French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
Verbs in French are conjugated to reflect the following information: Some of these features are combined into seven tense–aspect–mood combinations. The simple (one-word) forms are commonly referred to as the present, the simple past or preterite (past tense, perfective aspect), the imperfect (past tense, imperfective aspect), the future, the conditional, the present subjunctive, and the imperfect subjunctive. However, the simple past is rarely used in informal French, and the imperfect subjunctive is rarely used in modern French at all.

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedauxiliaries
Some more examples: The contracted forms of the questions are more usual in informal English. They are commonly found in tag questions. For the possibility of using aren't I (or other dialectal alternatives) in place of the uncontracted am I not, see Contractions representing am not above. The same phenomenon sometimes occurs in the case of negative inversion: ::Not only doesn't he smoke, ... / Not only does he not smoke, ... forms of the verb do (do, does, did), when used with other verbs to enable the formation of questions, negation, emphasis, etc.


Half of the works of Aristotle's Organon treat inference as it occurs in an informal setting, side by side with the development of the syllogistic, and in the Aristotelian school, these informal works on logic were seen as complementary to Aristotle's treatment of rhetoric. This ancient motivation is still alive, although it no longer takes centre stage in the picture of logic; typically dialectical logic forms the heart of a course in critical thinking, a compulsory course at many universities.


However, in the 19th century, with the development of historical-comparative linguistics, linguists began to realize the sheer diversity of human language and to question fundamental assumptions about the relationship between language and logic. It became apparent that there was no such thing as the most natural way to express a thought, and therefore logic could no longer be relied upon as a basis for studying the structure of language. The Port-Royal grammar modeled the study of syntax upon that of logic.

Welsh language

In the 2011 Census, 8,248 people in England gave Welsh in answer to the question "What is your main language?" The ONS subsequently published a census glossary of terms to support the release of results from the census, including their definition of "main language" as referring to "first or preferred language" (though that wording was not in the census questionnaire itself). The wards in England with the most people giving Welsh as their main language were the Liverpool wards of Central and Greenbank, and Oswestry South.

Modern Greek

GreekModernmodern Greek language
See also the Greek language question. Pontic was originally spoken along the mountainous Black Sea coast of Turkey, the so-called Pontus region, until most of its speakers were killed or displaced to modern Greece during the Pontic genocide (1919–1921), followed later by the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. (Small numbers of Muslim speakers of Pontic Greek escaped these events and still reside in the Pontic villages of Turkey.) It hails from Hellenistic and Medieval Koine and preserves characteristics of Ionic due to ancient colonizations of the region.


Burgwarte Nonnenstein
The Nonne (also Nonnenstein) is a roughly 18-metre-high, isolated, standing sandstone rock and climbing peak in Saxon Switzerland in Germany. The rock is located southeast of Rathen, east of the rock chain of Rauenstein.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation. Informal speech employs tu followed by second person verbs, formal language retains the formal você, followed by the third person conjugation. Conjugation of tu has three different forms in Brazil (verb "to see": tu viste?, in the traditional second person, tu viu?, in the third person, and tu visse?, in the innovative second person), the conjugation used in the Brazilian states of Pará, Santa Catarina and Maranhão being generally traditional second person, the kind that is used in other Portuguese-speaking countries and learned in Brazilian schools.

Closed-ended question

open-ended questionsclosed questionclosed questions
A-not-A question. Yesno question. Test (student assessment). Multiple choice.

Jakaltek language

The Jakaltek (Jacaltec) language, also known as Jakalteko (Jacalteco) or Popti’, is a Mayan language of Guatemala spoken by 90,000 Jakaltek people in the department of Huehuetenango, and some 500 the adjoining part of Chiapas in southern Mexico. The name Popti' for the language is used by the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala and the Guatemalan Congress.

Korean language

Some examples of this can be seen in: (1) softer tone used by women in speech; (2) a married woman introducing herself as someone’s mother or wife, not with her own name; (3) the presence of gender differences in titles and occupational terms (for example, a sajang is a company president and yŏsajang is a female company president.); (4) females sometimes using more tag questions and rising tones in statements, also seen in speech from children. In Western societies, individuals tend to avoid expressions of power asymmetry, mutually addressing each other by their first names for the sake of solidarity.

Cyrillic script

CyrillicUzbek CyrillicCyrillic alphabet
Various informal romanizations of Cyrillic, which adapt the Cyrillic script to Latin and sometimes Greek glyphs for compatibility with small character sets. Cyrillic: U+0400–U+04FF. Cyrillic Supplement: U+0500–U+052F. Cyrillic Extended-A: U+2DE0–U+2DFF. Cyrillic Extended-B: U+A640–U+A69F. Cyrillic Extended-C: U+1C80–U+1C8F. Phonetic Extensions: U+1D2B, U+1D78.

Norwegian language

A newer trend is to write in dialect for informal use. When writing an SMS, Facebook update, or fridge note, most younger people write the way they talk rather than using Bokmål or Nynorsk. There is general agreement that a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Dialects are in some cases so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners.

No such thing as a stupid question

School House Diary: Reflections of a Retired Educator notes that teachers are fond of saying this phrase, and suggests that while they themselves want to call out the stupid questions, they fall back on the adage in order to prevent the child from being ridiculed. Those questions that have already been answered, but the asker wasn't listening or paying attention. Questions that can be answered with a scant amount of research and less than a minute of time. Questions of which the answer should be painfully obvious to any person with a pulse who has lived on this earth for more than a decade.

Affirmation and negation

Complications sometimes arise in the case of responses to negative statements or questions; in some cases the response that confirms a negative statement is the negative particle (as in English: "You're not going out? No."), but in some languages this is reversed. Some languages have a distinct form to answer a negative question, such as French si and Swedish jo (these serve to contradict the negative statement suggested by the first speaker). Languages have a variety of grammatical rules for converting affirmative verb phrases or clauses into negative ones. In many languages, an affirmative is made negative by the addition of a particle, meaning "not".

Spanish language

Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions. There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation. Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables.


With the passage of time, impressions stored in the consciousness about many, together with the resulting relationships and consequences, permit the individual to build a construct about the moral implications of behavior. 1) Ask a question about a natural phenomenon. 2) Make observations of the phenomenon. 3) Formulate a hypothesis that tentatively answers the question. 4) Predict logical, observable consequences of the hypothesis that have not yet been investigated. 5) Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation. 6) Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
In the second sentence, which involves the subject-auxiliary inversion of a yes/no-question, the subject immediately follows the finite verb (instead of immediately preceding it), which means the second criterion is flouted. And in the third sentence expressed in the passive voice, the 1st and the 2nd criterion combine to identify chemistry as the subject, whereas the third criterion suggests that by Tom should be the subject because Tom is an agent. The fourth criterion is better applicable to languages other than English given that English largely lacks morphological case marking, the exception being the subject and object forms of pronouns, I/me, he/him, she/her, they/them.


interobanginverted version of the interrobangpunctuation mark
, is a punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark, or interrogative point, and the exclamation mark, or exclamation point, known in the jargon of printers and programmers as a "bang". The glyph is a superimposition of these two marks. A sentence ending with an interrobang asks a question in an excited manner, expresses excitement or disbelief in the form of a question, or asks a rhetorical question. For example: Writers using informal language may use several alternating question marks and exclamation marks for even more emphasis, however this is regarded as poor style in formal writing.