Both yes–no questions and wh-questions in English are mostly formed using subject–auxiliary inversion (Am I going tomorrow?, Where can we eat?), which may require do-support (Do you like her?, Where did he go?). In most cases, interrogative words (wh-words; e.g. what, who, where, when, why, how) appear in a fronted position. For example, in the question What did you see?, the word what appears as the first constituent despite being the grammatical object of the sentence. (When the wh-word is the subject or forms part of the subject, no inversion occurs: Who saw the cat?.) Prepositional phrases can also be fronted when they are the question's theme, e.g.
The presence of an auxiliary (or copular) verb allows subject–auxiliary inversion to take place, as is required in most interrogative sentences in English. If there is already an auxiliary or copula present, do-support is not required when forming questions: This applies not only in yes–no questions but also in questions formed using interrogative words: However, if there is no auxiliary or copula present, inversion requires the introduction of an auxiliary in the form of do-support: The finite (inflected) verb is now the auxiliary do; the following verb is a bare infinitive which does not inflect: does he laugh? (not laughs); did she come? (not came).
There are four basic sentence types having distinctive intonation: declarative sentences, unmarked interrogative questions, yes–no questions marked as such with the sentence-final particle ma, and A-not-A questions of the form "He go not go" (meaning "Does he go or not?").
An interrogative sentence or question is commonly used to request information—"Do I have to go to work?"—but sometimes not; see rhetorical question. An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement expressing emotion: "I have to go to work!". An imperative sentence or command tells someone to do something (and if done strongly may be considered both imperative and exclamatory): "Go to work." or "Go to work!". An "instructive sentence" or instruction is used to provide information on what something is or how something can be done. Grammatical polarity. Inflectional phrase. Periodic sentence. Sentence arrangement. Sentence function. T-unit.
During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, which were taught in grammar and rhetoric schools. Today's instructional grammars trace their roots to such schools, which served as a sort of informal language academy dedicated to maintaining and perpetuating educated speech.
For example, yes–no questions present propositions, being inquiries into the truth value of them. On the other hand, some signs can be declarative assertions of propositions without forming a sentence nor even being linguistic, e.g. traffic signs convey definite meaning which is either true or false. Propositions are also spoken of as the content of beliefs and similar intentional attitudes such as desires, preferences, and hopes. For example, "I desire that I have a new car," or "I wonder whether it will snow" (or, whether it is the case that "it will snow"). Desire, belief, and so on, are thus called propositional attitudes when they take this sort of content.
For example: The above concerns yes-no questions, but inversion also takes place in the same way after other questions, formed with interrogative words such as where, what, how, etc. An exception applies when the interrogative word is the subject or part of the subject, in which case there is no inversion. For example: Note that inversion does not apply in indirect questions: I wonder where he is (not *... where is he). Indirect yes-no questions can be expressed using if or whether as the interrogative word: Ask them whether/if they saw him.
For example, ma ("has") or nie ma ("has not") may be used as an affirmative or negative answer to a question "does... have...?". Note the interrogative particle czy, which is used to start a yes/no question, much like the French "est-ce que". The particle is not obligatory, and sometimes rising intonation is the only signal of the interrogative character of the sentence. Negation is achieved by placing nie directly before the verb, or other word or phrase being negated (in some cases nie- is prefixed to the negated word, equivalent to English un- or non-).
It answers the question: "Why has this been said?" The four basic sentence functions in the world's languages include the declarative, interrogative, exclamative, and the imperative. These correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition of certain auxiliaries or particles, or other times by providing a special verbal form. The four main categories can be further specified as being either communicative or informative.
indirect questiondeclarative content clausedirect question
Notice how, in English (and in some other languages), different syntax is used in direct and indirect questions: direct questions normally use subject-verb inversion, while indirect questions do not. Reported questions (as in the last of the examples) are also subject to the tense and other changes that apply generally in indirect speech. For more information see interrogative mood and English grammar. Indirect questions can serve as adjective and noun complements.
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words. The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
A question mark may also appear immediately after questionable data, such as dates: :Genghis Khan (1162?–1227) In Spanish, since the second edition of the Ortografía of the Real Academia Española in 1754, interrogatives require both opening and closing question marks. An interrogative sentence, clause, or phrase begins with an inverted question mark and ends with the question mark, as in: :Ella me pregunta «¿qué hora es?» – 'She asks me, "What time is it?Question marks must always be matched, but to mark uncertainty rather than actual interrogation omitting the opening one is allowed, although discouraged: :Gengis Khan (¿1162?
noyesyes" or "no
For more information on yes and no answers to yes-no questions in Welsh, see Jones, listed in further reading. These languages have words for yes and no, namely si and non in Galician and sim and não in Portuguese. However answering a question with them is considered less idiomatic than answering with the verb in the proper conjugation. The Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx) do not have words for "yes" or "no" at all. Instead, an echo response of the main verb used to ask the question is used.
Circumstanceswho, what, when, where, why and how5 W
The Five Ws (sometimes referred to as Five Ws and How, 5W1H, or Six Ws) are questions whose answers are considered basic in information gathering or problem solving. They are often mentioned in journalism (cf. news style), research and police investigations. They constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a subject. According to the principle of the Five Ws, a report can only be considered complete if it answers these questions starting with an interrogative word: Some authors add a sixth question, how, to the list: * How did it happen? Each question should have a factual answer — facts necessary to include for a report to be considered complete.
With the passage of time, impressions stored in the consciousness about many, together with the resulting relationships and consequences, permit the individual to build a construct about the moral implications of behavior. 1) Ask a question about a natural phenomenon. 2) Make observations of the phenomenon. 3) Formulate a hypothesis that tentatively answers the question. 4) Predict logical, observable consequences of the hypothesis that have not yet been investigated. 5) Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation. 6) Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process
tag questionsquestion tagtag-question
Although they have the grammatical form of a question, they may be rhetorical (not expecting an answer). In other cases, when they do expect a response, they may differ from straightforward questions in that they cue the listener as to what response is desired. In legal settings, tag questions can often be found in a leading question. According to a specialist children's lawyer at the NSPCC, children find it difficult to answer tag questions other than in accordance with the expectation of the questioner using or tagging a question. Question tags are formed in several ways, and many languages give a choice of formation.
The interrogative mood is used for posing questions. Questions with the question particle immaqa "maybe" cannot use the interrogative mood. Table 5 shows the intransitive indicative inflection for patient person and number of the verb neri- "to eat" in the indicative and interrogative moods (question marks mark interrogative intonation—questions have falling intonation on the last syllable as opposed to most Indo-European languages in which questions are marked by rising intonation). The indicative and the interrogative mood each have a transitive and an intransitive inflection, but here only the intransitive inflection is given.
trick questionfallacy of many questionsleading questions
For example, a classic loaded question, containing incriminating assumptions that the questioned persons seem to admit to if they answer the questions instead of challenging them, is "Have you stopped beating your wife?" If the person questioned answers, "Yes", then that implies that he has previously beaten his wife. A loaded question may be asked to trick the respondent into admitting something that the questioner believes to be true, and which may in fact be true.
leading questionsleadingquestions biased
In common law systems that rely on testimony by witnesses, a leading question or suggestive interrogation is a question that suggests the particular answer or contains the information the examiner is looking to have confirmed. Their use is restricted in eliciting testimony in court, to reduce the ability of the examiner to direct or influence the evidence presented. Depending on the circumstances, leading questions can be objectionable or proper. Leading questions may often be answerable with a yes or no (though not all yes-no questions are leading). The propriety of leading questions generally depends on the relationship of the witness to the party conducting the examination.
There are sentence-tagging particles such as Japanese and Chinese question markers. In Latin, particles are the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjection (a word that has emotion). Polynesian languages are almost devoid of inflection, and use particles extensively to indicate mood, tense, and case. Suggs, discussing the deciphering of the rongorongo script of Easter Island, describes them as all-important. In Māori for example, the versatile particle "e" can signal the imperative mood, the vocative case, the future tense, or the subject of a sentence formed with most passive verbs.
However, outside China and Hungary, these mostly involve informal arrangements rather than dedicated departments or state sponsorship. Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest had a department of Interlinguistics and Esperanto from 1966 to 2004, after which time instruction moved to vocational colleges; there are state examinations for Esperanto instructors. Additionally, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poland offers a diploma in Interlinguistics. The Senate of Brazil passed a bill in 2009 that would make Esperanto an optional part of the curriculum in public schools, although mandatory if there is demand for it. the bill is still under consideration by the Chamber of Deputies.
There are also weak syllables, including grammatical particles such as the interrogative ma and certain syllables in polysyllabic words. These syllables are short, with their pitch determined by the preceding syllable. It is common for Standard Chinese to be spoken with the speaker's regional accent, depending on factors such as age, level of education, and the need and frequency to speak in official or formal situations. This appears to be changing, though, in large urban areas, as social changes, migrations, and urbanization take place. Due to evolution and standardization, Mandarin, although based on the Beijing dialect, is no longer synonymous with it.
Questions (both with an interrogative pronoun and yes/no questions) have the same structure as affirmative sentences, but with intonation rising at the end. In the formal register, the question particle -ka is added. For example, ii desu "It is OK" becomes ii desu-ka "Is it OK?". In a more informal tone sometimes the particle -no is added instead to show a personal interest of the speaker: Dōshite konai-no? "Why aren't (you) coming?". Some simple queries are formed simply by mentioning the topic with an interrogative intonation to call for the hearer's attention: Kore wa? "(What about) this?"; O-namae wa? "(What's your) name?".
However, in the 19th century, with the development of historical-comparative linguistics, linguists began to realize the sheer diversity of human language and to question fundamental assumptions about the relationship between language and logic. It became apparent that there was no such thing as the most natural way to express a thought, and therefore logic could no longer be relied upon as a basis for studying the structure of language. The Port-Royal grammar modeled the study of syntax upon that of logic.
abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.