American Sign Language grammar

American Sign LanguageAmerican Sign Language classifiersASL's features
Unlike wh- questions, yes/no questions do not involve a change of word order, and the non-manual marking must be used over the whole utterance in order for it to be judged as a statement opposed to a question. Raised eyebrows are also used for rhetorical questions which are not intended to elicit an answer. To distinguish the non-manual marking for rhetorical questions from that of yes/no questions, the body is in a neutral position opposed to tilted forward, and the head is tilted in a different way than in yes/no questions. Rhetorical questions are much more common in ASL than in English.

Classical Chinese grammar

Classical Chinese
Yes-no questions are marked with a sentence-final particle, while wh-questions are marked with in-situ interrogative pronouns. There are a number of passive constructions, but passives are sometimes not marked differently from active constructions. The lexicon of Classical Chinese has been traditionally divided into two large categories: content words (實字 ', literally: "substantial words") and function words (虚字 ', literally: "empty words"). Scholars of Classical Chinese grammar notably disagree on how to further divide these two categories exactly, but a classification using word classes similar to those of Latin (noun, adjective, verb, pronoun, etc.) has been common.

Ottawa dialect

OttawaOdawaOdaawaa
Verbs are marked for grammatical information in three distinct sets of inflectional paradigms, called Verb orders. Each order corresponds generally to one of three main sentence types: the Independent order is used in main clauses, the Conjunct order in subordinate clauses, and the Imperative order in commands. Ottawa distinguishes yes-no questions, which use a verb form in the Independent order, from content questions formed with the Ottawa equivalents of "what", "where", "when", "who" and others, which require verbs inflected in the Conjunct order. Ottawa distinguishes two types of grammatical third person in sentences, marked on both verbs and animate nouns.

Nafaanra

Nafananfr
Questions can be formed in several ways in Nafaanra. Basic yesno questions are constructed by adding a sentence-final question marker rá. Constituent questions (sometimes called Wh-questions or question word questions) are doubly marked. They contain a sentence-initial question word and are marked with a sentence-final question marker hin. The cardinal numbers without tonal marking are presented below; where possible, the tone pattern is added based on the list in Rapp. Some Supyire correlates are given for comparison. Numbers six to nine are derived by adding the numbers one to four to kɔɔ, "five", by means of the conjunction na.

Romanian phonology

phoneticsphonologicalphonological processes
Most importantly, intonation is essential in questions, especially because, unlike English and other languages, Romanian does not distinguish grammatically declarative and interrogative sentences. In non-emphatic yes/no questions the pitch rises at the end of the sentence until the last stressed syllable. If unstressed syllables follow, they often have a falling intonation, but this is not a rule. [ai stins lu↗mi↘na] (Have you turned off the light?)

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position: :"Kun jij je pen niet vinden?" (literally "Can you your pen not find?") "Can't you find your pen?" In the Dutch equivalent of a wh-question the word order is: interrogative pronoun (or expression) + conjugated verb + subject; other verbs in final position: :"Waarom kun jij je pen niet vinden?" ("Why can you your pen not find?") "Why can't you find your pen?" In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause: :"Jij kunt je pen niet vinden?" ("You can your pen not find?") "You can't find your pen?"

English phonology

EnglishpronunciationEnglish phonology – vowels in unstressed syllables
(the people who ran escaped quickly) Example of phonological contrast involving placement of tonic syllable (marked by capital letters): Example of phonological contrast (British English) involving choice of tone (\ = falling tone, \/ = fall-rise tone) There is typically a contrast involving tone between wh-questions and yes/no questions, the former having a falling tone (e.g. "Where did you \PUT it?") and the latter a rising tone (e.g. "Are you going /OUT?"), though studies of spontaneous speech have shown frequent exceptions to this rule. Tag questions asking for information are said to carry rising tones (e.g. "They are coming on Tuesday, /AREN'T they?")

Lingua Franca Nova grammar

There are a number of interrogative words that are used to introduce questions: :{| style="width: 90%" | style="width: 45%" |cual ― what, which ci ― who, whom de ci ― whose, of whom cuando ― when || do ― where como ― how cuanto ― how much, how many perce ― why (Most of these are also used to introduce subordinate clauses, discussed below.) For example: Questions may include one of these words or may be indicated by rising intonation alone. One may also express questions by beginning the sentence with the interrogative particle esce ("is it that... ?") or by adding no (no) or si (yes) to the end of the sentence. In writing, questions always end with a question mark

Skolt Sami language

Skolt SamiSkolt SámiSkolt
In Skolt Sami, polar questions, also referred to as yes-no questions, are marked in two different ways. Morphologically, an interrogative particle, -a, is added as an affix to the first word of the clause. Syntactically, the element which is in the scope of the question is moved to the beginning of the clause. If this element is the verb, subject and verb are inversed in comparison to the declarative SOV word order. * Vueʹlǧǧveʹted–a tuäna muu ooudâst eččan ääuʹd ool? (leave (2nd P. Pl., Present, Interrogative) – 2nd P. Dual Nominative – 1st P. Sg. Genitive – behalf – father (Sg. Genitive 1st P. Pl.) – grave (Sg.

Khmer grammar

Khmer
Yes-no questions can be formed by placing the particle ទេ /teː/ at the end of a sentence. This particle can also serve as an emphatic particle (it is also used in negative sentences, as shown below), and so intonation may be required to indicate that a question is being asked. In wh-questions, the question word generally remains in its usual grammatical position in the sentence, rather than being brought to the start as in English (that is, wh-fronting does not normally take place). Verbs can be negated in three primary fashions, all of which convey a slightly different connotation or formality.

Duna language

Dunaduc
Interrogative words are positioned in canonical position (same place as the answer will go). The interrogative marker -pe attaching to the verb is optional with interrogative words, but necessary for simple yes-no questions. A third possibility are tag questions, for which the speaker combines the interrogative marker and repeats the verb with the negative marker na- -ya. To describe cohesive events, verbal roots are adjoined. Only the last root receives inflectional morphology, which is then shared by all verbal roots. The negation circumfix hereby encloses the whole verb root serialisation. Often, the verbs will have at least one shared argument. * Language and Cognition – Duna

Linguistic performance

performanceactually usedlinguistic
Score of 6: where, than, how Interrogative reversals 17a. Score of 1: Reversal of copula (i.e. "Is it" red?) 17b. Score of 5: Reversal with three auxiliaries (i.e. "Could he" have been going?) Wh-questions 18a. Score of 1: who or what (i.e. "What" do you mean?), what + noun (i.e. "What book" are you reading?) 18b. Score of 5: whose or which (i.e. "Which" do you want?), which + noun (i.e. "Which book" do you want?) In particular, those categories that appear the earliest in speech receive a lower score, whereas later-appearing categories receive a higher score. If an entire sentence is correct according to adult-like forms, then the utterance would receive an extra point.

Interlingua grammar

has feminine pronounsInterlinguaInterlingua pronouns
Questions can be created in several ways, familiar to French speakers. * By reversing the position of the subject and verb. * By replacing the subject with an interrogative word. * For questions that can be answered with 'yes' or 'no', by adding the particle esque (or rarer an) to the start of the sentence. * By changing the intonation or adding a question mark, while keeping the normal word order. *Gode, Alexander, and Hugh E. Blair. Interlingua: a grammar of the international language.

Uncertainty

uncertainuncertaintiesstandard uncertainty
One example is explained by the information deficit model. Also, in the public realm, there are often many scientific voices giving input on a single topic. For example, depending on how an issue is reported in the public sphere, discrepancies between outcomes of multiple scientific studies due to methodological differences could be interpreted by the public as a lack of consensus in a situation where a consensus does in fact exist. This interpretation may have even been intentionally promoted, as scientific uncertainty may be managed to reach certain goals.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
In most cases, it is not possible to understand an information domain exhaustively; our knowledge is always incomplete or partial. Most real problems have to be solved by taking advantage of a partial understanding of the problem context and problem data, unlike the typical math problems one might solve at school, where all data is given and one is given a complete understanding of formulas necessary to solve them. This idea is also present in the concept of bounded rationality which assumes that in real life situations people often have a limited amount of information and make decisions accordingly.

Data

statistical datascientific datadatum
Thus wisdom complements and completes the series "data", "information" and "knowledge" of increasingly abstract concepts. Data is often assumed to be the least abstract concept, information the next least, and knowledge the most abstract. In this view, data becomes information by interpretation; e.g., the height of Mount Everest is generally considered "data", a book on Mount Everest geological characteristics may be considered "information", and a climber's guidebook containing practical information on the best way to reach Mount Everest's peak may be considered "knowledge". "Information" bears a diversity of meanings that ranges from everyday usage to technical use.

Perception

perceptualsensoryperceive
Although the senses were traditionally viewed as passive receptors, the study of illusions and ambiguous images has demonstrated that the brain's perceptual systems actively and pre-consciously attempt to make sense of their input. There is still active debate about the extent to which perception is an active process of hypothesis testing, analogous to science, or whether realistic sensory information is rich enough to make this process unnecessary. The perceptual systems of the brain enable individuals to see the world around them as stable, even though the sensory information is typically incomplete and rapidly varying.

Code

encodingencodedencode
A cable code replaces words (e.g. ship or invoice) with shorter words, allowing the same information to be sent with fewer characters, more quickly, and less expensively. Codes can be used for brevity. When telegraph messages were the state of the art in rapid long distance communication, elaborate systems of commercial codes that encoded complete phrases into single mouths (commonly five-minute groups) were developed, so that telegraphers became conversant with such "words" as BYOXO ("Are you trying to weasel out of our deal?"), LIOUY ("Why do you not answer my question?"), BMULD ("You're a skunk!"), or AYYLU ("Not clearly coded, repeat more clearly.").

Who (pronoun)

whowhomuse of "to whom" as opposed to "to who
Who and its derived forms can be used as interrogative pronouns, to form questions: The same forms (though not usually the emphatic ones) are used to make indirect questions: The corresponding form when referring to non-humans is what (which has the emphatic form whatever, and no possessive form). Another similar interrogative is which – this can refer to either humans or non-humans, normally implying selection from a particular set, as either interrogative pronoun (Which do you prefer?) or interrogative determiner (adjective) (Which man should I choose?). What can also be used as a determiner (What book are you reading?), but who cannot.

Signal

signalselectrical signalelectrical signals
An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. In an electrical signal, the voltage, current, or frequency of the signal may be varied to represent the information. Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal; often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, temperature, position, or pressure. The physical variable is converted to an analog signal by a transducer.

Bit

binary digitbitsbinary digits
As a unit of information in information theory, the bit has alternatively been called a shannon, named after Claude Shannon, the founder of information theory. This usage distinguishes the quantity of information from the form of the state variables used to represent it. When the logical values are not equally probable or when a signal is not conveyed perfectly through a communication system, a binary digit in the representation of the information will convey less than one bit of information. However, the shannon unit terminology is uncommon in practice.

Nat (unit)

natnatsnatural unit of information
The natural unit of information (symbol: nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of e, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms, which define the bit. This unit is also known by its unit symbol, the nat. The nat is the coherent unit for information entropy. The International System of Units, by assigning the same units (joule per kelvin) both to heat capacity and to thermodynamic entropy implicitly treats information entropy as a quantity of dimension one, with 1 nat = 1. Physical systems of natural units that normalize Boltzmann's constant to 1 are effectively measuring thermodynamic entropy in nats.

Units of information

unit of informationdecletunit of digital information
Base b = e, the base of natural logarithms: the unit is called a nat, nit, or nepit (from Neperian), and is worth log 2 e (≈ 1.443) bits. 1 bit – answer to a yes/no question. 1 byte – a number from 0 to 255. 90 bytes: enough to store a typical line of text from a book. 512 bytes = ½ KiB: the typical sector of a hard disk. 1024 bytes = 1 KiB: the classical block size in UNIX filesystems. 2048 bytes = 2 KiB: a CD-ROM sector. 4096 bytes = 4 KiB: a memory page in x86 (since Intel 80386). 4 kB: about one page of text from a novel. 120 kB: the text of a typical pocket book. 1 MiB – a 1024×1024 pixel bitmap image with 256 colors (8 bpp color depth). 3 MB – a three-minute song (133 kbit/s). 650–900 MB

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
The interrogative (or interrogatory) mood is used for asking questions. In English, questions are considered interrogative. Most other languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but exceptions include Welsh, Nenets and Eskimo languages such as Greenlandic. Linguistics also differentiate moods into two parental categories that include deontic mood and epistemic mood. Deontic mood describes whether one could or should be able to do something. An example of deontic mood is: She should/may start. On the other hand, epistemic mood describes the chance or possibility of something happening. This would then change our example to: She may have started.

Entropy (information theory)

entropyinformation entropyShannon entropy
Although the analogy between both functions is suggestive, the following question must be set: is the differential entropy a valid extension of the Shannon discrete entropy? Differential entropy lacks a number of properties that the Shannon discrete entropy has – it can even be negative – and corrections have been suggested, notably limiting density of discrete points. To answer this question, a connection must be established between the two functions: In order to obtain a generally finite measure as the bin size goes to zero. In the discrete case, the bin size is the (implicit) width of each of the n (finite or infinite) bins whose probabilities are denoted by p n .