Index of philosophy articles (I–Q)

Informal fallacy. Informal logic. Informal mathematics. Information bias (psychology). Information ethics. Information theory. Informed consent. Informed refusal. Infoshop. Ingeborg Bachmann. Ingeborg i Mjärhult. Ingenuity. Ingo Zechner. Ingroup bias. Ingsoc. Inherence. Inherence relation. Inherent. Inherent value. Inherently funny word. Iniciales. Inka. Innate idea. Innate ideas. Innate knowledge. Innatism. Inne pieśni. Inner peace. Innocence. Inocenc Arnošt Bláha. Inoue Tetsujirō. Inquiry. Inside Front. Insight. Insolubilia. Instantiation. Instantiation principle. Institute for Anarchist Studies. Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.

Chinese grammar

ChineseChinese aspect markersChinese aspects
In wh-questions in Chinese, the question word is not fronted. Instead, it stays in the position in the sentence that would be occupied by the item being asked about. For example, "What did you say?" is phrased as nǐ shuō shé[n]me (, literally "you say what"). The word shénme (, "what" or "which"), remains in the object position after the verb. Other interrogative words include: Disjunctive questions can be made using the word háishì between the options, like English "or". This differs from the word for "or" in statements, which is huòzhě. Yes-no questions can be formed using the sentence-final particle ma, with word order otherwise the same as in a statement.

Lakota language

LakotaLakhotaStandard Lakota Orthography
There are also various interrogative enclitics, which in addition to marking an utterance as a question show finer distinctions of meaning. For example, while he is the usual question-marking enclitic, huŋwó is used for rhetorical questions or in formal oratory, and the dubitative wa functions somewhat like a tag question in English (Rood and Taylor 1996; Buchel 1983). (See also the section below on men and women's speech.) A small number of enclitics (approximately eight) differ in form based on the gender of the speaker. Yeló (men) ye (women) mark mild assertions. Kštó (women only according to most sources) marks strong assertion.

Dutch language

In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position: :"Kun jij je pen niet vinden?" (literally "Can you your pen not find?") "Can't you find your pen?" In the Dutch equivalent of a wh-question the word order is: interrogative pronoun (or expression) + conjugated verb + subject; other verbs in final position: :"Waarom kun jij je pen niet vinden?" ("Why can you your pen not find?") "Why can't you find your pen?" In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause: :"Jij kunt je pen niet vinden?" ("You can your pen not find?") "You can't find your pen?"

Grammatical mood

The interrogative (or interrogatory) mood is used for asking questions. In English, questions are considered interrogative. Most other languages do not have a special mood for asking questions, but exceptions include Welsh, Nenets and Eskimo languages such as Greenlandic. Linguistics also differentiate moods into two parental categories that include deontic mood and epistemic mood. Deontic mood describes whether one could or should be able to do something. An example of deontic mood is: She should/may start. On the other hand, epistemic mood describes the chance or possibility of something happening. This would then change our example to: She may have started.


dialecticsdialecticaldialectical method
Many of these logics appear in the special area of artificial intelligence and law, though the computer scientists' interest in formalizing dialectic originates in a desire to build decision support and computer-supported collaborative work systems. 1) The question to be determined (“It is asked whether...”). 2) A provisory answer to the question (“And it seems that...”). 3) The principal arguments in favor of the provisory answer. 4) An argument against the provisory answer, traditionally a single argument from authority ("On the contrary..."). 5) The determination of the question after weighing the evidence ("I answer that..."). 6) The replies to each of the initial objections.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosopherGreekGreek philosophers
Socrates is said to have pursued this probing question-and-answer style of examination on a number of topics, usually attempting to arrive at a defensible and attractive definition of a virtue. While Socrates' recorded conversations rarely provide a definite answer to the question under examination, several maxims or paradoxes for which he has become known recur. Socrates taught that no one desires what is bad, and so if anyone does something that truly is bad, it must be unwillingly or out of ignorance; consequently, all virtue is knowledge. He frequently remarks on his own ignorance (claiming that he does not know what courage is, for example).

Socratic dialogue

dialoguedialoguesSocratic literature
The outcome of the dialogue is that Socrates demonstrates that the other person's views are inconsistent. In this way Socrates tries to show the way to real wisdom. One of his most famous statements in that regard is "The unexamined life is not worth living." This philosophical questioning is known as the Socratic method. In some dialogues Plato's main character is not Socrates but someone from outside of Athens. In Xenophon's Hiero a certain Simonides plays this role when Socrates is not the protagonist. Generally, the works which are most often assigned to Plato's early years are all considered to be Socratic dialogues (written from 399 to 387).


In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e., the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laërtius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented the "Socratic" method ). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was, which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist. W. K. C. Guthrie classified Socrates as a Sophist in his History of Greek Philosophy.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
The following 2016 census data shows: The total number of people who answeredyes’ to being able to speak Irish in April 2016 was 1,761,420, a slight decrease (0.7 per cent) on the 2011 figure of 1,774,437. This represents 39.8 per cent of respondents compared with 41.4 in 2011... Of the 73,803 daily Irish speakers (outside the education system), 20,586 (27.9%) lived in Gaeltacht areas. Irish is represented by several traditional dialects and by various varieties of "urban" Irish. The latter have acquired lives of their own and a growing number of native speakers. Differences between the dialects make themselves felt in stress, intonation, vocabulary and structural features.

Socrates Cafe

According to Phillips, his version of the Socratic Method was inspired not only by the Greek interrogative elements practiced by Socrates of the elenctic (Greek for 'cross examination,' 'encounter,' 'inquiry'), aporia (Greek for 'doubt') and maieutic (Greek for 'midwifery,' in this case giving birth to ideas one harbors from within), but by the philosopher Justus Buchler's notions of human judgment and query, by philosopher Walter Kaufmann's notion of the "Socratic type" and view that the Socratic Method boils down to the sustained consideration of objections and alternatives to any given way of seeing things, as well as by Hannah Arendt's notion of the Socratic persona and performativity.

Modern English

EnglishModern18th century
Cot-caught merger the merger of /ɔ/ and /ɑ/ to /ɑ/ in many dialects of General American. disuse of the T-V distinction (thou, ye). Contemporary Modern English retains only the formal second-person personal pronoun, "you" (ye), used in both formal and informal contexts. use of auxiliary verbs becomes mandatory in interrogative sentences. "less", rather than "fewer", is used for countable nouns. For English comparisons, syntactic comparison (more) is preferred to analytic comparison (-er). Usage of the Saxon genitive ('s) has extended beyond human referents. The letter thorn, which began to be replaced by th as early as Middle English, finally fell into disuse.

The Paper Chase (film)

The Paper Chase1973 film1973 film adaptation
The University of Chicago Law School called Houseman's rendition of the Socratic method "over-the-top", telling prospective students: John Houseman may have won an Oscar for his impressive performance, but if anyone ever did teach a law school class like his Professor Kingsfield, no one at Chicago does today. Instead, our students discover quickly that the Socratic Method is a tool and a good one that is used to engage a large group of students in a discussion, while using probing questions to get at the heart of the subject matter.

Harkness table

Harkness MethodHarknessHarkness education
Those at the middle discuss the selected subject matter or question while the others take notes related to the dialogue. The other strategies include Concentric Circles Strategy, Gallery Walk, Pyramid Strategy, and Carousel Walk. * Socratic method * 'Edward S. Harkness, 1874-1940', Richard F. Niebling, Phillips Exeter Academy (PDF)

Classical Adlerian psychotherapy

Adlerian therapy
The second stage in this phase is focused on gathering information on the client. Early childhood memories and influences are sought out as well as details that provide information on how the client faces life problems. The primary focus in phase two is on encouragement. This is done through two stages of clarification and encouragement. Therapists clarify any vague thinking with Socratic questioning and evaluate the consequences of various actions or ideas. They help the client correct inappropriate ideas about his or her self and others. They also help the client create alternative ways of thinking to move his/her life into a new direction while clarifying feelings.

Michel Weber

Weber, Michel
Philosophical Counseling is a recent movement, probably begun in the United States, employing Socratic methods of dialog for the purpose of short-term counseling that, without seeking to replace more traditional psychotherapies, nevertheless offers an alternative to them. In July 2010, he organized an Applied Process Metaphysics Summer Institute in Paris, at the Cité universitaire’s Fondation Biermans Lapôtre. The second Institute has taken place in July 2011. In May 2014, the philosophical counselling service moved to the Centre Kinos, now Tonaki, of the University of Louvain (UCLouvain) in Louvain-la-Neuve.

The Paper Chase (novel)

The Paper Chase1970 novelnovel of the same name
Kingsfield is an imperious, highly respected (and feared) professor of contracts at Harvard Law School, known for his unrelenting use of the Socratic method on his students. Kingsfield himself was a law student at Harvard, as shown by the presence of his own class notes in the institution's archives. Kingsfield has a daughter with a fiercely independent personality. During an event at Harvard Law School to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the book's release, the author said that the character was a composite of several of his professors at Harvard Law School, saying, "It wasn’t like it was hard to find role models."

A-not-A question

Closed-ended question. Echo answer. Interrogative. Yes-no question.


Yesss is a common elongation of the word Yes and may refer to: *Yes (disambiguation) Yesss, a subsidiary of the mobile network Orange Austria. The YeSSS Unified Satellite Communication System; see Gorizont. Yesss, a character in the animated film Ralph Breaks the Internet.