Mapping of Venus

During the mapping cycle 1 (left-looking) radar surface mapping on Venus (September 15, 1990 to May 15, 1991), around 70% of the Venusian surface was mapped by synthetic aperture radar. In cycle 2 (right-looking), 54.5% of the surface was mapped, mainly the south pole regions and gaps from cycle 1 during May 15, 1991 to January 14, 1992. Combining cycle 1 and 2 results in a total coverage of 96% of Venusian surface mapped. Cycle 3 (left looking) filled remaining gaps and collected stereo imagery of approximately 21.3% of the surface, increasing the total coverage to 98%. The use of Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for mapping Venus has been proposed.

Zhuk (radar)

Zhuk MEZhuk-AEN010 Zhuk
In the air-to-surface mode the N010 radar offers a mapping capability using either Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), real beam or doppler beam narrowing modes with a resolution of up to 3x3m with zooming and image freezing functions. The radar can detect and track with measurement of range and speed both moving and static ground and naval targets. The Zhuk radar can support low altitude terrain following flying and can also detect dangerous weather patterns during flight. The radar is compatible with a variety of air-to-surface weaponry, including Kh-29 air-to-surface missiles as well as Kh-31 anti-radiation missiles.

Remote sensing (geology)

remote sensing
Microwave radar can also take part in landslide recognition in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and monitoring through the InSAR technique which effectively shows small scale deformation. The hazard risk management could be further discussed using geographical information system (GIS). In the context of economic geology, the surficial data help locate possible reserves of natural resources. The occurrence of nature reserves that are exploitable is in close association with the surrounding geology. Feasible resources explorations should be backed up by accurate geological models to locate prospect ore and petroleum deposits from a preliminary regional overview.


radarSHARAD radar
SHARAD (Mars SHAllow RADar sounder) is a subsurface sounding radar embarked on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) probe. It complements the MARSIS radar on Mars Express orbiter, providing lower penetration capabilities (some hundred meters) but much finer resolution (15 metres - untapered - in free space). SHARAD was developed under the responsibility of the Italian Space Agency (ASI, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana), and provided to JPL for use on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft in the frame of a NASA/ASI agreement which foresees exploitation of the data by a joint Italian/US team.


AN/APS-137AN/APS-149 Littoral Surveillance Radar SystemAN/APS-80
A further development of AN/APS-115/116/124/127/134 is the X-band AN/APS-137, incorporating synthetic aperture radar (SAR), inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) and Ground moving target indication (GMTI) modes. The resolution in SAR & ISAR modes is 0.9 m (3 ft). A helicopter version of AN/APS-137 was also developed, but it lost out to Telephonics AN/APS-143. AN/APS-148 Sea Vue (SeaVue) radar is a X-band radar based on the knowledge of AN/APS-137, developed by Raytheon for light fixed winged aircraft. SeaVue is a modular design that is upgradable, with only three line-replaceable units.

Low-probability-of-intercept radar

low probability of interceptlow probability of intercept radarLow-probability-of-intercept
A low-probability-of-intercept radar (LPIR) is a radar employing measures to avoid detection by passive radar detection equipment (such as a radar warning receiver (RWR), or electronic support receiver) while it is searching for a target or engaged in target tracking. This characteristic is desirable in a radar because it allows finding and tracking an opponent without alerting them to the radar's presence. This also protects the radar installation from anti-radiation missiles (ARM). LPI measures include: Radar systems work by sending out a signal and then listening for its echo off distant objects.


OPS 3762: The very first SAR radar in space, 1964. Seasat: The SAR radar in space in 1978. SAR Lupe: Germany's military radar satellites. SAR technology(Synthetic Aperture Radar). Earth observation technology. Earth observation satellite. Digital elevation model. SIR-A (Shuttle Imaging Radar) aboard STS-2 in 1981. SIR-B aboard STS-41-G in 1984. SRL-1 (Shuttle Radar Laboratory): SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar) and X-SAR (X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar) on STS-59 in 1994. SRL-2: SIR-C/X-SAR on STS-68 in 1994. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) on STS-99 in 2000. Astrium Geo. TerraSAR-X at DLR website. TerraSAR-X for risk management. TanDEM-X at DLR website.

Lockheed AC-130

AC-130AC-130 SpectreAC-130U
Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241 multimode navigation radar – derived version of AN/APG-66 radar (formerly used on F-16A Fighting Falcon) consisting of precised navigation and air-to-ground modes including Monopulse Ground Mapping (MGM), Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS), high resolution synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), Terrain Avoidance/Terrain Following (TA/TF), skin paint (for Station KEeping; SKE), maritime detection, weather/turbulence detection, wind shear alert, and ballistic wind measurement (for precision airdrop).

Joachim Ender

Ender was one of the founding members of the European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (EUSAR), which takes place every two years. He created, together with colleagues, the International Workshop on Compressive Sensing Applied to Radar" (CoSeRa), which first convened in April 2012. In 2009, Ender further founded the International Summer School on Radar and SAR, which gathers each July.


Synthetic-aperture radar, a type or radar. Analytic–synthetic distinction, a concept in philosophy. Synthetic language, a language type that often uses several small pieces of words to form new words. Synthetic diamond. Synthetic fibers, cloth or other material made from other substances than natural (animal, plant) materials. Synthetic intelligence a term emphasizing that true intelligence expressed by computing machines is not an imitation or "artificial.". Synthetic or constructed language, such as Esperanto. Synthetic music, produced by a synthesizer, a machine to create artificial sound and music. Synthetic chord in music theory.

Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit

B-2B-2 SpiritB-2 stealth bomber
The B-2 features a sophisticated GPS-Aided Targeting System (GATS) that uses the aircraft's APQ-181 synthetic aperture radar to map out targets prior to deployment of GPS-aided bombs (GAMs), later superseded by the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). In the B-2's original configuration, up to 16 GAMs or JDAMs could be deployed; an upgrade program in 2004 raised the maximum carriable capacity to 80 JDAMs. The B-2 has various conventional weapons in its arsenal, able to equip Mark 82 and Mark 84 bombs, CBU-87 Combined Effects Munitions, GATOR mines, and the CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon.

European Remote-Sensing Satellite

RA (Radar Altimeter) is a single frequency nadir-pointing radar altimeter operating in the K u band. ATSR-1 (Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) is a 4 channel infrared radiometer and microwave sounder for measuring temperatures at the sea-surface and the top of clouds. SAR (synthetic aperture radar) operating in C band can detect changes in surface heights with sub-millimeter precision. Wind Scatterometer used to calculate information on wind speed and direction. MWR is a Microwave Radiometer used in measuring atmospheric water, as well as providing a correction for the atmospheric water for the altimeter.


In this new variant, the displayed resolution in ground-mapping mode is quadrupled, and is reported to be close to that offered by SAR techniques. Used for modernization of F-16A/B fleet of Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the Netherlands in the mid-1990s. APG-66(V)3 – as APG-66(V)2 but with CW illumination capability, export to Taiwan. APG-66(V)X – improved version of the APG-66(V)2/3 radar with greater detection range. APG-66H – installed on BAE Hawk 200 aircraft, smaller antenna, giving slightly reduced capabilities. APG-66J – configured for the Japanese F-4EJ upgrade program. APG-66NT – installed on US Navy T-39N aircraft for instruction of Student Naval Flight Officers.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird

SR-71SR-71 BlackbirdLockheed SR-71A Blackbird
In later life, the radar was replaced by Loral's Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS-1). Both the first SLAR and ASARS-1 were ground-mapping imaging systems, collecting data either in fixed swaths left or right of centerline or from a spot location for higher resolution. ELINT-gathering systems, called the Electro Magnetic Reconnaissance System, built by AIL could be carried in the chine bays to analyse electronic signal fields being passed through, and were programmed to identify items of interest.

History of radar

radarAirborne Intercept (AI) radarRDF
Phased-array radar has the many segments of a large antenna separately controlled, allowing the beam to be quickly directed. This greatly reduces the time necessary to change the beam direction from one point to another, allowing almost simultaneous tracking of multiple targets while maintaining overall surveillance. Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), was invented in the early 1950s at Goodyear Aircraft Corporation. Using a single, relatively small antenna carried on an aircraft, a SAR combines the returns from each pulse to produce a high-resolution image of the terrain comparable to that obtained by a much larger antenna. SAR has wide applications, particularly in mapping and remote sensing.

Embraer R-99

R-99Embraer P-99AErieye EMB-145H AEW&C
It employs a synthetic aperture radar, combination electro-optical and FLIR systems as well as a multi-spectral scanner. The aircraft also possesses signal intelligence and C3I capabilities. In 2008 the FAB redesignated the R-99B as the R-99, for the Embraer EMB-145RS (Remote Sensing), a special military conversion of the passenger version of the Embraer ERJ-145LR. The EMB 145 MP is the maritime patrol version of the EMB-145. It shares much of the same sensor suite as the R-99B, but most visibly, lacks the multi-spectral scanner and the side-looking radar. It retains many of the C3I and ELINT capabilities of the EMB-145-RS. Mexico was the launch customer for this variant.


Venera programmeVenera programVenera 15/16 mission
Venera 15 and 16 were similar to previous probes, but the entry probes were replaced with surface imaging radar equipment. Radar imaging was necessary to penetrate the dense cloud of Venus. The VeGa (Cyrillic: ВеГа) probes to Venus and comet 1/P Halley launched in 1985 also used this basic Venera design, including landers but also atmospheric balloons which relayed data for about two days. "VeGa" is an agglutination of the words "Venera" (Venus in Russian) and "Gallei" (Halley in Russian). Venera-D is a proposed mission to Venus that would include a highly capable orbiter and a lander.


The current F-22 production radar is the APG-77v1, which draws heavily on APG-81 hardware and software for its advanced air-to-ground capabilities. In August 2005, the APG-81 radar was flown for the first time aboard Northrop Grumman's BAC 1–11 test aircraft. Since then, the radar system has accumulated over 300 flight hours. The first radar flight on Lockheed Martin's CATBird avionics test-bed occurred in November 2008. In June 2009, the F-35s APG-81 active electronically scanned array radar was integrated in the Northern Edge 2009 large-scale military exercise when it was mounted on the front of a Northrop Grumman test aircraft.

Technology Service Corporation

The system uses synthetic aperture radar and video imaging mounted on inexpensive commercial aircraft such as the Cessna 337. In 2008, the company's then-CFO, Michael Syracuse, received a Washington Business Journal Award for Financial Excellence in the Government Contracting (Less than $500 Million) category; the award recognizes "competent, confident and ethical financial professionals" who have done exceptional work in their field. The company is headquartered in Arlington, Virginia; it was previously located in Silver Spring, Maryland.


The JL-10A airborne radar is a highly digitized pulse-Doppler radar with slotted planar array developed for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) as a replacement for the older Type 232H radar currently employed by the Chinese air force. The radar is built to MIL-STD-1553 standard so it is compatible with western electronics and weaponry. Originally, the radar is capable of simultaneously tracking 10 targets (later to be upgraded to 15) and engaging 2 (later to be upgraded to 6) of the 10 tracked when using semi-active radar homing air-to-air missiles, or 4 of the 10 tracked when using active radar homing air-to-air missiles.

Opticks (software)

Synthetic aperture radar. Hyperspectral. Multispectral. Imagery analysis. Lidar. Radar. Open-source software.