Relative pronoun

relativerelative pronounsrel.
For more information on the formation and uses of relative clauses—with and without relative pronouns—see Relative clause. For detailed information about relative clauses and relative pronouns in English, see English relative clause. The element in the main clause that the relative pronoun in the relative clause stands for (house in the above example) is the antecedent of that pronoun.

Echo answer

echo responserepeats the verb used in the question
In linguistics, an echo answer or echo response is a way of answering a polar question without using words for yes and no. The verb used in the question is simply echoed in the answer, negated if the answer has a negative truth-value. For example: The Finnish language is one language that employs echo answers in response to yes-no questions. It does not answer them with either adverbs or interjections. So the answer to "Tuletteko kaupungista?" ("Are you coming from town?") is the verb form itself, "Tulemme" ("We are coming."). Negatively phrased questions are answered similarly. Negative answers use the negative verb en in coordination with the infinitive.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, interrogative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. There is a verbal noun, and verbal adjective. Verb forms are highly regular, many grammars recognise only 11 irregular verbs. Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics. The word ag (at), becomes agam (at me) in the first person singular. When used with the verb bí (to be), ag indicates possession. Irish shares this attribute with Russian. Numerals have 4 forms: abstract, impersonal, personal, and ordinal.

Proto-Indo-European pronouns

pronounsIndo-European rootk w o-
For more information on these categories, see the article on Proto-Indo-European nominals. PIE had personal pronouns in the first and second person, but not the third person, where demonstratives were used instead. They were inflected for case and number (singular, dual, and plural), but not for gender. The personal pronouns had their own unique forms and endings, and some had two distinct stems; this is most obvious in the first person singular, where the two stems are still preserved, as for instance in English I and me. There were also two varieties for the accusative, genitive and dative cases, a stressed and an enclitic form.

Socrates Cafe

According to Phillips, his version of the Socratic Method was inspired not only by the Greek interrogative elements practiced by Socrates of the elenctic (Greek for 'cross examination,' 'encounter,' 'inquiry'), aporia (Greek for 'doubt') and maieutic (Greek for 'midwifery,' in this case giving birth to ideas one harbors from within), but by the philosopher Justus Buchler's notions of human judgment and query, by philosopher Walter Kaufmann's notion of the "Socratic type" and view that the Socratic Method boils down to the sustained consideration of objections and alternatives to any given way of seeing things, as well as by Hannah Arendt's notion of the Socratic persona and performativity.

Decision problem

undecidabledecision problemsdecision procedure
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a problem that can be posed as a yes-no question of the input values. An example of a decision problem is deciding whether a given natural number is prime. Another is the problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?". The answer is either 'yes' or 'no' depending upon the values of x and y. A method for solving a decision problem, given in the form of an algorithm, is called a decision procedure for that problem. A decision procedure for the decision problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?" would give the steps for determining whether x evenly divides y.

English relative clauses

relative clausesrelative pronouns restrictive relative clauses
"who") is commonly used, as in : "Jack is the boy who Jenny fell in love with." especially in informal style. Use of the objective case with a stranded preposition, as in : "Jack is the boy whom Jenny fell in love with." is somewhat rare, but occasionally found, even in informal style. Variations may be encountered in the spoken and informal English, but the most common distribution of the forms of pronouns in relative clauses follows: The word that, when used in the way described above, has been classified as a relative pronoun; however, according to some linguists it ought to be analyzed instead as a subordinating conjunction or relativizer.

Modern English

EnglishModern18th century
Contemporary Modern English retains only the formal second-person personal pronoun, "you" (ye), used in both formal and informal contexts. use of auxiliary verbs becomes mandatory in interrogative sentences. "less", rather than "fewer", is used for countable nouns. For English comparisons, syntactic comparison (more) is preferred to analytic comparison (-er). Usage of the Saxon genitive ('s) has extended beyond human referents. The letter thorn, which began to be replaced by th as early as Middle English, finally fell into disuse. In Early Modern English printing thorn was represented with the Latin y, which appeared similar to thorn in blackletter typeface .

The Paper Chase (film)

The Paper Chase1973 film1973 film adaptation
The University of Chicago Law School called Houseman's rendition of the Socratic method "over-the-top", telling prospective students: John Houseman may have won an Oscar for his impressive performance, but if anyone ever did teach a law school class like his Professor Kingsfield, no one at Chicago does today. Instead, our students discover quickly that the Socratic Method is a tool and a good one that is used to engage a large group of students in a discussion, while using probing questions to get at the heart of the subject matter.

Harkness table

Harkness MethodHarknessHarkness education
Those at the middle discuss the selected subject matter or question while the others take notes related to the dialogue. The other strategies include Concentric Circles Strategy, Gallery Walk, Pyramid Strategy, and Carousel Walk. * Socratic method * 'Edward S. Harkness, 1874-1940', Richard F. Niebling, Phillips Exeter Academy (PDF)

Classical Adlerian psychotherapy

Adlerian therapy
The second stage in this phase is focused on gathering information on the client. Early childhood memories and influences are sought out as well as details that provide information on how the client faces life problems. The primary focus in phase two is on encouragement. This is done through two stages of clarification and encouragement. Therapists clarify any vague thinking with Socratic questioning and evaluate the consequences of various actions or ideas. They help the client correct inappropriate ideas about his or her self and others. They also help the client create alternative ways of thinking to move his/her life into a new direction while clarifying feelings.

Grimm's law

Germanic Sound Shiftdiscoveries of the Grimmsfirst Germanic consonant shift
One of the more conspicuous present surface correspondences is the English digraph wh and the corresponding Latin and Romance digraph qu, notably found in interrogative words (wh-words) such as the five Ws. These both come from.

Locative adverb

hencewhencelocative adverbs
They are also usually closely related to locative interrogative adverbs; in English, there is (or, at least, once was) a formal relationship between "where/there/here", "whither/thither/hither", and "whence/thence/hence". * A fuller table is in the article on pro-forms.

Michel Weber

Weber, Michel
Philosophical Counseling is a recent movement, probably begun in the United States, employing Socratic methods of dialog for the purpose of short-term counseling that, without seeking to replace more traditional psychotherapies, nevertheless offers an alternative to them. In July 2010, he organized an Applied Process Metaphysics Summer Institute in Paris, at the Cité universitaire’s Fondation Biermans Lapôtre. The second Institute has taken place in July 2011. In May 2014, the philosophical counselling service moved to the Centre Kinos, now Tonaki, of the University of Louvain (UCLouvain) in Louvain-la-Neuve.

Indefinite pronoun

indefiniteindefinite pronounsanybody
Electives are also used when a question of existence is being explicitly denied, which gives rise to their frequent use in negative clauses. In many contexts, assertive and elective existentials are largely in partial complementary distribution or free variation, but there are contexts where they contrast and the difference in their meanings can be demonstrated clearly: The latter implies that there was a specific thing that the lawyer failed to do which could have helped Bill. On the other hand, the former makes no presupposition on if there was anything the lawyer could have done differently, only that he ultimately did not help Bill.

The Paper Chase (novel)

The Paper Chase1970 novelnovel of the same name
Kingsfield is an imperious, highly respected (and feared) professor of contracts at Harvard Law School, known for his unrelenting use of the Socratic method on his students. Kingsfield himself was a law student at Harvard, as shown by the presence of his own class notes in the institution's archives. Kingsfield has a daughter with a fiercely independent personality. During an event at Harvard Law School to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the book's release, the author said that the character was a composite of several of his professors at Harvard Law School, saying, "It wasn’t like it was hard to find role models."

Relative clause

relativerelative clausesfree relative clause
However, the relative clause in (7a) looks more like an indirect question, complete with the interrogative complementiser, kung 'if', and a pre-verbally positioned WH-word like saan 'where', as in (7b). The sentence in (7c) is the declarative version of the relative clause in (7a), illustrating where the head, ospital 'hospital', would have been "before" relativisation. The question in (7d) shows the direct question version of the subordinate indirect question in (7b). Relative clauses in Hawaiian are avoided unless they are short.

Illocutionary act

illocutionaryillocutionary forceforce
In English, for example, the interrogative mood is supposed to indicate that the utterance is (intended as) a question; the directive mood indicates that the utterance is (intended as) a directive illocutionary act (an order, a request, etc.); the words "I promise" are supposed to indicate that the utterance is (intended as) a promise. Possible IFIDs in English include: word order, stress, intonation contour, punctuation, the mood of the verb, and performative verbs. Another notion Searle and Vanderveken use is that of an 'illocutionary negation'.

Critical thinking

criticalcritical analysiscritical thought
to reach an answer or conclusion".

Function word

grammatical wordfunctionalfunction
Each function word either gives some grammatical information on other words in a sentence or clause, and cannot be isolated from other words, or it may indicate the speaker's mental model as to what is being said. Grammatical words, as a class, can have distinct phonological properties from content words. Grammatical words sometimes do not make full use of all the sounds in a language. For example, in some of the Khoisan languages, most content words begin with clicks, but very few function words do.


pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
Politeness in Parliamentary Discourse : A Comparative Pragmatic Study of British and Moroccan MPs’ Speech Acts at Question Time. Unpub. Ph.D. Thesis. Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco. Mey, Jacob L. (1993) Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell (2nd ed. 2001). Kepa Korta and John Perry. (2006) Pragmatics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Potts, Christopher. (2005) The Logic of Conventional Implicatures. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Robinson, Douglas. (2003). Performative Linguistics: Speaking and Translating as Doing Things With Words. London and New York: Routledge. Robinson, Douglas. (2006).