It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates's most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy. The Socratic method has often been considered as a defining element of American legal education.

Display question

display questions
A display question is a type of question where the questioner already knows the answer. Display questions are used in language education in order to elicit language practice. They are contrasted with referential questions, questions for which the answer is not yet known. The use of referential questions is generally preferred to the use of display questions in communicative language teaching. Richards and Schmidt give the following example: *Rhetorical question Q: Is this a book?. A: Yes, it's a book.

List of Latin-script digraphs

Most English question words begin with this digraph, hence the terms wh-word and wh-question. The spelling changed from to in Middle English. In most dialects it is now pronounced, but some (especially in Scotland) retain the distinct pronunciation /hw/, realized as a voiceless w sound. In a few words (who, whole, etc.) the pronunciation is /h/. For details, see Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩. In the Māori language, represents or more commonly, with some regional variations approaching or. In the Taranaki region, for some speakers, this represents a glottalized. In Xhosa, it represents, a murmured variant of found in loan words.

Evasion (ethics)

Often the aim of dodging a question is to make it seem as though the question was fulfilled, leaving the person who asked the question feeling satisfied with the answer, unaware that the question was not properly answered. A false accusation of question dodging can sometimes be made as a disingenuous tactic in debate, in the informal fallacy of the loaded question. A common way out of this argument is not to answer the question (e.g. with a simple 'yes' or 'no'), but to challenge the assumption behind the question. This can lead the person questioned to be accused of "dodging the question".


Behavioral therapy — in which a person systematically asks his own mind if the doubt has any real basis — uses rational, Socratic methods. This method contrasts to those of say, the Buddhist faith, which involve a more esoteric approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived past and future. To let go of the personal history of one's life (affirming this release every day in meditation) plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt.


grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves a greater degree of explicit instruction. Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use. The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", therefore, may have several meanings.


dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
While looked to for Plato's "mature" answers to the questions posed by his earlier works, those answers are difficult to discern. Some scholars indicate that the theory of Forms is absent from the late dialogues, its having been refuted in the Parmenides, but there isn't total consensus that the Parmenides actually refutes the theory of Forms. The so-called "late dialogues" include Critias, Laws, Philebus, Sophist, Statesman, and Timaeus. Plato never presents himself as a participant in any of the dialogues, and with the exception of the Apology, there is no suggestion that he heard any of the dialogues firsthand.


To others, however, that is the preeminent point: is the rhetoric strategically effective and what did the rhetoric accomplish? This question allows a shift in focus from the speaker's objectives to the effects and functions of the rhetoric itself. Rhetorical strategies are the efforts made by authors to persuade or inform their readers. Rhetorical strategies are employed by writers and refer to the different ways they can persuade the reader. According to Gray, there are various argument strategies used in writing. He describes four of these as argument from analogy, argument from absurdity, thought experiments, and inference to the best explanation.

Prosody (linguistics)

David Brazil and his associates studied how intonation can indicate whether information is new or already established; whether a speaker is dominant or not in a conversation; and when a speaker is inviting the listener to make a contribution to the conversation. Prosody is also important in signalling emotions and attitudes. When this is involuntary (as when the voice is affected by anxiety or fear), the prosodic information is not linguistically significant. However, when the speaker varies her speech intentionally, for example to indicate sarcasm, this usually involves the use of prosodic features.

Turkish language

TurkishModern TurkishTr
Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance. However, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial. Some earlier changes—such as bölem to replace fırka, "political party"—also failed to meet with popular approval (fırka has been replaced by the French loanword parti). Some words restored from Old Turkic have taken on specialized meanings; for example betik (originally meaning "book") is now used to mean "script" in computer science. Many of the words derived by TDK coexist with their older counterparts. This usually happens when a loanword changes its original meaning.

Inversion (linguistics)

- Subject–auxiliary inversion with yes/no question. a. Larry has done it. b. What has Larry done? - Subject–auxiliary inversion with constituent question. a. Fred has helped at no point. b. At no point has Fred helped. - Subject–auxiliary inversion with fronted expression containing negation (negative inversion). a. If we were to surrender, ... b. Were we to surrender, ... - Subject–auxiliary inversion in condition clause – see. a. Fred stayed. b. *Stayed Fred? - Inversion impossible here because the verb is NOT an auxiliary verb. a. A unicorn will come into the room. b. Into the room will come a unicorn. a. Down the stairs came the dog. - Noun subject. b. ?


pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
Politeness in Parliamentary Discourse : A Comparative Pragmatic Study of British and Moroccan MPs’ Speech Acts at Question Time. Unpub. Ph.D. Thesis. Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco. Mey, Jacob L. (1993) Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell (2nd ed. 2001). Kepa Korta and John Perry. (2006) Pragmatics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Potts, Christopher. (2005) The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Robinson, Douglas. (2003). Performative Linguistics: Speaking and Translating as Doing Things With Words. London and New York: Routledge. Robinson, Douglas. (2006).

French language

when asking a question rather than just "Vous parlez français ?" Both questions mean the same thing; however, a rising inflection is always used on both of them whenever asking a question, especially on the second one. Specifically, the first translates into "Do you speak French?" while the second one is literally just "You speak French?" To avoid inversion while asking a question, 'Est-ce que' (literally 'is it that') may be placed in the beginning of the sentence. "Parlez-vous français ?" may become "Est-ce que vous parlez français ?" French also uses verb–object–subject (VOS) and object–subject–verb (OSV) word order.

Theory of forms

The pre-Socratic philosophers, starting with Thales, noted that appearances change, and began to ask what the thing that changes "really" is. The answer was substance, which stands under the changes and is the actually existing thing being seen. The status of appearances now came into question. What is the form really and how is that related to substance? The Forms are expounded upon in Plato's dialogues and general speech, in that every object or quality in reality has a form: dogs, human beings, mountains, colors, courage, love, and goodness. Form answers the question, "What is that?" Plato was going a step further and asking what Form itself is.

German grammar

GermanAdverbial phrasesarticles
Yet, one could still say that transferring the case-information to the article preserved the German case system throughout its development from Old High German to contemporary German. Today, the use of the genitive case is relatively rare in spoken language - speakers sometimes substitute the dative case for the genitive in conversation. But the genitive case remains almost obligatory in written communication, public speeches and anything that is not explicitly colloquial, and it is still an important part of the Bildungssprache (language of education).

French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
Verbs in French are conjugated to reflect the following information: Some of these features are combined into seven tense–aspect–mood combinations. The simple (one-word) forms are commonly referred to as the present, the simple past or preterite (past tense, perfective aspect), the imperfect (past tense, imperfective aspect), the future, the conditional, the present subjunctive, and the imperfect subjunctive. However, the simple past is rarely used in informal French, and the imperfect subjunctive is rarely used in modern French at all.

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedauxiliaries
Some more examples: The contracted forms of the questions are more usual in informal English. They are commonly found in tag questions. For the possibility of using aren't I (or other dialectal alternatives) in place of the uncontracted am I not, see Contractions representing am not above. The same phenomenon sometimes occurs in the case of negative inversion: ::Not only doesn't he smoke, ... / Not only does he not smoke, ... forms of the verb do (do, does, did), when used with other verbs to enable the formation of questions, negation, emphasis, etc.


Half of the works of Aristotle's Organon treat inference as it occurs in an informal setting, side by side with the development of the syllogistic, and in the Aristotelian school, these informal works on logic were seen as complementary to Aristotle's treatment of rhetoric. This ancient motivation is still alive, although it no longer takes centre stage in the picture of logic; typically dialectical logic forms the heart of a course in critical thinking, a compulsory course at many universities.

Gotcha journalism

gotchaGotcha questionsgotcha inquiry
It has also been used as an excuse to evade a question to which the interviewee does not know the answer, and where their lack of knowledge would make them appear foolish or uninformed. Concision (media studies). Gonzo journalism. Investigative journalism. Sound bite. 1999 Associated Press article archived at Jefferson City (MO) News Tribune 2004 spotlight article at 2004 article at 2005 article from San Francisco Chronicle.

Welsh language

In the 2011 Census, 8,248 people in England gave Welsh in answer to the question "What is your main language?" The ONS subsequently published a census glossary of terms to support the release of results from the census, including their definition of "main language" as referring to "first or preferred language" (though that wording was not in the census questionnaire itself). The wards in England with the most people giving Welsh as their main language were the Liverpool wards of Central and Greenbank, and Oswestry South.

Modern Greek

GreekModernmodern Greek language
See also the Greek language question. Pontic was originally spoken along the mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, the so-called Pontus region, until most of its speakers were killed or displaced to modern Greece during the Pontic genocide (1919–1921), followed later by the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. (Small numbers of Muslim speakers of Pontic Greek escaped these events and still reside in the Pontic villages of Turkey.) It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region.


Burgwarte Nonnenstein
The Nonne (also Nonnenstein) is a roughly 18-metre-high, isolated, standing sandstone rock and climbing peak in Saxon Switzerland in Germany. The rock is located southeast of Rathen, east of the rock chain of Rauenstein.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation. Informal speech employs tu followed by second person verbs, formal language retains the formal você, followed by the third person conjugation. Conjugation of tu has three different forms in Brazil (verb "to see": tu viste?, in the traditional second person, tu viu?, in the third person, and tu visse?, in the innovative second person), the conjugation used in the Brazilian states of Pará, Santa Catarina and Maranhão being generally traditional second person, the kind that is used in other Portuguese-speaking countries and learned in Brazilian schools.