Dependent clause

subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
However, the English relative pronoun (other than what) may be omitted and only implied if it plays the role of the object of the verb or object of a preposition in a restrictive clause; for example, He is the boy I saw is equivalent to He is the boy whom I saw, and I saw the boy you are talking about is equivalent to the more formal I saw the boy about whom you are talking. 3) The relative clause functions as an adjective, answering questions such as "what kind?", "how many?" or "which one?". Relative Pronoun [Functioning as Object of Verb] + Subject + Verb. This is the ball 'that I was bouncing. Relative Adverb + Subject + Verb (possibly + Object of Verb).

Verb–subject–object

VSOverb-subject-objectVERB – SUBJECT – OBJECT
Non-VSO languages that use VSO in questions include English and many other Germanic languages (f.e. German and Dutch) as well as French, Finnish, Maká, Emilian and often Spanish. The North Germanic languages invert their word order to VSO in questions as well (Norwegian: Spiste du maten? "Ate you the food?"). However, there are also many cases of VSO being V2 word order, with the verb coming second, such as in expressions that are before both the subject and the verb. Another case is subclauses (Norwegian: I går leste jeg boka "Yesterday read I the book").

Closed-ended question

open-ended questionsclosed questionclosed questions
A-not-A question. Yesno question. Test (student assessment). Multiple choice.

Chinese language

ChineseRegional dialectChinese:
It is considered highly informal, and does not extend to many formal occasions. The Chinese had no uniform phonetic transcription system until the mid-20th century, although enunciation patterns were recorded in early rime books and dictionaries. Early Indian translators, working in Sanskrit and Pali, were the first to attempt to describe the sounds and enunciation patterns of Chinese in a foreign language. After the 15th century, the efforts of Jesuits and Western court missionaries resulted in some rudimentary Latin transcription systems, based on the Nanjing Mandarin dialect.

Danish language

DanishDanish-languageda
Questions with wh-words are formed differently from yes/no questions. In wh-questions the question word occupies the preverbal field, regardless of whether its grammatical role is subject or object or adverbial. In yes/no questions the preverbal field is empty, so that the sentence begins with the verb. Wh-question: In subordinate clauses, the syntax differs from that of main clauses. In the subordinate clause structure the verb is preceded by the subject and any light adverbial material (e.g. negation). Complement clauses begin with the particle at in the "connector field".

DSRP

Guiding questions provide users with something akin to the Socratic method of questioning but using DSRP as the underlying logic. Users pose "guiding questions", of which there are two for each structure of DSRP. The guiding questions are: Users are encouraged to model ideas with blocks or other physical objects, or to draw (diagram) ideas in terms of D, S, R, and P. This aspect of the method is promoted as a form of nonlinguistic representation of ideas, based on research showing that learners acquire and structure knowledge more effectively when information is presented in linguistic and nonlinguistic formats.

ASLwrite

Questions in written ASL are denoted by eyebrow marks bounding the question not unlike Spanish's "¿ ?." Question words or wh-questions in ASL can also form the interrogative. There are in total 105 characters in ASLwrite with 67 digits, five diacritic marks, twelve locatives, sixteen extramanual marks and five movement marks. Since its creation, it has evolved to include more digits, locatives, movements and marks as well as modify those already present. si5s, a system built from SignWriting, was first proposed by Robert Arnold in his 2007 Gallaudet thesis A Proposal of the Written System for ASL.

Toki Pona

Sonja Elen KisaSonja KisaToki Poni
There are two ways to form yes-no questions in Toki Pona. The first method is to use the “verb ala verb” construction in which ala comes in between a duplicated verb, auxiliary verb, or other predicator. Another way to form a yes-no question is to put “anu seme?” (lit. or what?) at the end of a sentence. It is important to note that questions cannot be made by just putting a question mark at the end of a sentence. Non-polar questions are formed by substituting the unknown information with the interrogative word seme. Toki Pona has basic pronouns: mi (first person), sina (second person), and ona (third person). The pronouns do not specify number or gender.

Index of philosophy articles (I–Q)

Informal fallacy. Informal logic. Informal mathematics. Information bias (psychology). Information ethics. Information theory. Informed consent. Informed refusal. Infoshop. Infoshop.org. Ingeborg Bachmann. Ingeborg i Mjärhult. Ingenuity. Ingo Zechner. Ingroup bias. Ingsoc. Inherence. Inherence relation. Inherent. Inherent value. Inherently funny word. Iniciales. Inka. Innate idea. Innate ideas. Innate knowledge. Innatism. Inne pieśni. Inner peace. Innocence. Inocenc Arnošt Bláha. Inoue Tetsujirō. Inquiry. Inside Front. Insight. Insolubilia. Instantiation. Instantiation principle. Institute for Anarchist Studies. Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.

Khmer language

KhmerCambodianKhmer (Cambodian)
Intonation often conveys semantic context in Khmer, as in distinguishing declarative statements, questions and exclamations. The available grammatical means of making such distinctions are not always used, or may be ambiguous; for example, the final interrogative particle ទេ can also serve as an emphasizing (or in some cases negating) particle. The intonation pattern of a typical Khmer declarative phrase is a steady rise throughout followed by an abrupt drop on the last syllable. :ខ្ញុំមិនចង់បានទេ ('I don't want it') Other intonation contours signify a different type of phrase such as the "full doubt" interrogative, similar to yes-no questions in English.

Iatmül language

IatmülIatmulian
It frequently occurs together with Switch-Reference and is used to structure communicated information. In a neutral sentence, the subject and the non-referential object are unmarked with respect to information structure. When the subject is focused, the focus marker -a (masculine, -ak for feminine) marks the masculine subject. The verb in contrary misses markers for person and grammatical gender and is marked with the focus marker -a instead. Even though both focus markers have the same form, their origin is different and they have different allomorphs. The following sentence is the answer to the question 'Who cooked rice?'.

Lakota language

LakotaLakhotaStandard Lakota Orthography
There are also various interrogative enclitics, which in addition to marking an utterance as a question show finer distinctions of meaning. For example, while he is the usual question-marking enclitic, huŋwó is used for rhetorical questions or in formal oratory, and the dubitative wa functions somewhat like a tag question in English (Rood and Taylor 1996; Buchel 1983). (See also the section below on men and women's speech.) A small number of enclitics (approximately eight) differ in form based on the gender of the speaker. Yeló (men) ye (women) mark mild assertions. Kštó (women only according to most sources) marks strong assertion.

Chinese grammar

ChineseChinese aspect markersChinese aspects
In wh-questions in Chinese, the question word is not fronted. Instead, it stays in the position in the sentence that would be occupied by the item being asked about. For example, "What did you say?" is phrased as nǐ shuō shé[n]me (, literally "you say what"). The word shénme (, "what" or "which"), remains in the object position after the verb. Other interrogative words include: Disjunctive questions can be made using the word háishì between the options, like English "or". This differs from the word for "or" in statements, which is huòzhě. Yes-no questions can be formed using the sentence-final particle ma, with word order otherwise the same as in a statement.

Pipil language (typological overview)

typological overview
Yes-no questions have no special grammatical marking, while wh-questions are identified by the presence of a question word, which usually precedes the verb (or other predicate). Subordinate clauses are either introduced by a subordinator in clause-initial position or else are juxtaposed with no subordinating conjunction. Pipil language. Pipil grammar. Campbell, Lyle (1985). The Pipil language of El Salvador. Mouton Grammar Library (No. 1). Berlin: Mouton Publishers. ISBN: 0-89925-040-8 (U.S.), ISBN: 3-11-010344-3. Campbell, Lyle, Terrence Kaufman and Thomas C. Smith-Stark (1986). "Meso-America as a Linguistic Area." Language 62:3, p. 530–570.

Tunisian Arabic

TunisianaebDarija
As for verbs, they are conjugated in five tenses: perfective, imperfective, future, imperative, conditional present and conditional past Tenses and in four forms: affirmative, exclamative, interrogative and negative forms. They can be preceded by modal verbs to indicate a particular intention, situation, belief or obligation when they are conjugated in perfective or imperfective tenses. Questions in Tunisian Arabic can be āš (wh question) or īh/lā (yes/no question). The question words for āš questions can be either a pronoun or an adverb. As for negation, it is usually done using the structure mā noun+š.

Aporia

aporeticaporeticallyquizzicality
Remembering Socrates. Oxford University Press. Antinomy. Cognition. Dubitative mood. Figure of speech. Intuition. Rhetorical question. Thought experiment. Zeno's paradoxes.

A-not-A question

A-not-A
Closed-ended question. Echo answer. Interrogative. Yes-no question.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Feminist philosophy explores questions surrounding gender, sexuality and the body including the nature of feminism itself as a social and philosophical movement. Philosophy of sport analyzes sports, games and other forms of play as sociological and uniquely human activities. 1) All humans are mortal. (premise). 2) Socrates is a human. (premise). 3) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion). Wikipedia:Getting to Philosophy. List of important publications in philosophy. List of years in philosophy. List of philosophy journals. List of unsolved problems in philosophy. Lists of philosophers. Social theory. Blumenau, Ralph. Philosophy and Living. ISBN: 978-0-907845-33-1. Craig, Edward.

Pronoun

pronounspronominalpronominal system
Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. In reference to a person, one may use who (subject), whom (object) or whose (possessive); for example, Who did that? In colloquial speech, whom is generally replaced by who. English non-personal interrogative pronouns (which and what) have only one form. In English and many other languages (e.g. French and Czech), the sets of relative and interrogative pronouns are nearly identical. Compare English: Who is that? (interrogative) and I know the woman who came (relative). In some other languages, interrogative pronouns and indefinite pronouns are frequently identical; for example, Standard Chinese 什么 shénme means "what?"

Clitic

encliticprocliticenclitics
Latin: -que "and", -ve "or", -ne (yes-no question). Greek: τε "and", δέ "but", γάρ "for" (in a logical argument), οὖν "therefore". Russian: ли (yes-no question), же (emphasis), то (emphasis), не "not" (proclitic), бы (subjunctive). Czech: special clitics: weak personal and reflexive pronouns (mu, "him"), certain auxiliary verbs (by, "would"), and various short particles and adverbs (tu, "here"; ale, "though"). "Nepodařilo by se mi mu to dát" "I would not succeed in giving it to him". In addition there are various simple clitics including short prepositions.

Word order

free word orderconstituent orderword-order
Thus the following sentences each answer a different question: Latin prose often follows the word order "Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Adverb, Verb", but this is more of a guideline than a rule. Adjectives in most cases go before the noun they modify, but some categories, such as those that determine or specify (e.g. Via Appia "Appian Way"), usually follow the noun. In Classical Latin poetry, lyricists followed word order very loosely to achieve a desired scansion.

Polish language

Polishplpol.
Yes-no questions (both direct and indirect) are formed by placing the word czy at the start. Negation uses the word nie, before the verb or other item being negated; nie is still added before the verb even if the sentence also contains other negatives such as nigdy ("never") or nic ("nothing"), effectively creating a double negative. Cardinal numbers have a complex system of inflection and agreement. Zero and cardinal numbers higher than five (except for those ending with the digit 2, 3 or 4 but not ending with 12, 13 or 14) govern the genitive case rather than the nominative or accusative.

Presupposition

presuppositionspresupposeassumptions
Questions often presuppose what the assertive part of the question presupposes, but interrogative parts might introduce further presuppositions. There are three different types of questions: yes/no questions, alternative questions and WH-questions. * John's children are very noisy. »John has children. A presupposition of a sentence must normally be part of the common ground of the utterance context (the shared knowledge of the interlocutors) in order for the sentence to be felicitous. Sometimes, however, sentences may carry presuppositions that are not part of the common ground and nevertheless be felicitous.

Suggestive question

leading questions
Repeated questions elicit certain types of answers. Repeated questions make people think their first answer was wrong, lead them to change their answer, or cause people to keep answering until the interrogator gets the exact response that they desire. Elizabeth Loftus states that errors in answers are dramatically reduced if a question is only asked once. Yes/no or forced choice questions like "Should we convict this murderer?" force people to choose between two choices when the answer could be neither of the choices. This generates more "interviewer-talks" moments, where the interviewer is talking and controlling most of the interview.

Mu (negative)

muwu
It is used fancifully in discussions of symbolic logic, particularly Gödel's incompleteness theorems, to indicate a question whose "answer" is to "Mu" may be used similarly to "N/A" or "not applicable," a term often used to indicate the question cannot be answered because the conditions of the question do not match the reality. A layperson's example of this concept is often invoked by the loaded question "Have you stopped beating your wife?", to which "mu" would be the only respectable response. Because of this meaning, programming language Perl 6 uses "Mu" for the root of its type hierarchy.