For more information about the grammatical rules for forming questions in various languages, see Interrogative. Interrogative words in English include: Certain pronominal adverbs may also be used as interrogative words, such as whereby or wherefore. For a complete list, see Category:English interrogative pro-forms on Wiktionary. Yes-no questions can begin with an interrogative particle, such as: English questions can also be formed without an interrogative word, by changing the intonation or punctuation of a statement. For example: "You're done eating?"
interrogative pronouninterrogativeinterrogative pronouns
A question mark may also appear immediately after questionable data, such as dates: :Genghis Khan (1162?–1227) In Spanish, since the second edition of the Ortografía of the Real Academia Española in 1754, interrogatives require both opening and closing question marks. An interrogative sentence, clause, or phrase begins with an inverted question mark and ends with the question mark, as in: :Ella me pregunta «¿qué hora es?» – 'She asks me, "What time is it?Question marks must always be matched, but to mark uncertainty rather than actual interrogation omitting the opening one is allowed, although discouraged: :Gengis Khan (¿1162?
tag questionsquestion tagtag-question
Although they have the grammatical form of a question, they may be rhetorical (not expecting an answer). In other cases, when they do expect a response, they may differ from straightforward questions in that they cue the listener as to what response is desired. In legal settings, tag questions can often be found in a leading question. According to a specialist children's lawyer at the NSPCC, children find it difficult to answer tag questions other than in accordance with the expectation of the questioner using or tagging a question. Question tags are formed in several ways, and many languages give a choice of formation.
indirect questiondeclarative content clausedirect question
Notice how, in English (and in some other languages), different syntax is used in direct and indirect questions: direct questions normally use subject-verb inversion, while indirect questions do not. Reported questions (as in the last of the examples) are also subject to the tense and other changes that apply generally in indirect speech. For more information see interrogative mood and English grammar. Indirect questions can serve as adjective and noun complements.
The presence of an auxiliary (or copular) verb allows subject–auxiliary inversion to take place, as is required in most interrogative sentences in English. If there is already an auxiliary or copula present, do-support is not required when forming questions: This applies not only in yes–no questions but also in questions formed using interrogative words: However, if there is no auxiliary or copula present, inversion requires the introduction of an auxiliary in the form of do-support: The finite (inflected) verb is now the auxiliary do; the following verb is a bare infinitive which does not inflect: does he laugh? (not laughs); did she come? (not came).
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words. The special interrogatives, whatever the language, are known within linguistics as wh-words because most interrogative words in the English language start with a wh-; for example, who(m), whose, what, which, etc. Wh-words are used to form questions, and can also occur in relative clauses.
yes-no questionyes/no questionpolar question
For example: In Esperanto, the word ĉu added to the beginning of a statement makes it a polar question. Yes–no questions are also formed in Latin with nonne to imply that the interrogator thinks the answer to be the affirmative and with num to imply that the interrogator thinks the answer to be the negative. For examples: "("You dare not deny, do you?")" "("Didn't Mithridates send an ambassador to Gneaus Pompey?")" In Chinese, yes–no questions typically take an A-not-A form. The resulting response is usually an echo response. In many Germanic languages, yes-no questions are formed using subject inversion.
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Thus the following sentences each answer a different question: Latin prose often follows the word order "Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Adverb, Verb", but this is more of a guideline than a rule. Adjectives in most cases go before the noun they modify, but some categories, such as those that determine or specify (e.g. Via Appia "Appian Way"), usually follow the noun. In Classical Latin poetry, lyricists followed word order very loosely to achieve a desired scansion.
It was first described by Plato in the Socratic Dialogues. To solve a problem, it would be broken down into a series of questions, the answers to which gradually distill the answer a person would seek. The development and practice of this method is one of Socrates's most enduring contributions, and is a key factor in earning his mantle as the father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy, and as a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy. The Socratic method has often been considered as a defining element of American legal education.
A display question is a type of question where the questioner already knows the answer. Display questions are used in language education in order to elicit language practice. They are contrasted with referential questions, questions for which the answer is not yet known. The use of referential questions is generally preferred to the use of display questions in communicative language teaching. Richards and Schmidt give the following example: *Rhetorical question Q: Is this a book?. A: Yes, it's a book.
Interrogation. Issue map.
The interrogative mood is used for posing questions. Questions with the question particle immaqa "maybe" cannot use the interrogative mood. Table 5 shows the intransitive indicative inflection for patient person and number of the verb neri- "to eat" in the indicative and interrogative moods (question marks mark interrogative intonation—questions have falling intonation on the last syllable as opposed to most Indo-European languages in which questions are marked by rising intonation). The indicative and the interrogative mood each have a transitive and an intransitive inflection, but here only the intransitive inflection is given.
For example: The above concerns yes-no questions, but inversion also takes place in the same way after other questions, formed with interrogative words such as where, what, how, etc. An exception applies when the interrogative word is the subject or part of the subject, in which case there is no inversion. For example: Note that inversion does not apply in indirect questions: I wonder where he is (not *... where is he). Indirect yes-no questions can be expressed using if or whether as the interrogative word: Ask them whether/if they saw him.
Behavioral therapy — in which a person systematically asks his own mind if the doubt has any real basis — uses rational, Socratic methods. This method contrasts to those of say, the Buddhist faith, which involve a more esoteric approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived past and future. To let go of the personal history of one's life (affirming this release every day in meditation) plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt.
grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves a greater degree of explicit instruction. Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use. The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", therefore, may have several meanings.
There are four basic sentence types having distinctive intonation: declarative sentences, unmarked interrogative questions, yes–no questions marked as such with the sentence-final particle ma, and A-not-A questions of the form "He go not go" (meaning "Does he go or not?").
subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
However, the English relative pronoun (other than what) may be omitted and only implied if it plays the role of the object of the verb or object of a preposition in a restrictive clause; for example, He is the boy I saw is equivalent to He is the boy whom I saw, and I saw the boy you are talking about is equivalent to the more formal I saw the boy about whom you are talking. 3) The relative clause functions as an adjective, answering questions such as "what kind?", "how many?" or "which one?". Relative Pronoun [Functioning as Object of Verb] + Subject + Verb. This is the ball 'that I was bouncing. Relative Adverb + Subject + Verb (possibly + Object of Verb).
David Brazil and his associates studied how intonation can indicate whether information is new or already established; whether a speaker is dominant or not in a conversation; and when a speaker is inviting the listener to make a contribution to the conversation. Prosody is also important in signalling emotions and attitudes. When this is involuntary (as when the voice is affected by anxiety or fear), the prosodic information is not linguistically significant. However, when the speaker varies her speech intentionally, for example to indicate sarcasm, this usually involves the use of prosodic features.
- Subject–auxiliary inversion with yes/no question. a. Larry has done it. b. What has Larry done? - Subject–auxiliary inversion with constituent question. a. Fred has helped at no point. b. At no point has Fred helped. - Subject–auxiliary inversion with fronted expression containing negation (negative inversion). a. If we were to surrender, ... b. Were we to surrender, ... - Subject–auxiliary inversion in condition clause – see. a. Fred stayed. b. *Stayed Fred? - Inversion impossible here because the verb is NOT an auxiliary verb. a. A unicorn will come into the room. b. Into the room will come a unicorn. a. Down the stairs came the dog. - Noun subject. b. ?
Typical examples of this kind of word in German are wohl, doch, mal, halt, eben, nun, schon, eh, auch or ja. Many of these words also have a more basic, specific meaning (e.g. wohl "well", ja "yes", schon "already", auch "also"), but in their modal use, this meaning is not directly expressed — that is, there is no real English equivalent to those words, so in an English translation, the German modal particles are usually omitted. German sentence structure is somewhat more complex than that in other languages, with phrases regularly inverted for both questions and subordinate phrases. * Standard German phonology Nominative (Wer oder was?)