Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.


Jakaltek language

The Jakaltek (Jacaltec) language, also known as Jakalteko (Jacalteco) or Popti’, is a Mayan language of Guatemala spoken by 90,000 Jakaltek people in the department of Huehuetenango, and some 500 the adjoining part of Chiapas in southern Mexico. The name Popti' for the language is used by the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala and the Guatemalan Congress.

Korean language

Some examples of this can be seen in: (1) softer tone used by women in speech; (2) a married woman introducing herself as someone’s mother or wife, not with her own name; (3) the presence of gender differences in titles and occupational terms (for example, a sajang is a company president and yŏsajang is a female company president.); (4) females sometimes using more tag questions and rising tones in statements, also seen in speech from children. In Western societies, individuals tend to avoid expressions of power asymmetry, mutually addressing each other by their first names for the sake of solidarity.

Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin letters
A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing. It was most commonly used from about the 1st century BC to the 3rd century, but it probably existed earlier than that. It led to Uncial, a majuscule script commonly used from the 3rd to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. New Roman cursive script, also known as minuscule cursive, was in use from the 3rd century to the 7th century, and uses letter forms that are more recognizable to modern eyes;,,, and had taken a more familiar shape, and the other letters were proportionate to each other.

Cyrillic script

CyrillicUzbek CyrillicCyrillic alphabet
Various informal romanizations of Cyrillic, which adapt the Cyrillic script to Latin and sometimes Greek glyphs for compatibility with small character sets. Cyrillic: U+0400–U+04FF. Cyrillic Supplement: U+0500–U+052F. Cyrillic Extended-A: U+2DE0–U+2DFF. Cyrillic Extended-B: U+A640–U+A69F. Cyrillic Extended-C: U+1C80–U+1C8F. Phonetic Extensions: U+1D2B, U+1D78.

Answer ellipsis

Answer ellipsis (= answer fragments) is a type of ellipsis that occurs in answers to questions. Answer ellipsis appears very frequently in any dialogue, and it is present in probably all languages. Of the types of ellipsis mechanisms, answer fragments behave most like sluicing, a point that shall be illustrated below. Standard instances of answer ellipsis occur in answers to questions. A question is posed, and the answer is formulated in such a manner to be maximally efficient. Just the constituent that is focused by the question word is uttered. The elided material in the examples in this article is indicated using a smaller font and subscripts: This sort of data could easily be expanded.

Norwegian language

A newer trend is to write in dialect for informal use. When writing an SMS, Facebook update, or fridge note, most younger people write the way they talk rather than using Bokmål or Nynorsk. There is general agreement that a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Dialects are in some cases so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners.


conversational implicatureimpliedImplicit
Here, B implicates via the maxim of relation that he drove somewhere (as this is the fitting answer to A's question), but this information is also entailed by his answer. ;Are quantity implicatures actually implicatures? At least some scalar and other quantity "implicatures" seem not to be implicatures at all but semantic enrichments of the utterance, what is variously described as a kind of explicature or as an impliciture in the literature.

No such thing as a stupid question

School House Diary: Reflections of a Retired Educator notes that teachers are fond of saying this phrase, and suggests that while they themselves want to call out the stupid questions, they fall back on the adage in order to prevent the child from being ridiculed. Those questions that have already been answered, but the asker wasn't listening or paying attention. Questions that can be answered with a scant amount of research and less than a minute of time. Questions of which the answer should be painfully obvious to any person with a pulse who has lived on this earth for more than a decade.

Affirmation and negation

Complications sometimes arise in the case of responses to negative statements or questions; in some cases the response that confirms a negative statement is the negative particle (as in English: "You're not going out? No."), but in some languages this is reversed. Some languages have a distinct form to answer a negative question, such as French si and Swedish jo (these serve to contradict the negative statement suggested by the first speaker). Languages have a variety of grammatical rules for converting affirmative verb phrases or clauses into negative ones. In many languages, an affirmative is made negative by the addition of a particle, meaning "not".

Spanish language

Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions. There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation. Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables.

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
In the second sentence, which involves the subject-auxiliary inversion of a yes/no-question, the subject immediately follows the finite verb (instead of immediately preceding it), which means the second criterion is flouted. And in the third sentence expressed in the passive voice, the 1st and the 2nd criterion combine to identify chemistry as the subject, whereas the third criterion suggests that by Tom should be the subject because Tom is an agent. The fourth criterion is better applicable to languages other than English given that English largely lacks morphological case marking, the exception being the subject and object forms of pronouns, I/me, he/him, she/her, they/them.


interobanginverted version of the interrobangpunctuation mark
, is a punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark, or interrogative point, and the exclamation mark, or exclamation point, known in the jargon of printers and programmers as a "bang". The glyph is a superimposition of these two marks. A sentence ending with an interrobang asks a question in an excited manner, expresses excitement or disbelief in the form of a question, or asks a rhetorical question. For example: Writers using informal language may use several alternating question marks and exclamation marks for even more emphasis, however this is regarded as poor style in formal writing.


truetheory of truthtruth theory
Language is a means by which humans convey information to one another. The method used to determine whether something is a truth is termed a criterion of truth. There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false; how to define, identify, and distinguish truth; what roles do faith and empirical knowledge play; and whether truth can be subjective or is objective: relative truth versus absolute truth. The English word truth is derived from Old English tríewþ, tréowþ, trýwþ, Middle English trewþe, cognate to Old High German triuwida, Old Norse tryggð.

Sentence word

sentence wordsword sentenceword sentences
Other languages use sentence words as well. * In Japanese, a holophrastic or single-word sentence is meant to carry the least amount of information as syntactically possible, while intonation becomes the primary carrier of meaning. For example, a person saying the Japanese word e.g. "はい" (/haɪ/) = 'yes' on a high level pitch would command attention. Pronouncing the same word using a mid tone, could represent an answer to a roll-call. Finally, pronouncing this word with a low pitch could signify acquiescence: acceptance of something reluctantly. * Modern Hebrew also exhibits examples of sentence words in its language, e.g. ".חַם" = "It is hot." or ".קַר" = "It is cold.".


ironicironicallydramatic irony
, understatement ("Sure, what the hell, it's only cancer..."), rhetorical questions ("What, does your spirit have cancer?"), double entendre ("I'll bet if you do that, you'll be communing with spirits in no time...") and jocularity ("Get them to fix your bad back while you're at it.") should all be considered forms of verbal irony. The differences between these rhetorical devices (tropes) can be quite subtle and relate to typical emotional reactions of listeners, and the rhetorical goals of the speakers.

Old English

Anglo-SaxonSaxonAnglo Saxon
No do-support in questions and negatives. Questions were usually formed by inverting subject and finite verb, and negatives by placing ne before the finite verb, regardless what verb. Multiple negatives can stack up in a sentence intensifying each other (negative concord). Sentences with subordinate clauses of the type "when X, Y" (e.g. "When I got home, I ate dinner") don't use a wh-type conjunction, but rather a th-type correlative conjunction such as þā, otherwise meaning "then" (e.g. þā X, þā Y in place of "when X, Y"). The wh-words are used only as interrogatives and as indefinite pronouns. Similarly, wh- forms were not used as relative pronouns.

In situ

in-situsituin place
Another use of the term in-situ that appears in Computer Science focuses primarily on the use of technology and user interfaces to provide continuous access to situationally relevant information in various locations and contexts. Examples include athletes viewing biometric data on smartwatches to improve their performance, a presenter looking at tips on a smart glass to reduce their speaking rate during a speech, or technicians receiving online and stepwise instructions for repairing an engine., that is, does not exceed a constant no matter how large the input ---except for space for recursive calls on the "call stack."

Inverted question and exclamation marks

¡¿inverted exclamation mark
The inverted question mark is a punctuation mark written before the first letter of an interrogative sentence or clause to indicate that a question follows. It is a rotated form of the standard symbol "?" recognized by speakers of languages written with the Latin alphabet. In most languages, a single question mark is used, and only at the end of an interrogative sentence: "How old are you?" This was once true of the Spanish language.

Spanish grammar

In questions, VSO is usual (though not obligatory): *¿Escribió mi amigo el libro? = "Did my friend write the book?" Yes/no questions, regardless of constituent order, are generally distinguished from declarative sentences by context and intonation. A cleft sentence is one formed with the copular verb (generally with a dummy pronoun like "it" as its subject), plus a word that "cleaves" the sentence, plus a subordinate clause. They are often used to put emphasis on a part of the sentence. Here are some examples of English sentences and their cleft versions: Spanish does not usually employ such a structure in simple sentences.

Double-barreled question

compound questiondouble barrelled questionmore than one issue
Complex question. Fallacy of many questions. Implicature. Leading question. Loaded question. Mu (negative). Persuasive definition. Poisoning the well. Presupposition. Self-refuting idea.

Ellipsis (linguistics)

Answer ellipsis involves question-answer pairs. The question focuses an unknown piece of information, often using an interrogative word (e.g. who, what, when, etc.). The corresponding answer provides the missing information and in so doing, the redundant information that appeared in the question is elided, e.g.: The fragment answers in these two sentences are verb arguments (subject and object NPs). The fragment can also correspond to an adjunct, e.g.: Answer ellipsis occurs in most if not all languages. It is a very frequent type of ellipsis that is omnipresent in everyday communication between speakers.


questionnairesfood frequency questionnairesinstrument to measure
For example, unlike interviews, the people conducting the research may never know if the respondent understood the question that was being asked. Also, because the questions are so specific to what the researchers are asking, the information gained can be minimal. Often, questionnaires such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, give too few options to answer; respondents can answer either option but must choose only one response. Questionnaires also produce very low return rates, whether they are mail or online questionnaires.

English clause syntax

Sentences can be classified according to the purpose or function of the sentence into declarative (making a statement), interrogative (asking a question), exclamatory sentence or imperative (giving an order). In interrogative main clauses, unless the subject is or contains the interrogative word, the verb precedes the subject: Are you hungry? Where am I? (but Who did this?, without inversion, since the interrogative who is itself the subject). However such inversion is only possible with an auxiliary or copular verb; if no such verb would otherwise be present, do-support is used. In most imperative clauses the subject is absent: Eat your dinner!