Urdu languageUrdu:Hindi
Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]. Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259). Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course). Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN: 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN: 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN: 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course). Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960.

List of Urdu-language poets

List of Urdu language poetsList of Urdu poetsUrdu poets
* Fuzail Ahmad Nasiri (b. 1978) Mirza Muhammad Rafi, Sauda (1713–1780). Siraj Aurangabadi (1715–1763). Khwaja Mir Dard, Dard (1721–1785). Qayem Chandpuri, Muhammad Qyamuddin Ali Qayem (1722–1793). Mir Taqi Mir, Mir (1723–1810). Nazeer Akbarabadi, Nazeer (1740–1830). Qalandar Bakhsh Jurat Jurat (1748–1810). Mashafi Shaikh Ghulam Hamdani Mas'hafi (1750–1824). Insha Allah Khan 'Insha', Insha (1756–1817). Saadat Yaar Khan Rangin, Rangin (1757–1835). Bahadur Shah, Zafar (1775–1862). Imam Baksh Nasikh, Nasikh (1776–1838). Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish, Atish (1778–1846). Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, Zauq (1789–1854). Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, Ghalib (1797–1869). Momin Khan Momin Momin (1801–1852).

Urdu poetry

Urdu poetUrduShayari
Mir Taqi Mir and Sauda wrote some of this kind. The Religious Masnavi History of Islam (Tarikh-e-Islam Az Quran) written by Dr Syed Ali Imam Zaidi Gauher Lucknavi. Na`at نعت is a poetry that specifically praises the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Nazm نظم Urdu nazm is a major part of Urdu poetry. From Nazeer Akarabadi, Iqbal, Josh, Firaq, Akhtarul Iman to down the line Noon Meem Rashid, Faiz, Ali Sardar Jafri and Kaifi Azmi. They have covered common life, philosophical thinking, national issues and the precarious predicament of an individual human being. As a distinct form of Nazm many Urdu poets influenced by English and other European poets took to writing sonnets in the Urdu language.

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosopherphilosophyIslamic thought
The philosophy of mind was studied in medieval Islamic psychological thought, which refers to the study of the nafs (literally "self" or "psyche" in Arabic) in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries) as well as modern times (20th–21st centuries), and is related to psychology, psychiatry and the neurosciences. The Arab polymath al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; died c. 1041) presented a thorough mathematical critique and refutation of Aristotle's conception of place (topos) in his Risala/Qawl fi’l-makan (Treatise/Discourse on Place).

List of Shia Muslims

List of Shi'a Muslims
Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda. Javed Abidi. Nawab of Banganapalle. Nawab of Masulipatam. Intezar Abidi – politician. Sir Sultan Ahmed. Mir Sadiq. Sayyed Mahmud Khan. Kamal Amrohi. Shabana Azmi. Azim Premji. Syed Kirmani – cricketer. Bade Ghulam Ali Khan – singer. Nawab of Rampur – king. Nawab of Lucknow – king. Nargis Dutt – actress. Naushad – music director. Salim-Sulaiman – musician. Jagdeep. Muzaffar Ali. Farah Naaz. Akbar Khan. Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi – Union Minister govt. India. M. F. Hussain – painter. S. H. Raza – painter. Salim Ali – ornithologist. Saeed Naqvi – journalist. Syed Ahmed – Governor of Jharkhand. Mohsin Zaidi – poet. Amir Kabir – Prime Minister of Persia under Nasereddin Shah.


mentalhuman mindmental content
The term is technically used in psychology for the process of reviving in the mind percepts of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "imaging" or "imagery" or to speak of it as "reproductive" as opposed to "productive" or "constructive" imagination. Things imagined are said to be seen in the "mind's eye".

Personality psychology

personalitypersonalitiespersonality theory
What is Personality Psychology?.


Cognitive neuroscience addresses the questions of how psychological functions are produced by neural circuitry. The emergence of powerful new measurement techniques such as neuroimaging (e.g., fMRI, PET, SPECT), EEG, MEG, electrophysiology, optogenetics and human genetic analysis combined with sophisticated experimental techniques from cognitive psychology allows neuroscientists and psychologists to address abstract questions such as how cognition and emotion are mapped to specific neural substrates.

Phenomenology (psychology)

phenomenologyphenomenologicalPhenomenological psychology
Stream of consciousness (psychology).

Psychological resilience

What is psychological resilience? – Wilderdom. Penn Resiliency Program – Lessons Plans.


For Freud, the unconscious was a repository for socially unacceptable ideas, wishes or desires, traumatic memories, and painful emotions put out of mind by the mechanism of psychological repression. However, the contents did not necessarily have to be solely negative. In the psychoanalytic view, the unconscious is a force that can only be recognized by its effects—it expresses itself in the symptom. Social psychology is the study of how people and groups interact. Scholars in this interdisciplinary area are typically either psychologists or sociologists, though all social psychologists employ both the individual and the group as their units of analysis.


Prior to the founding of psychology as a scientific discipline, attention was studied in the field of philosophy. Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers. Psychologist John B. Watson calls Juan Luis Vives the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita (The Soul and Life), he was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation. In his work on memory, Vives found that the more closely one attends to stimuli, the better they will be retained.

Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitive
Licklider working within the psychology department and conducting experiments using computer memory as models for human cognition. In 1959, Noam Chomsky published a scathing review of B. F. Skinner's book Verbal Behavior. At the time, Skinner's behaviorist paradigm dominated the field of psychology within the United States. Most psychologists focused on functional relations between stimulus and response, without positing internal representations. Chomsky argued that in order to explain language, we needed a theory like generative grammar, which not only attributed internal representations but characterized their underlying order.


emotionsemotionalemotional state
George Mandler (born 1924) – American psychologist who wrote influential books on cognition and emotion. Konstantinos V. Petrides – Greek-British psychologist who specializes in emotion, personality, psychometrics, and philosophy of mind. Professor of Psychology and Psychometrics at University College London. Jesse Prinz – American philosopher who specializes in emotion, moral psychology, aesthetics and consciousness. James A.

Counseling psychology

counselingcounseling psychologistcounselling
In Australia, counseling psychology programs are accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC). To become registered as a counseling psychologist, one must meet the criteria for the area of practice endorsement. This includes an undergraduate degree in the science of psychology, an Honours degree or Postgraduate Diploma in Psychology, and a Master's or Doctorate degree in counseling psychology. Graduates must then completed a regstrar program to obtain area of practice endorsement and use the tile counseling psychologist.

List of psychology disciplines

sub-disciplines within psychology
Cultural psychology. Developmental psychology. Differential psychology. Discursive psychology. Distributed cognition. Ecological psychology. Economic psychology. Educational psychology. Engineering psychology. Environmental psychology. Evolutionary psychology. Experimental psychology. Experimental analysis of behavior. Forensic psychology. Health psychology. Humanistic psychology. Imaginal psychology. Indian psychology. Indigenous psychology. Individual differences psychology. Industrial and organizational psychology. International psychology. Investigative psychology. Legal psychology. Mathematical psychology. Media psychology. Medical psychology. Military psychology. Music psychology.

Psyche (psychology)

psychehuman psychepsyches
Anima would have traditionally been rendered in English as "soul" but in modern usage the term "psyche" is preferable. 19th century psychologists such as Franz Brentano developed the concept of the psyche in a more subjective direction. In psychoanalysis and other forms of depth psychology, the psyche refers to the forces in an individual that influence thought, behavior and personality.

William James

JamesJames, WilliamWilliam
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 27, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James is considered to be a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential philosophers of the United States, and the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century.

John B. Watson

WatsonJohn Broadus WatsonJohn Watson
John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878 – September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism. Watson promoted a change in psychology through his address Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, which was given at Columbia University in 1913. Through his behaviorist approach, Watson conducted research on animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. In addition, he conducted the controversial "Little Albert" experiment and the Kerplunk experiment. Watson popularized the use of the scientific theory with behaviorism. He was also editor of Psychological Review from 1910 to 1915.


consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousness
Recently, consciousness has also become a significant topic of interdisciplinary research in cognitive science, involving fields such as psychology, linguistics, anthropology, neuropsychology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness in humans by asking subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do this").

Behavioural sciences

behavioral sciencebehavioral sciencesbehavioural science
These include psychology, cognitive science, psychobiology, neural networks, social cognition, social psychology, semantic networks, ethology, and social neuroscience. On the other hand, Relational sciences deal with relationships, interaction, communication networks, associations and relational strategies or dynamics between organisms or cognitive entities in a social system. These include fields like sociological social psychology, social networks, dynamic network analysis, agent-based model and microsimulation. Insights from several pure disciplines across behavioural sciences are explored by various applied disciplines and practiced in the context of everyday life and business.

Marko Marulić

MarulićMarco MaruloMarko Marulic
He published Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae containing the earliest known literary reference to psychology. He wrote De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum, a moralist tractate of Biblical inspiration which he managed to publish in 1506 in Venice; this work influenced St Francis Xavier, and it was claimed by one of Francis' associates in 1549 to be the only book that he read during his missionary work.


Aristotle (general article) · Aristotle in the Renaissance · Biology · Causality · Commentators on Aristotle · Ethics · Logic · Mathematics · Metaphysics · Natural philosophy · Non-contradiction · Political theory · Psychology · Rhetoric. Aristotle (general article) · Biology · Ethics · Logic · Metaphysics · Motion and its Place in Nature · Poetics · Politics. From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:. Aristotle (general article) · Aristotle in the Renaissance · Biology · Causality · Commentators on Aristotle · Ethics · Logic · Mathematics · Metaphysics · Natural philosophy · Non-contradiction · Political theory · Psychology · Rhetoric. Collections of works.


cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
The branch of psychology that studies brain injury to infer normal cognitive function is called cognitive neuropsychology. The links of cognition to evolutionary demands are studied through the investigation of animal cognition. For years, sociologists and psychologists have conducted studies on cognitive development or the construction of human thought or mental processes. Jean Piaget was one of the most important and influential people in the field of Developmental Psychology. He believed that humans are unique in comparison to animals because we have the capacity to do "abstract symbolic reasoning".

Wilhelm Wundt

WundtWilhelm Max WundtWilhelm Maximilian Wundt
Through his definition of "soul" as an actual process, Wundt gave up the metaphysical idea of a "substantial carrier"; his psychology without a soul was heavily criticised by several contemporary and later psychologists and philosophers.