Pinyin

pHanyu PinyinPīnyīn
pronouns are separated from other words: Wǒ ài Zhōngguó. (, I love China); Shéi shuō de?

Cleft sentence

cleftingcleftclefts
A major area of interest with regard to cleft constructions involves their information structure. The concept of "information structure" relates to the type of information encoded in a particular utterance, that can be one of these three: The reason why information structure plays such an important role in the area of clefts is largely due to the fact that the organisation of information structure is tightly linked to the clefts' function as focusing tools used by speakers/writers to draw attention to salient parts of their message.

American Sign Language grammar

American Sign LanguageAmerican Sign Language classifiersASL's features
Unlike wh- questions, yes/no questions do not involve a change of word order, and the non-manual marking must be used over the whole utterance in order for it to be judged as a statement opposed to a question. Raised eyebrows are also used for rhetorical questions which are not intended to elicit an answer. To distinguish the non-manual marking for rhetorical questions from that of yes/no questions, the body is in a neutral position opposed to tilted forward, and the head is tilted in a different way than in yes/no questions. Rhetorical questions are much more common in ASL than in English.

Ottawa dialect

OttawaOdawaOdaawaa
Verbs are marked for grammatical information in three distinct sets of inflectional paradigms, called Verb orders. Each order corresponds generally to one of three main sentence types: the Independent order is used in main clauses, the Conjunct order in subordinate clauses, and the Imperative order in commands. Ottawa distinguishes yes-no questions, which use a verb form in the Independent order, from content questions formed with the Ottawa equivalents of "what", "where", "when", "who" and others, which require verbs inflected in the Conjunct order. Ottawa distinguishes two types of grammatical third person in sentences, marked on both verbs and animate nouns.

Nafaanra

Nafananfr
Questions can be formed in several ways in Nafaanra. Basic yesno questions are constructed by adding a sentence-final question marker rá. Constituent questions (sometimes called Wh-questions or question word questions) are doubly marked. They contain a sentence-initial question word and are marked with a sentence-final question marker hin. The cardinal numbers without tonal marking are presented below; where possible, the tone pattern is added based on the list in Rapp. Some Supyire correlates are given for comparison. Numbers six to nine are derived by adding the numbers one to four to kɔɔ, "five", by means of the conjunction na.

Romanian phonology

phoneticsphonologicalphonological processes
Most importantly, intonation is essential in questions, especially because, unlike English and other languages, Romanian does not distinguish grammatically declarative and interrogative sentences. In non-emphatic yes/no questions the pitch rises at the end of the sentence until the last stressed syllable. If unstressed syllables follow, they often have a falling intonation, but this is not a rule. [ai stins lu↗mi↘na] (Have you turned off the light?)

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position: :"Kun jij je pen niet vinden?" (literally "Can you your pen not find?") "Can't you find your pen?" In the Dutch equivalent of a wh-question the word order is: interrogative pronoun (or expression) + conjugated verb + subject; other verbs in final position: :"Waarom kun jij je pen niet vinden?" ("Why can you your pen not find?") "Why can't you find your pen?" In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause: :"Jij kunt je pen niet vinden?" ("You can your pen not find?") "You can't find your pen?"

Skolt Sami language

Skolt SamiSkolt SámiSkolt
In Skolt Sami, polar questions, also referred to as yes-no questions, are marked in two different ways. Morphologically, an interrogative particle, -a, is added as an affix to the first word of the clause. Syntactically, the element which is in the scope of the question is moved to the beginning of the clause. If this element is the verb, subject and verb are inversed in comparison to the declarative SOV word order. * Vueʹlǧǧveʹted–a tuäna muu ooudâst eččan ääuʹd ool? (leave (2nd P. Pl., Present, Interrogative) – 2nd P. Dual Nominative – 1st P. Sg. Genitive – behalf – father (Sg. Genitive 1st P. Pl.) – grave (Sg.

Khmer grammar

Khmer
Yes-no questions can be formed by placing the particle ទេ /teː/ at the end of a sentence. This particle can also serve as an emphatic particle (it is also used in negative sentences, as shown below), and so intonation may be required to indicate that a question is being asked. In wh-questions, the question word generally remains in its usual grammatical position in the sentence, rather than being brought to the start as in English (that is, wh-fronting does not normally take place). Verbs can be negated in three primary fashions, all of which convey a slightly different connotation or formality.

Duna language

Dunaduc
Interrogative words are positioned in canonical position (same place as the answer will go). The interrogative marker -pe attaching to the verb is optional with interrogative words, but necessary for simple yes-no questions. A third possibility are tag questions, for which the speaker combines the interrogative marker and repeats the verb with the negative marker na- -ya. To describe cohesive events, verbal roots are adjoined. Only the last root receives inflectional morphology, which is then shared by all verbal roots. The negation circumfix hereby encloses the whole verb root serialisation. Often, the verbs will have at least one shared argument. * Language and Cognition – Duna

Interlingua grammar

has feminine pronounsInterlinguaInterlingua pronouns
Questions can be created in several ways, familiar to French speakers. * By reversing the position of the subject and verb. * By replacing the subject with an interrogative word. * For questions that can be answered with 'yes' or 'no', by adding the particle esque (or rarer an) to the start of the sentence. * By changing the intonation or adding a question mark, while keeping the normal word order. *Gode, Alexander, and Hugh E. Blair. Interlingua: a grammar of the international language.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
The interrogative (or interrogatory) mood is used for asking questions. In English, questions are considered interrogative. Most other languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but exceptions include Welsh, Nenets and Eskimo languages such as Greenlandic. Linguistics also differentiate moods into two parental categories that include deontic mood and epistemic mood. Deontic mood describes whether one could or should be able to do something. An example of deontic mood is: She should/may start. On the other hand, epistemic mood describes the chance or possibility of something happening. This would then change our example to: She may have started.

Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticaldialectical method
Many of these logics appear in the special area of artificial intelligence and law, though the computer scientists' interest in formalizing dialectic originates in a desire to build decision support and computer-supported collaborative work systems. 1) The question to be determined (“It is asked whether...”). 2) A provisory answer to the question (“And it seems that...”). 3) The principal arguments in favor of the provisory answer. 4) An argument against the provisory answer, traditionally a single argument from authority ("On the contrary..."). 5) The determination of the question after weighing the evidence ("I answer that..."). 6) The replies to each of the initial objections.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosopherGreekGreek philosophers
Socrates is said to have pursued this probing question-and-answer style of examination on a number of topics, usually attempting to arrive at a defensible and attractive definition of a virtue. While Socrates' recorded conversations rarely provide a definite answer to the question under examination, several maxims or paradoxes for which he has become known recur. Socrates taught that no one desires what is bad, and so if anyone does something that truly is bad, it must be unwillingly or out of ignorance; consequently, all virtue is knowledge. He frequently remarks on his own ignorance (claiming that he does not know what courage is, for example).

Socratic dialogue

dialoguedialoguesSocratic literature
The outcome of the dialogue is that Socrates demonstrates that the other person's views are inconsistent. In this way Socrates tries to show the way to real wisdom. One of his most famous statements in that regard is "The unexamined life is not worth living." This philosophical questioning is known as the Socratic method. In some dialogues Plato's main character is not Socrates but someone from outside of Athens. In Xenophon's Hiero a certain Simonides plays this role when Socrates is not the protagonist. Generally, the works which are most often assigned to Plato's early years are all considered to be Socratic dialogues (written from 399 to 387).

Pro-form

proformCorrelativescorrelative pronoun
Some languages do not distinguish interrogative and indefinite pro-forms. In Mandarin, "Shéi yǒu wèntí?" means either "Who has a question?" or "Does anyone have a question?", depending on context. A pronoun substitutes a noun or a noun phrase, with or without a determiner: it, this. (Compare also prop-word; this denotes a word like one in "the blue one".). A pro-adjective substitutes an adjective or a phrase that functions as an adjective: so as in "It is less so than we had expected.". A pro-adverb substitutes an adverb or a phrase that functions as an adverb: how or this way. A pro-verb substitutes a verb or a verb phrase: do.

Sophist

sophistrysophistssophistic
In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e., the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laërtius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented the "Socratic" method ). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was, which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist. W. K. C. Guthrie classified Socrates as a Sophist in his History of Greek Philosophy.

Determiner

determinersdefinite determinerdemonstrative determiners
Interrogatives are used to ask a question, such as which, what, and whose (personal possessive determiner). These determiners also depend on a noun. Some modern grammatical approaches regard determiners (rather than nouns) as the head of their phrase and thus refer to such phrases as determiner phrases rather than noun phrases. Under this assumption, every noun in a syntax tree is dominated by a determiner. There are many examples in natural language where nouns appear without a determiner, yet in determiner phrase grammars there must still be a determiner. To account for this, syntacticians consider the head of the determiner phrase to be an unpronounced null determiner.