The presence of an auxiliary (or copular) verb allows subject–auxiliary inversion to take place, as is required in most interrogative sentences in English. If there is already an auxiliary or copula present, do-support is not required when forming questions: This applies not only in yes–no questions but also in questions formed using interrogative words: However, if there is no auxiliary or copula present, inversion requires the introduction of an auxiliary in the form of do-support: The finite (inflected) verb is now the auxiliary do; the following verb is a bare infinitive which does not inflect: does he laugh? (not laughs); did she come? (not came).
Both yes–no questions and wh-questions in English are mostly formed using subject–auxiliary inversion (Am I going tomorrow?, Where can we eat?), which may require do-support (Do you like her?, Where did he go?). In most cases, interrogative words (wh-words; e.g. what, who, where, when, why, how) appear in a fronted position. For example, in the question What did you see?, the word what appears as the first constituent despite being the grammatical object of the sentence. (When the wh-word is the subject or forms part of the subject, no inversion occurs: Who saw the cat?.) Prepositional phrases can also be fronted when they are the question's theme, e.g.
For example: The above concerns yes-no questions, but inversion also takes place in the same way after other questions, formed with interrogative words such as where, what, how, etc. An exception applies when the interrogative word is the subject or part of the subject, in which case there is no inversion. For example: Note that inversion does not apply in indirect questions: I wonder where he is (not *... where is he). Indirect yes-no questions can be expressed using if or whether as the interrogative word: Ask them whether/if they saw him.
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words. The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
A question mark may also appear immediately after questionable data, such as dates: :Genghis Khan (1162?–1227) In Spanish, since the second edition of the Ortografía of the Real Academia Española in 1754, interrogatives require both opening and closing question marks. An interrogative sentence, clause, or phrase begins with an inverted question mark and ends with the question mark, as in: :Ella me pregunta «¿qué hora es?» – 'She asks me, "What time is it?Question marks must always be matched, but to mark uncertainty rather than actual interrogation omitting the opening one is allowed, although discouraged: :Gengis Khan (¿1162?
There are four basic sentence types having distinctive intonation: declarative sentences, unmarked interrogative questions, yes–no questions marked as such with the sentence-final particle ma, and A-not-A questions of the form "He go not go" (meaning "Does he go or not?").
indirect questiondeclarative content clausedirect question
Notice how, in English (and in some other languages), different syntax is used in direct and indirect questions: direct questions normally use subject-verb inversion, while indirect questions do not. Reported questions (as in the last of the examples) are also subject to the tense and other changes that apply generally in indirect speech. For more information see interrogative mood and English grammar. Indirect questions can serve as adjective and noun complements.
An interrogative sentence or question is commonly used to request information—"Do I have to go to work?"—but sometimes not; see rhetorical question. An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement expressing emotion: "I have to go to work!". An imperative sentence or command tells someone to do something (and if done strongly may be considered both imperative and exclamatory): "Go to work." or "Go to work!". An "instructive sentence" or instruction is used to provide information on what something is or how something can be done. Grammatical polarity. Inflectional phrase. Periodic sentence. Sentence arrangement. Sentence function. T-unit.
abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.
tag questionsquestion tagtag-question
Although they have the grammatical form of a question, they may be rhetorical (not expecting an answer). In other cases, when they do expect a response, they may differ from straightforward questions in that they cue the listener as to what response is desired. In legal settings, tag questions can often be found in a leading question. According to a specialist children's lawyer at the NSPCC, children find it difficult to answer tag questions other than in accordance with the expectation of the questioner using or tagging a question. Question tags are formed in several ways, and many languages give a choice of formation.
With the passage of time, impressions stored in the consciousness about many, together with the resulting relationships and consequences, permit the individual to build a construct about the moral implications of behavior. 1) Ask a question about a natural phenomenon. 2) Make observations of the phenomenon. 3) Formulate a hypothesis that tentatively answers the question. 4) Predict logical, observable consequences of the hypothesis that have not yet been investigated. 5) Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation. 6) Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process
trick questionfallacy of many questionsleading questions
For example, a classic loaded question, containing incriminating assumptions that the questioned persons seem to admit to if they answer the questions instead of challenging them, is "Have you stopped beating your wife?" If the person questioned answers, "Yes", then that implies that he has previously beaten his wife. A loaded question may be asked to trick the respondent into admitting something that the questioner believes to be true, and which may in fact be true.
In common law systems that rely on testimony by witnesses, a leading question or suggestive interrogation is a question that suggests the particular answer or contains the information the examiner is looking to have confirmed. Their use is restricted in eliciting testimony in court, to reduce the ability of the examiner to direct or influence the evidence presented. Depending on the circumstances, leading questions can be objectionable or proper. Leading questions may often be answerable with a yes or no (though not all yes-no questions are leading). The propriety of leading questions generally depends on the relationship of the witness to the party conducting the examination.
The interrogative mood is used for posing questions. Questions with the question particle immaqa "maybe" cannot use the interrogative mood. Table 5 shows the intransitive indicative inflection for patient person and number of the verb neri- "to eat" in the indicative and interrogative moods (question marks mark interrogative intonation—questions have falling intonation on the last syllable as opposed to most Indo-European languages in which questions are marked by rising intonation). The indicative and the interrogative mood each have a transitive and an intransitive inflection, but here only the intransitive inflection is given.
Remembering Socrates. Oxford University Press. Antinomy. Cognition. Dubitative mood. Figure of speech. Intuition. Rhetorical question. Thought experiment. Zeno's paradoxes.
For example, ma ("has") or nie ma ("has not") may be used as an affirmative or negative answer to a question "does... have...?". Note the interrogative particle czy, which is used to start a yes/no question, much like the French "est-ce que". The particle is not obligatory, and sometimes rising intonation is the only signal of the interrogative character of the sentence. Negation is achieved by placing nie directly before the verb, or other word or phrase being negated (in some cases nie- is prefixed to the negated word, equivalent to English un- or non-).
Closed-ended question. Echo answer. Interrogative. Yes-no question.
It answers the question: "Why has this been said?" The four basic sentence functions in the world's languages include the declarative, interrogative, exclamative, and the imperative. These correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition of certain auxiliaries or particles, or other times by providing a special verbal form. The four main categories can be further specified as being either communicative or informative.
noyesyes" or "no
As in Finnish, the main way to state yes or no, in answer to yes-no questions, is to echo the verb of the question. So the answers to "Ydy Ffred yn dod?" ("Is Ffred coming?") are either "Ydy" ("He is (coming).") or "Nac ydy" ("He is not (coming)"). In general, the negative answer is the positive answer combined with nag. As in Finnish, this avoids the issue of what an unadorned yes means in response to a negative question. While a yes response to the question "You don't like strawberries?" is ambiguous in English, the Welsh response ydw has no ambiguity. The same would apply for Finnish, where the question would be answered with en (I don't).
CircumstancesWho? What? Where? Why? and How? questionsWho, what, when, where, why, how
The Five Ws (sometimes referred to as Five Ws and How, 5W1H, or Six Ws) are questions whose answers are considered basic in information gathering or problem solving. They are often mentioned in journalism (cf. news style), research and police investigations. They constitute a formula for getting the complete story on a subject. According to the principle of the Five Ws, a report can only be considered complete if it answers these questions starting with an interrogative word: Some authors add a sixth question, how, to the list: * How did it happen? Each question should have a factual answer — facts necessary to include for a report to be considered complete.
Guiding questions provide users with something akin to the Socratic method of questioning but using DSRP as the underlying logic. Users pose "guiding questions", of which there are two for each structure of DSRP. The guiding questions are: Users are encouraged to model ideas with blocks or other physical objects, or to draw (diagram) ideas in terms of D, S, R, and P. This aspect of the method is promoted as a form of nonlinguistic representation of ideas, based on research showing that learners acquire and structure knowledge more effectively when information is presented in linguistic and nonlinguistic formats.
Questions in written ASL are denoted by eyebrow marks bounding the question not unlike Spanish's "¿ ?." Question words or wh-questions in ASL can also form the interrogative. There are in total 105 characters in ASLwrite with 67 digits, five diacritic marks, twelve locatives, sixteen extramanual marks and five movement marks. Since its creation, it has evolved to include more digits, locatives, movements and marks as well as modify those already present. si5s, a system built from SignWriting, was first proposed by Robert Arnold in his 2007 Gallaudet thesis A Proposal of the Written System for ASL.
For example, yes–no questions present propositions, being inquiries into the truth value of them. On the other hand, some signs can be declarative assertions of propositions without forming a sentence nor even being linguistic, e.g. traffic signs convey definite meaning which is either true or false. Propositions are also spoken of as the content of beliefs and similar intentional attitudes such as desires, preferences, and hopes. For example, "I desire that I have a new car," or "I wonder whether it will snow" (or, whether it is the case that "it will snow"). Desire, belief, and so on, are thus called propositional attitudes when they take this sort of content.
Informal fallacy. Informal logic. Informal mathematics. Information bias (psychology). Information ethics. Information theory. Informed consent. Informed refusal. Infoshop. Infoshop.org. Ingeborg Bachmann. Ingeborg i Mjärhult. Ingenuity. Ingo Zechner. Ingroup bias. Ingsoc. Inherence. Inherence relation. Inherent. Inherent value. Inherently funny word. Iniciales. Inka. Innate idea. Innate ideas. Innate knowledge. Innatism. Inne pieśni. Inner peace. Innocence. Inocenc Arnošt Bláha. Inoue Tetsujirō. Inquiry. Inside Front. Insight. Insolubilia. Instantiation. Instantiation principle. Institute for Anarchist Studies. Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.
Intonation often conveys semantic context in Khmer, as in distinguishing declarative statements, questions and exclamations. The available grammatical means of making such distinctions are not always used, or may be ambiguous; for example, the final interrogative particle ទេ can also serve as an emphasizing (or in some cases negating) particle. The intonation pattern of a typical Khmer declarative phrase is a steady rise throughout followed by an abrupt drop on the last syllable. :ខ្ញុំមិនចង់បានទេ ('I don't want it') Other intonation contours signify a different type of phrase such as the "full doubt" interrogative, similar to yes-no questions in English.