Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]. Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259). Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course). Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN: 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN: 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course). Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960.

List of Urdu-language poets

List of Urdu language poetsList of Urdu poetsUrdu poets
* Fuzail Ahmad Nasiri (b. 1978) Mirza Muhammad Rafi, Sauda (1713–1780). Siraj Aurangabadi (1715–1763). Khwaja Mir Dard, Dard (1721–1785). Qayem Chandpuri, Muhammad Qyamuddin Ali Qayem (1722–1793). Mir Taqi Mir, Mir (1723–1810). Nazeer Akbarabadi, Nazeer (1740–1830). Qalandar Bakhsh Jurat Jurat (1748–1810). Mashafi Shaikh Ghulam Hamdani Mas'hafi (1750–1824). Insha Allah Khan 'Insha', Insha (1756–1817). Saadat Yaar Khan Rangin, Rangin (1757–1835). Bahadur Shah, Zafar (1775–1862). Imam Baksh Nasikh, Nasikh (1776–1838). Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish, Atish (1778–1846). Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, Zauq (1789–1854). Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, Ghalib (1797–1869). Momin Khan Momin Momin (1801–1852).


mentalhuman mindmental content
Cognitive science examines the mental functions that give rise to information processing, termed cognition. These include perception, attention, working memory, long-term memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. Cognitive science seeks to understand thinking "in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures". Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior, mental functioning, and experience.

Cognitive revolution

cognitive psychology
Enactivism (psychology). Human factors. Postcognitivism. Quantitative revolution. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of Meaning. Mandler, G. (2007) A history of modern experimental psychology: From James and Wundt to cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mandler, G. (2007) A history of modern experimental psychology: From James and Wundt to cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mandler, G. (2007) A history of modern experimental psychology: From James and Wundt to cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Baars, Bernard J. (1986) The cognitive revolution in psychology Guilford Press, New York, ISBN: 0-89862-656-0.


cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
The semantics (meaning) of words is studied by all the disciplines of cognitive science. An emergent field of research, referred to as "Team Cognition", is arising in military sciences. "Team cognition" indicates “an emergent property of teams that results from the interplay of individual cognition and team process behaviors [...] [Team cognition] underlies team performance” (Arizona State University East, 2005, Cooke NJ, 2005). * Cognitive biology. Cognitive computing. Cognitive psychology. Cognitive science. Cognitivism. Comparative cognition. Information processing technology and aging. Nootropic.


emotionsemotionalemotional state
George Mandler (born 1924) – American psychologist who wrote influential books on cognition and emotion. Konstantinos V. Petrides – Greek-British psychologist who specializes in emotion, personality, psychometrics, and philosophy of mind. Professor of Psychology and Psychometrics at University College London. Jesse Prinz – American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and consciousness. James A.


Cognitive science differs from cognitive psychology in that algorithms that are intended to simulate human behavior are implemented or implementable on a computer. In other instances, solutions may be found through insight, a sudden awareness of relationships. In developmental psychology, Jean Piaget was a pioneer in the study of the development of thought from birth to maturity. In his theory of cognitive development, thought is based on actions on the environment.


connectionistparallel distributed processingconnectionist models
They argued that connectionism, as then developing, threatened to obliterate what they saw as the progress being made in the fields of cognitive science and psychology by the classical approach of computationalism. Computationalism is a specific form of cognitivism that argues that mental activity is computational, that is, that the mind operates by performing purely formal operations on symbols, like a Turing machine. Some researchers argued that the trend in connectionism represented a reversion toward associationism and the abandonment of the idea of a language of thought, something they saw as mistaken.

Educational psychology

educational psychologisteducationaleducation
A developing Wikibook about educational psychology gives more detail about the educational psychology topics that are typically presented in preservice teacher education. In order to become an educational psychologist, students can complete an undergraduate degree in their choice. They then must go to graduate school to study education psychology, counseling psychology, and/ or school counseling. Most students today are also receiving their doctorate degrees in order to hold the "psychologist" title. Educational psychologists work in a variety of settings.


Prior to the founding of psychology as a scientific discipline, attention was studied in the field of philosophy. Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers. Psychologist John B. Watson calls Juan Luis Vives the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita (The Soul and Life), he was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation. In his work on memory, Vives found that the more closely one attends to stimuli, the better they will be retained.


Cognitive neuroscience addresses the questions of how psychological functions are produced by neural circuitry. The emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging (e.g., fMRI, PET, SPECT), EEG, MEG, electrophysiology, optogenetics and human genetic analysis combined with sophisticated experimental techniques from cognitive psychology allows neuroscientists and psychologists to address abstract questions such as how cognition and emotion are mapped to specific neural substrates.


Aristotle (general article) · Aristotle in the Renaissance · Biology · Causality · Commentators on Aristotle · Ethics · Logic · Mathematics · Metaphysics · Natural philosophy · Non-contradiction · Political theory · Psychology · Rhetoric. Aristotle (general article) · Biology · Ethics · Logic · Metaphysics · Motion and its Place in Nature · Poetics · Politics. From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:. Aristotle (general article) · Aristotle in the Renaissance · Biology · Causality · Commentators on Aristotle · Ethics · Logic · Mathematics · Metaphysics · Natural philosophy · Non-contradiction · Political theory · Psychology · Rhetoric. Collections of works.


intelligenthuman intelligencemental capacity
The term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has later been taken up (with the scholastic theories which it now implies) in more contemporary psychology. The definition of intelligence is controversial. Some groups of psychologists have suggested the following definitions: From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers (out of 131 total invited to sign): "A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Psychology had been a central interest of Leibniz. He appears to be an "underappreciated pioneer of psychology" He wrote on topics which are now regarded as fields of psychology: attention and consciousness, memory, learning (association), motivation (the act of "striving"), emergent individuality, the general dynamics of development (evolutionary psychology). His discussions in the New Essays and Monadology often rely on everyday observations such as the behaviour of a dog or the noise of the sea, and he develops intuitive analogies (the synchronous running of clocks or the balance spring of a clock).

On the Soul

De Animapsuchēagent intellect
Classics in the History of Psychology. UVa EText Center. Georgetown. R. D. Hicks, Aristotle De Anima with Translation, Introduction, and Notes (Cambridge University Press, 1907). Archive.org. Free Audiobook (Public Domain) of De Anima at Archive.org. Edwin Wallace, Aristotle's Psychology in Greek and English, with Introduction and Notes by Edwin Wallace (Cambridge University Press, 1882). Archive.org. Thomas Taylor, On the Soul (Prometheus Trust, 2003, 1808). ISBN: 1-898910-23-5. Rüdiger Arnzen, Aristoteles' De anima : eine verlorene spätantike Paraphrase in arabischer und persischer Überlieferung, Leiden, Brill, 1998 ISBN: 90-04-10699-5. J. Barnes, M. Schofield, & R.


perceptualsensorysensory perception
The principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to explain how humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. These principles are organized into six categories: proximity, similarity, closure, good continuation, common fate and good form.

Evolutionary psychology

evolutionary psychologistevolutionary psychologistsevolutionary
The New England Institute for Cognitive Science and Evolutionary Psychology aims to foster research and education into the interdisciplinary nexus of cognitive science and evolutionary studies. The NorthEastern Evolutionary Psychology Society; regional society dedicated to encouraging scholarship and dialogue on the topic of evolutionary psychology. Feminist Evolutionary Psychology Society researchers that investigate the active role that females have had in human evolution. Evolutionary Psychology – free access online scientific journal. Evolution and Human Behavior – journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society.


Biological psychology. Clinical neuropsychology. Cognitive neuropsychiatry. Cognitive neuropsychology. Cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive psychology. Comparative neuropsychology. List of important publications in neuropsychology. List of neurological conditions and disorders. Neurology. Neuropsychoanalysis. Neuropsychiatry. Neuroscience. Psychiatric genetics.

Cognitive bias

cognitive biasesbiascognitive
A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. Kahneman and Tversky (1996) argue that cognitive biases have efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management. The notion of cognitive biases was introduced by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1972 and grew out of their experience of people's innumeracy, or inability to reason intuitively with the greater orders of magnitude.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
By the 1970s his work had also come to exert a considerable influence on philosophy, and a Minnesota State University Moorhead poll ranked Syntactic Structures as the single most important work in cognitive science. In addition, his work in automata theory and the Chomsky hierarchy have become well known in computer science, and he is much cited in computational linguistics. Chomsky's criticisms of behaviorism contributed substantially to the decline of behaviorist psychology; in addition, he is generally regarded as one of the primary founders of the field of cognitive science.


EEG, and the related study of ERPs are used extensively in neuroscience, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, neurolinguistics and psychophysiological research, but also to study human functions such as swallowing. Many EEG techniques used in research are not standardised sufficiently for clinical use. But research on mental disabilities, such as auditory processing disorder (APD), ADD, or ADHD, is becoming more widely known and EEGs are used as research and treatment.

Folk psychology

folk psychologicalfolk intuitions about consciousnessfolk psychological states
In philosophy of mind and cognitive science, folk psychology, or commonsense psychology, is a human capacity to explain and predict the behavior and mental state of other people. Processes and items encountered in daily life such as pain, pleasure, excitement, and anxiety use common linguistic terms as opposed to technical or scientific jargon. Traditionally, the study of folk psychology has focused on how everyday people—those without formal training in the various academic fields of science—go about attributing mental states.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
(Chapter 4 "Cleaving the Air" discusses Kant's anticipation of modern cognitive science). Wood, Allen W.. Kant's Ethical Thought. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN: 0-521-64836-X. (comprehensive, in-depth study of Kant's ethics, with emphasis on formula of humanity as most accurate formulation of the categorical imperative). Parfit, Derek. On What Matters (2 vols.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-19-926592-3. Pinker, Steven. The Stuff of Thought. Viking Press, 2007. ISBN: 978-0-670-06327-7. (Chapter 4 "Cleaving the Air" discusses Kant's anticipation of modern cognitive science). Wood, Allen W.. Kant's Ethical Thought.

Behavioral economics

behavioral financebehavioural economicseconomic psychology
The three prevalent themes in behavioral economics are: In 2002, psychologist Daniel Kahneman was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty". In 2013, economist Robert J. Shiller received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirical analysis of asset prices" (within the field of behavioral finance).

B. F. Skinner

B.F. SkinnerSkinnerSkinnerian
in Churchill College, Cambridge. 1971 Gold Medal Award, American Psychological Foundation. 1971 Joseph P.