There are also various interrogative enclitics, which in addition to marking an utterance as a question show finer distinctions of meaning. For example, while he is the usual question-marking enclitic, huŋwó is used for rhetorical questions or in formal oratory, and the dubitative wa functions somewhat like a tag question in English (Rood and Taylor 1996; Buchel 1983). (See also the section below on men and women's speech.) A small number of enclitics (approximately eight) differ in form based on the gender of the speaker. Yeló (men) ye (women) mark mild assertions. Kštó (women only according to most sources) marks strong assertion.
LakotaLakhotaStandard Lakota Orthography
It frequently occurs together with Switch-Reference and is used to structure communicated information. In a neutral sentence, the subject and the non-referential object are unmarked with respect to information structure. When the subject is focused, the focus marker -a (masculine, -ak for feminine) marks the masculine subject. The verb in contrary misses markers for person and grammatical gender and is marked with the focus marker -a instead. Even though both focus markers have the same form, their origin is different and they have different allomorphs. The following sentence is the answer to the question 'Who cooked rice?'.
ChineseChinese aspectsChinese aspect markers
In wh-questions in Chinese, the question word is not fronted. Instead, it stays in the position in the sentence that would be occupied by the item being asked about. For example, "What did you say?" is phrased as nǐ shuō shé[n]me (, literally "you say what"). The word shénme (, "what" or "which"), remains in the object position after the verb. Other interrogative words include: Disjunctive questions can be made using the word háishì between the options, like English "or". This differs from the word for "or" in statements, which is huòzhě. Yes-no questions can be formed using the sentence-final particle ma, with word order otherwise the same as in a statement.
Yes-no questions have no special grammatical marking, while wh-questions are identified by the presence of a question word, which usually precedes the verb (or other predicate). Subordinate clauses are either introduced by a subordinator in clause-initial position or else are juxtaposed with no subordinating conjunction. Pipil language. Pipil grammar. Campbell, Lyle (1985). The Pipil language of El Salvador. Mouton Grammar Library (No. 1). Berlin: Mouton Publishers. ISBN: 0-89925-040-8 (U.S.), ISBN: 3-11-010344-3. Campbell, Lyle, Terrence Kaufman and Thomas C. Smith-Stark (1986). "Meso-America as a Linguistic Area." Language 62:3, p. 530–570.
As for verbs, they are conjugated in five tenses: perfective, imperfective, future, imperative, conditional present and conditional past Tenses and in four forms: affirmative, exclamative, interrogative and negative forms. They can be preceded by modal verbs to indicate a particular intention, situation, belief or obligation when they are conjugated in perfective or imperfective tenses. Questions in Tunisian Arabic can be āš (wh question) or īh/lā (yes/no question). The question words for āš questions can be either a pronoun or an adverb. As for negation, it is usually done using the structure mā noun+š.
It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates's most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy. The Socratic method has often been considered as a defining element of American legal education.
Interrogation. Issue map.
During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, which were taught in grammar and rhetoric schools. Today's instructional grammars trace their roots to such schools, which served as a sort of informal language academy dedicated to maintaining and perpetuating educated speech.
evadeevasiondodging the question
Often the aim of dodging a question is to make it seem as though the question was fulfilled, leaving the person who asked the question feeling satisfied with the answer, unaware that the question was not properly answered. A false accusation of question dodging can sometimes be made as a disingenuous tactic in debate, in the informal fallacy of the loaded question. A common way out of this argument is not to answer the question (e.g. with a simple 'yes' or 'no'), but to challenge the assumption behind the question. This can lead the person questioned to be accused of "dodging the question".
A display question is a type of question where the questioner already knows the answer. Display questions are used in language education in order to elicit language practice. They are contrasted with referential questions, questions for which the answer is not yet known. The use of referential questions is generally preferred to the use of display questions in communicative language teaching. Richards and Schmidt give the following example: *Rhetorical question Q: Is this a book?. A: Yes, it's a book.
Most English question words begin with this digraph, hence the terms wh-word and wh-question. The spelling changed from to in Middle English. In most dialects it is now pronounced, but some (especially in Scotland) retain the distinct pronunciation /hw/, realized as a voiceless w sound. In a few words (who, whole, etc.) the pronunciation is /h/. For details, see Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩. In the Māori language, represents or more commonly, with some regional variations approaching or. In the Taranaki region, for some speakers, this represents a glottalized. In Xhosa, it represents, a murmured variant of found in loan words.
Behavioral therapy — in which a person systematically asks his own mind if the doubt has any real basis — uses rational, Socratic methods. This method contrasts to those of say, the Buddhist faith, which involve a more esoteric approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived past and future. To let go of the personal history of one's life (affirming this release every day in meditation) plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt.
philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Feminist philosophy explores questions surrounding gender, sexuality and the body including the nature of feminism itself as a social and philosophical movement. Philosophy of sport analyzes sports, games and other forms of play as sociological and uniquely human activities. 1) All humans are mortal. (premise). 2) Socrates is a human. (premise). 3) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion). Wikipedia:Getting to Philosophy. List of important publications in philosophy. List of years in philosophy. List of philosophy journals. List of unsolved problems in philosophy. Lists of philosophers. Social theory. Blumenau, Ralph. Philosophy and Living. ISBN: 978-0-907845-33-1. Craig, Edward.
Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. In reference to a person, one may use who (subject), whom (object) or whose (possessive); for example, Who did that? In colloquial speech, whom is generally replaced by who. English non-personal interrogative pronouns (which and what) have only one form. In English and many other languages (e.g. French and Czech), the sets of relative and interrogative pronouns are nearly identical. Compare English: Who is that? (interrogative) and I know the woman who came (relative). In some other languages, interrogative pronouns and indefinite pronouns are frequently identical; for example, Standard Chinese 什么 shénme means "what?"
subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
However, the English relative pronoun may be omitted and only implied if it plays the role of the object of the verb or object of a preposition in a restrictive clause; for example, He is the boy I saw is equivalent to He is the boy whom I saw, and I saw the boy you are talking about is equivalent to the more formal I saw the boy about whom you are talking. 3) The relative clause functions as an adjective, answering questions such as "what kind?", "how many?" or "which one?". Relative Pronoun [Functioning as Object of Verb] + Subject + Verb. This is the ball 'that I was bouncing. Relative Adverb + Subject + Verb (possibly + Object of Verb). That is the house where I grew up.
Latin: -que "and", -ve "or", -ne (yes-no question). Greek: τε "and", δέ "but", γάρ "for" (in a logical argument), οὖν "therefore". Russian: ли (yes-no question), же (emphasis), то (emphasis), не "not" (proclitic), бы (subjunctive). Czech: special clitics: weak personal and reflexive pronouns (mu, "him"), certain auxiliary verbs (by, "would"), and various short particles and adverbs (tu, "here"; ale, "though"). "Nepodařilo by se mi mu to dát" "I would not succeed in giving it to him". In addition there are various simple clitics including short prepositions.
open-ended questionsclosed-endedopen-ended question
A-not-A question. Yes–no question. Test (student assessment). Multiple choice.
Non-VSO languages that use VSO in questions include English and many other Germanic languages (f.e. German and Dutch) as well as French, Finnish, Maká, Emilian and often Spanish. The North Germanic languages invert their word order to VSO in questions as well (Norwegian: Spiste du maten? "Ate you the food?"). However, there are also many cases of VSO being V2 word order, with the verb coming second, such as in expressions that are before both the subject and the verb. Another case is subclauses (Norwegian: I går leste jeg boka "Yesterday read I the book").
free word orderconstituent orderword-order
Thus the following sentences each answer a different question: Latin prose often follows the word order "Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Adverb, Verb", but this is more of a guideline than a rule. Adjectives in most cases go before the noun they modify, but some categories, such as those that determine or specify (e.g. Via Appia "Appian Way"), usually follow the noun. In Classical Latin poetry, lyricists followed word order very loosely to achieve a desired scansion.
Yes-no questions (both direct and indirect) are formed by placing the word czy at the start. Negation uses the word nie, before the verb or other item being negated; nie is still added before the verb even if the sentence also contains other negatives such as nigdy ("never") or nic ("nothing"), effectively creating a double negative. Cardinal numbers have a complex system of inflection and agreement. Zero and cardinal numbers higher than five (except for those ending with the digit 2, 3 or 4 but not ending with 12, 13 or 14) govern the genitive case rather than the nominative or accusative.
Questions with wh-words are formed differently from yes/no questions. In wh-questions the question word occupies the preverbal field, regardless of whether its grammatical role is subject or object or adverbial. In yes/no questions the preverbal field is empty, so that the sentence begins with the verb. Wh-question: In subordinate clauses, the syntax differs from that of main clauses. In the subordinate clause structure the verb is preceded by the subject and any light adverbial material (e.g. negation). Complement clauses begin with the particle at in the "connector field".
Questions often presuppose what the assertive part of the question presupposes, but interrogative parts might introduce further presuppositions. There are three different types of questions: yes/no questions, alternative questions and WH-questions. * John's children are very noisy. »John has children. A presupposition of a sentence must normally be part of the common ground of the utterance context (the shared knowledge of the interlocutors) in order for the sentence to be felicitous. Sometimes, however, sentences may carry presuppositions that are not part of the common ground and nevertheless be felicitous.
Repeated questions elicit certain types of answers. Repeated questions make people think their first answer was wrong, lead them to change their answer, or cause people to keep answering until the interrogator gets the exact response that they desire. Elizabeth Loftus states that errors in answers are dramatically reduced if a question is only asked once. Yes/no or forced choice questions like "Should we convict this murderer?" force people to choose between two choices when the answer could be neither of the choices. This generates more "interviewer-talks" moments, where the interviewer is talking and controlling most of the interview.
It is used fancifully in discussions of symbolic logic, particularly Gödel's incompleteness theorems, to indicate a question whose "answer" is to "Mu" may be used similarly to "N/A" or "not applicable," a term often used to indicate the question cannot be answered because the conditions of the question do not match the reality. A layperson's example of this concept is often invoked by the loaded question "Have you stopped beating your wife?", to which "mu" would be the only respectable response. Because of this meaning, programming language Perl 6 uses "Mu" for the root of its type hierarchy.
questionnairessurveysfood frequency questionnaires
For example, unlike interviews, the people conducting the research may never know if the respondent understood the question that was being asked. Also, because the questions are so specific to what the researchers are asking, the information gained can be minimal. Often, questionnaires such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, give too few options to answer; respondents can answer either option but must choose only one response. Questionnaires also produce very low return rates, whether they are mail or online questionnaires.