition; or of another specified diagnosis. New specifier "with mixed features" can be applied to bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar disorder NED (not elsewhere defined, previously called "NOS", not otherwise specified) and MDD. Allows other specified bipolar and related disorder for particular conditions. Anxiety symptoms are a specifier (called "anxious distress") added to bipolar disorder and to depressive disorders (but are not part of the bipolar diagnostic criteria). The bereavement exclusion in DSM-IV was removed from depressive disorders in DSM-5.


physical painacute painnociceptive pain
People with long-term pain frequently display psychological disturbance, with elevated scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales of hysteria, depression and hypochondriasis (the "neurotic triad"). Some investigators have argued that it is this neuroticism that causes acute pain to turn chronic, but clinical evidence points the other direction, to chronic pain causing neuroticism. When long-term pain is relieved by therapeutic intervention, scores on the neurotic triad and anxiety fall, often to normal levels. Self-esteem, often low in chronic pain patients, also shows improvement once pain has resolved.

Anorexia nervosa

Other psychological causes of anorexia include low self-esteem, feeling like there is lack of control, depression, anxiety, and loneliness. Anorexia nervosa has been increasingly diagnosed since 1950; the increase has been linked to vulnerability and internalization of body ideals. People in professions where there is a particular social pressure to be thin (such as models and dancers) were more likely to develop anorexia, and those with anorexia have much higher contact with cultural sources that promote weight loss. This trend can also be observed for people who partake in certain sports, such as jockeys and wrestlers.

Mental health

behavioral healthmentalmental hygiene
Unemployment has been shown to have a negative impact on an individual's emotional well-being, self-esteem and more broadly their mental health. Increasing unemployment has been shown to have a significant impact on mental health, predominantly depressive disorders. This is an important consideration when reviewing the triggers for mental health disorders in any population survey. In order to improve your emotional mental health, the root of the issue has to be resolved. "Prevention emphasizes the avoidance of risk factors; promotion aims to enhance an individual's ability to achieve a positive sense of self-esteem, mastery, well-being, and social inclusion."

Abnormal psychology

abnormalAbnormal psychologistpsychological
Both causes play a key role in the development of a psychological disorder. For example, high neuroticism antedates most types of psychopathology. The standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The current version of the book is known as DSM-5. It lists a set of disorders and provides detailed descriptions on what constitutes a disorder such as major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder. It also gives general descriptions of how frequently the disorder occurs in the general population, whether it is more common in males or females and other such facts.

Suicidal ideation

suicidal thoughtssuicide ideationsuicidal tendencies
Insomnia or oversleeping. Loss of appetite or overeating. Depression. Severe anxiety. Impaired concentration. Psychomotor agitation. Panic attack. Loneliness. Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. Nurses' Global Assessment of Suicide Risk. Suicidal Affect–Behavior–Cognition Scale (SABCS). Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Anxiety disorders. Autism spectrum disorder. Major depressive disorder. Dysthymia. Bipolar disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD). Personality disorders. Psychosis (detachment from reality). Paranoia. Schizophrenia. Substance use disorders, inhalant use disorder.


senilesenilitysenile dementia
It may reduce depressive symptoms and improve overall behaviour. It may also supply a beneficial effect on emotional well-being and quality of life, as well as reduce anxiety. Some London hospitals found that using color, designs, pictures and lights helped people with dementia adjust to being at the hospital. These adjustments to the layout of the dementia wings at these hospitals helped patients by preventing confusion. No medications have been shown to prevent or cure dementia. Medications may be used to treat the behavioural and cognitive symptoms, but have no effect on the underlying disease process.


Mental illness is a broad, generic label for a category of illnesses that may include affective or emotional instability, behavioral dysregulation, cognitive dysfunction or impairment. Specific illnesses known as mental illnesses include major depression, generalized anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, to name a few. Mental illness can be of biological (e.g., anatomical, chemical, or genetic) or psychological (e.g., trauma or conflict) origin. It can impair the affected person's ability to work or study and can harm interpersonal relationships. The term insanity is used technically as a legal term. Organic.

Psychological stress

stressstressfulmental stress
as anxiousness, depression, and low self-esteem.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
The most frequent mood difficulties are depression, apathy, and anxiety. Establishing the diagnosis of depression is complicated by the fact that the body language of depression may masquerade as PD including a sad expressionless anxious face, a hang dog appearance, slow movement, and monotonous speech. Up to 30% of people with PD may experience symptoms of anxiety, ranging from a generalized anxiety disorder to social phobia, panic disorders and obsessive compulsive disorders. They contribute to impaired quality of life and increased severity of motor symptoms such as on/off fluctuations or freezing episodes.