French grammar

FrenchgrammarFrench plural marker
Verbs in French are conjugated to reflect the following information: Some of these features are combined into seven tense–aspect–mood combinations. The simple (one-word) forms are commonly referred to as the present, the simple past or preterite (past tense, perfective aspect), the imperfect (past tense, imperfective aspect), the future, the conditional, the present subjunctive, and the imperfect subjunctive. However, the simple past is rarely used in informal French, and the imperfect subjunctive is rarely used in modern French at all.

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedauxiliaries
Some more examples: The contracted forms of the questions are more usual in informal English. They are commonly found in tag questions. For the possibility of using aren't I (or other dialectal alternatives) in place of the uncontracted am I not, see Contractions representing am not above. The same phenomenon sometimes occurs in the case of negative inversion: ::Not only doesn't he smoke, ... / Not only does he not smoke, ... forms of the verb do (do, does, did), when used with other verbs to enable the formation of questions, negation, emphasis, etc.


Half of the works of Aristotle's Organon treat inference as it occurs in an informal setting, side by side with the development of the syllogistic, and in the Aristotelian school, these informal works on logic were seen as complementary to Aristotle's treatment of rhetoric. This ancient motivation is still alive, although it no longer takes centre stage in the picture of logic; typically dialectical logic forms the heart of a course in critical thinking, a compulsory course at many universities.


However, in the 19th century, with the development of historical-comparative linguistics, linguists began to realize the sheer diversity of human language and to question fundamental assumptions about the relationship between language and logic. It became apparent that there was no such thing as the most natural way to express a thought, and therefore logic could no longer be relied upon as a basis for studying the structure of language. The Port-Royal grammar modeled the study of syntax upon that of logic.

Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish-grammar
For example, ma ("has") or nie ma ("has not") may be used as an affirmative or negative answer to a question "does... have...?". Note the interrogative particle czy, which is used to start a yes/no question, much like the French "est-ce que". The particle is not obligatory, and sometimes rising intonation is the only signal of the interrogative character of the sentence. Negation is achieved by placing nie directly before the verb, or other word or phrase being negated (in some cases nie- is prefixed to the negated word, equivalent to English un- or non-).

Japanese language

Questions (both with an interrogative pronoun and yes/no questions) have the same structure as affirmative sentences, but with intonation rising at the end. In the formal register, the question particle -ka is added. For example, ii desu "It is OK" becomes ii desu-ka "Is it OK?". In a more informal tone sometimes the particle -no is added instead to show a personal interest of the speaker: Dōshite konai-no? "Why aren't (you) coming?". Some simple queries are formed simply by mentioning the topic with an interrogative intonation to call for the hearer's attention: Kore wa? "(What about) this?"; O-namae wa? "(What's your) name?".

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
There are also weak syllables, including grammatical particles such as the interrogative ma and certain syllables in polysyllabic words. These syllables are short, with their pitch determined by the preceding syllable. It is common for Standard Chinese to be spoken with the speaker's regional accent, depending on factors such as age, level of education, and the need and frequency to speak in official or formal situations. This appears to be changing, though, in large urban areas, as social changes, migrations, and urbanization take place. Due to evolution and standardization, Mandarin, although based on the Beijing dialect, is no longer synonymous with it.

Cyrillic script

CyrillicUzbek CyrillicCyrillic alphabet
Various informal romanizations of Cyrillic, which adapt the Cyrillic script to Latin and sometimes Greek glyphs for compatibility with small character sets. Cyrillic: U+0400–U+04FF. Cyrillic Supplement: U+0500–U+052F. Cyrillic Extended-A: U+2DE0–U+2DFF. Cyrillic Extended-B: U+A640–U+A69F. Cyrillic Extended-C: U+1C80–U+1C8F. Phonetic Extensions: U+1D2B, U+1D78.

Danish language

Questions with wh-words are formed differently from yes/no questions. In wh-questions the question word occupies the preverbal field, regardless of whether its grammatical role is subject or object or adverbial. In yes/no questions the preverbal field is empty, so that the sentence begins with the verb. Wh-question: In subordinate clauses, the syntax differs from that of main clauses. In the subordinate clause structure the verb is preceded by the subject and any light adverbial material (e.g. negation). Complement clauses begin with the particle at in the "connector field".

Norwegian language

A newer trend is to write in dialect for informal use. When writing an SMS, Facebook update, or fridge note, most younger people write the way they talk rather than using Bokmål or Nynorsk. There is general agreement that a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Dialects are in some cases so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners.

No such thing as a stupid question

School House Diary: Reflections of a Retired Educator notes that teachers are fond of saying this phrase, and suggests that while they themselves want to call out the stupid questions, they fall back on the adage in order to prevent the child from being ridiculed. Those questions that have already been answered, but the asker wasn't listening or paying attention. Questions that can be answered with a scant amount of research and less than a minute of time. Questions of which the answer should be painfully obvious to any person with a pulse who has lived on this earth for more than a decade.

Affirmation and negation

Affirmative and negative responses (especially, though not exclusively, to questions) are often expressed using particles or words such as yes and no, where yes is the affirmative and no the negative particle. Special affirmative and negative words (particles) are often found in responses to questions, and sometimes to other assertions by way of agreement or disagreement. In English, these are yes and no respectively, in French oui, si and non, in Swedish ja, jo and nej, and so on. Not all languages make such common use of particles of this type; in some (such as Welsh) it is more common to repeat the verb or another part of the predicate, with or without negation accordingly.


With the passage of time, impressions stored in the consciousness about many, together with the resulting relationships and consequences, permit the individual to build a construct about the moral implications of behavior. 1) Ask a question about a natural phenomenon. 2) Make observations of the phenomenon. 3) Formulate a hypothesis that tentatively answers the question. 4) Predict logical, observable consequences of the hypothesis that have not yet been investigated. 5) Test the hypothesis' predictions by an experiment, observational study, field study, or simulation. 6) Draw a conclusion from data gathered in the experiment, or revise the hypothesis or form a new one and repeat the process


interobanginverted version of the interrobangpunctuation mark
, is a punctuation mark used in various written languages and intended to combine the functions of the question mark, or interrogative point, and the exclamation mark, or exclamation point, known in the jargon of printers and programmers as a "bang". The glyph is a superimposition of these two marks. A sentence ending with an interrobang asks a question in an excited manner, expresses excitement or disbelief in the form of a question, or asks a rhetorical question. For example: Writers using informal language may use several alternating question marks and exclamation marks for even more emphasis, however this is regarded as poor style in formal writing.


VSOverb-subject-objectVERB – SUBJECT – OBJECT
This is the usual method of forming the present tense: In Irish, phrases also use VSO: In Irish, when forming a question the following would be true: There are many SVO languages that switch to VSO with different constructions, usually for emphasis. For example, sentences in English poetry can sometimes be found to have a VSO order, and Early Modern English explicitly reflects the VSO order that is now implicit in Modern English by the suppression of the imperative's now-understood subject. For example, "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may" contrasts with modern "Gather rosebuds while you may".

In situ

in-situsituin place
For example, questions in languages such as Chinese have in situ wh-elements, with structures comparable to "John bought what?" with what in the same position in the sentence as the grammatical object would be in its affirmative counterpart (for example, "John bought bread"). An example of an English wh-element that is not in situ (see wh-movement): "What did John buy?" In literature in situ is used to describe a condition. The Rosetta Stone, for example, was originally erected in a courtyard, for public viewing. Most pictures of the famous stone are not in situ pictures of it erected, as it would have been originally. The stone was uncovered as part of building material, within a wall.

Sentence function

Allofunctional implicature
It answers the question: "Why has this been said?" The four basic sentence functions in the world's languages include the declarative, interrogative, exclamative, and the imperative. These correspond to a statement, question, exclamation, and command respectively. Typically, a sentence goes from one function to the next through a combination of changes in word order, intonation, the addition of certain auxiliaries or particles, or other times by providing a special verbal form. The four main categories can be further specified as being either communicative or informative.


Questions in written ASL are denoted by eyebrow marks bounding the question not unlike Spanish's "¿ ?." Question words or wh-questions in ASL can also form the interrogative. There are in total 105 characters in ASLwrite with 67 digits, five diacritic marks, twelve locatives, sixteen extramanual marks and five movement marks. Since its creation, it has evolved to include more digits, locatives, movements and marks as well as modify those already present. si5s, a system built from SignWriting, was first proposed by Robert Arnold in his 2007 Gallaudet thesis A Proposal of the Written System for ASL.

English language

Both yes–no questions and wh-questions in English are mostly formed using subject–auxiliary inversion (Am I going tomorrow?, Where can we eat?), which may require do-support (Do you like her?, Where did he go?). In most cases, interrogative words (wh-words; e.g. what, who, where, when, why, how) appear in a fronted position. For example, in the question What did you see?, the word what appears as the first constituent despite being the grammatical object of the sentence. (When the wh-word is the subject or forms part of the subject, no inversion occurs: Who saw the cat?.) Prepositional phrases can also be fronted when they are the question's theme, e.g.

Question (disambiguation)

"Questions", by Moneybagg Yo from Heartless (mixtape). "La question", by Gaëtan Roussel from Trafic. The Questions, a Scottish pop band. Question?, a Japanese group promoted by Johnny & Associates. Questions (game), a game played by asking questions. Ballot measure, a piece of proposed legislation to be approved or rejected by voters. Masá’il or "Questions", the fifteenth month of the Bahá'í calendar. Questioning (infinitive form: to question), another term for police interrogation. Question mark (disambiguation). Answer (disambiguation). Questions and answers (disambiguation). Interrogative, for grammatical rules for question formation. Inquiry. Ask (disambiguation).