Information architecture

information architectinformation/data architectureelectronic information design
Today there is a growing network of active IA specialists who constitute the Information Architecture Institute. Information architecture has somewhat different meanings in different branches of Information systems or Information technology: The difficulty in establishing a common definition for "information architecture" arises partly from the term's existence in multiple fields. In the field of systems design, for example, information architecture is a component of enterprise architecture that deals with the information component when describing the structure of an enterprise.


One example would be the Socratic method. The teaching of adults, as a specific group, is referred to as andragogy. The word is a derivative of the Greek παιδαγωγία (paidagōgia), from παιδαγωγός (paidagōgos), itself a synthesis of ἄγω (ágō), "I lead", and παῖς (país, genitive παιδός, paidos) "child": hence, "to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as,, or. Negative connotations of pedantry have sometimes been intended, or taken, at least from the time of Samuel Pepys in the 1650s. The educational philosophy and pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society.

Information engineering (field)

information engineeringInformationinformation engineer
Robotics in information engineering focuses mainly on the algorithms and computer programs used to control robots. As such, information engineering tends to focus more on autonomous, mobile, or probabilistic robots. Major subfields studied by information engineers include control, perception, SLAM, and motion planning. In the past some areas in information engineering such as signal processing used analog electronics, but nowadays most information engineering is done with digital computers. Many tasks in information engineering can be parallelized, and so nowadays information engineering is carried out using CPUs, GPUs, and AI accelerators.

Echo answer

echo responserepeats the verb used in the question
In linguistics, an echo answer or echo response is a way of answering a polar question without using words for yes and no. The verb used in the question is simply echoed in the answer, negated if the answer has a negative truth-value. For example: The Finnish language is one language that employs echo answers in response to yes-no questions. It does not answer them with either adverbs or interjections. So the answer to "Tuletteko kaupungista?" ("Are you coming from town?") is the verb form itself, "Tulemme" ("We are coming."). Negatively phrased questions are answered similarly. Negative answers use the negative verb en in coordination with the infinitive.

Information management

informationmanaging the informationinformation management and technology
Information technology. Information system. Project management. Business process. Balanced scorecard. Strategic management. Data management. Content management. Master of Information Management. Information Resources Management Journal. Journal of Global Information Management. Information Management Paper (Link to a downloadable book about "Big data and managing information"). "Information Management Body of Knowledge" (Web site supporting the IMBOK with overview material, research reviews and blogs). Application Services and Business Information Services Libraries (A web site for the information and systems management community based in the Netherlands).


Information is that which reduces uncertainty, wholly or in part. Similarly, anti-information is that which increases uncertainty. It is negative information. Noise on a noisy communication channel is an example of anti-information. According to Shannon's Channel Coding Theorem the entropy of the noise must be subtracted to obtain the channel capacity that remains available for reliable communication. The gambling industry has made a business out of selling anti-information. People are willing to pay for anti-information. The increase in uncertainty enables them to savor the information that they subsequently receive when the uncertainty is finally resolved.


determinersdeterminativedemonstrative determiners
Interrogatives are used to ask a question, such as which, what, and whose (personal possessive determiner). These determiners also depend on a noun. Some modern grammatical approaches regard determiners (rather than nouns) as the head of their phrase and thus refer to such phrases as determiner phrases rather than noun phrases. Under this assumption, every noun in a syntax tree is dominated by a determiner. There are many examples in natural language where nouns appear without a determiner, yet in determiner phrase grammars there must still be a determiner. To account for this, syntacticians consider the head of the determiner phrase to be an unpronounced null determiner.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver. Ambiguity means confusion about what is conveyed, since the current context may lead to different interpretations of meaning. Many words in many languages have multiple definitions. Ambiguity is an effect of a rupture of the rule of identity in the context of the exchange of information. Particularly the sender may be physically absent, and the contexts explicitly divergent, such as will be the case when the receptor is a reader and the sender was a writer. Pragmatics is the study of how context affects meaning.

Information sensitivity

sensitive informationsensitivitysensitive
Confidential business information refers to information whose disclosure may harm the business. Such information may include trade secrets, sales and marketing plans, new product plans, notes associated with patentable inventions, customer and supplier information, financial data, and more. Classified information generally refers to information that is subject to special security classification regulations imposed by many national governments, the disclosure of which may cause harm to national interests and security.

Irony punctuation

irony markpercontation pointrhetorical question mark
Both marks take the form of a reversed question mark, "⸮". Irony punctuation is primarily used to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. A bracketed exclamation point or question mark as well as scare quotes are also sometimes used to express irony or sarcasm. The percontation point, a reversed question mark later referred to as a rhetorical question mark, was proposed by Henry Denham in the 1580s and was used at the end of a question that does not require an answer—a rhetorical question. Its use died out in the 17th century.


The term has also been used by Luciano Floridi, on the basis of biosphere, to denote the whole informational environment constituted by all informational entities (thus including informational agents as well), their properties, interactions, processes and mutual relations. It is an environment comparable to, but different from cyberspace (which is only one of its sub-regions, as it were), since it also includes off-line and analogue spaces of information. According to Floridi, it is possible to equate the Infosphere to the totality of Being. This equation leads him to an informational ontology. The manipulation of the infosphere is subject to metaphysics and its rules.

Philosophy of information

Then, however, pancomputationalists have the hard task of providing credible answers to the following two questions:. 3) how can one avoid blurring all differences among systems?. 4) what would it mean for the system under investigation not to be an informational system (or a computational system, if computation is the same as information processing)?. Albert Borgmann, Holding onto Reality: The Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium (Chicago University Press, 1999). Mark Poster, The Mode of Information (Chicago Press, 1990).


trueveracitytheory of truth
Language is a means by which humans convey information to one another. The method used to determine whether something is a truth is termed a criterion of truth. There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false; how to define, identify, and distinguish truth; what roles do faith and empirical knowledge play; and whether truth can be subjective or is objective: relative truth versus absolute truth. The English word truth is derived from Old English tríewþ, tréowþ, trýwþ, Middle English trewþe, cognate to Old High German triuwida, Old Norse tryggð.

Socrates Cafe

According to Phillips, his version of the Socratic Method was inspired not only by the Greek interrogative elements practiced by Socrates of the elenctic (Greek for 'cross examination,' 'encounter,' 'inquiry'), aporia (Greek for 'doubt') and maieutic (Greek for 'midwifery,' in this case giving birth to ideas one harbors from within), but by the philosopher Justus Buchler's notions of human judgment and query, by philosopher Walter Kaufmann's notion of the "Socratic type" and view that the Socratic Method boils down to the sustained consideration of objections and alternatives to any given way of seeing things, as well as by Hannah Arendt's notion of the Socratic persona and performativity.


It is meant to mean explicitly discarded information. However, the term also has other meanings related to information, for instance "useful and relevant information" or a specific kind of information explosion. Consider the following phrase: "the best horse at the race is number 7". The information carried is very small, if considered from the point of view of information theory: just a few words. However let's assume that this phrase was spoken by a knowledgeable person, after a complex study of all the horses in the race, to someone interested in betting. The details are discarded, but the receiver of the information might get the same practical value of a complete analysis.

Information metabolism

It is traditionally assumed that functional structures associated with the subjective experience of emotions and moods (the first phase of information metabolism) are controlled by phylogenetically older parts of the brain (diencephalon and rhinencephalon), while those generated in the second phase of information metabolism, subjectively experienced as thoughts, are associated with the neocortex. The mathematical character of information metabolism is twofold. Receptors, acting as inputs for the metabolized signals, operate analogically to analog electronic devices.

Decision problem

undecidabledecision problemsdecision procedure
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a problem that can be posed as a yes-no question of the input values. An example of a decision problem is deciding whether a given natural number is prime. Another is the problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?". The answer is either 'yes' or 'no' depending upon the values of x and y. A method for solving a decision problem, given in the form of an algorithm, is called a decision procedure for that problem. A decision procedure for the decision problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?" would give the steps for determining whether x evenly divides y.

Organizational memory

corporate memorycorporate data marketCorporate Data
The three main facets of organizational memory are data, information, and knowledge. It is important to understand the differences between each of these. Data is a fact depicted as a figure or a statistic, while data in context—such as in a historical time frame—is information. By contrast, knowledge is interpretative and predictive. Its deductive character allows a person with knowledge to understand the implications of information, and act accordingly.

Spanish language

Spanish intonation varies significantly according to dialect but generally conforms to a pattern of falling tone for declarative sentences and wh-questions (who, what, why, etc.) and rising tone for yes/no questions. There are no syntactic markers to distinguish between questions and statements and thus, the recognition of declarative or interrogative depends entirely on intonation. Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth-last or earlier syllables.

Proto-Indo-European pronouns

pronounsIndo-European rootk w o-'' or ''k w i
For more information on these categories, see the article on Proto-Indo-European nominals. PIE had personal pronouns in the first and second person, but not the third person, where demonstratives were used instead. They were inflected for case and number (singular, dual, and plural), but not for gender. The personal pronouns had their own unique forms and endings, and some had two distinct stems; this is most obvious in the first person singular, where the two stems are still preserved, as for instance in English I and me. There were also two varieties for the accusative, genitive and dative cases, a stressed and an enclitic form.


In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e., the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laertius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented the "Socratic" method ). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was, which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist. W. K. C. Guthrie classified Socrates as a Sophist in his History of Greek Philosophy.


inverted version of the interrobanginterobangpunctuation mark
, is a punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark, or interrogative point, and the exclamation mark, or exclamation point, known in the jargon of printers and programmers as a "bang". The glyph is a superimposition of these two marks. A sentence ending with an interrobang asks a question in an excited manner, expresses excitement or disbelief in the form of a question, or asks a rhetorical question. For example: Writers using informal language may use several alternating question marks and exclamation marks for even more emphasis, however this is regarded as poor style in formal writing.

Information processor

information processing systemInformation processing systemsmanipulation of information
In this example, both the rock and the earth are information processing systems, because both objects change the properties of the other over time. If change occurs, information is processed. From the stance of information theory, information is taken as a sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, and an output alphabet ϒ. Information processing consists of an input-output function that maps any input sequence from χ into an output sequence from ϒ. The mapping may be probabilistic or determinate. It may have memory or be memoryless. input. processor. storage. output. Data, data processing, information system. Physical symbol system.

Figure of speech

figures of speechfigurelocution
Asking a question which already has the answer hidden in it.

English relative clauses

relative clausesrelative pronounsnon-finite relative clause
"who") is commonly used, as in : "Jack is the boy who Jenny fell in love with." especially in informal style. Use of the objective case with a stranded preposition, as in : "Jack is the boy whom Jenny fell in love with." is somewhat rare, but occasionally found, even in informal style. Variations may be encountered in the spoken and informal English, but the most common distribution of the forms of pronouns in relative clauses follows: The word that, when used in the way described above, has been classified as a relative pronoun; however, according to some linguists it ought to be analyzed instead as a subordinating conjunction or relativizer.