ERIM played key-roles in the development and implementation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), at the time, an entirely new concept of radar technology. Development of an optical processing system for SAR data led Emmett Leith, Adam Kozma and Juris Upatnieks to use the newly invented laser in conjunction with the holographic theories outlined by Dennis Gabor. Leith and Upatnieks developed a practical technique for wave-front recording and reconstruction using lasers, thereby making possible the field now known as holography. Holograms have since found a wide variety of applications.
ERIMERIM InternationalWillow Run Laboratory
He was a member of the technical staff at MIT Lincoln Laboratory from Sept 2007 to Nov 2011, and has taught short radar courses at MIT where his ‘Build a Small Radar Sensor...’ course was top-ranked MIT Professional Education course in 2011. Charvat has authored or co-authored numerous journals, proceedings, magazine articles, and seminars on topics including applied electromagnetics, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and phased array radar systems, radio frequency (RF) and analog design. He has developed numerous rail SAR imaging sensors, phased array radar systems, impulse radar systems and other radar sensors, and as well has designed his own amateur radio station.
The ALSE (Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment) (also known as Scientific Experiment S-209, according to NASA designations) was a ground-penetrating radar (subsurface sounder) experiment that flew on the Apollo 17 mission. This experiment used radar to study the Moon's surface and interior. Radar waves with wavelengths between 2 and 60 meters (frequencies of 5, 15, and 150 MHz) were transmitted through a series of antennas near the back of the Apollo Service Module. After the waves were reflected by the Moon, they were received using the same antennas and the data was recorded on film for analysis on Earth.
Both Venera 15 and 16 were equipped with a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). A radar was necessary in this mission because nothing else would be able to penetrate the dense clouds of Venus. The probes were equipped with on board computers that saved the images until the entire image was complete. This radar system replaced the normal landers that previous Venera probes brought to Venus.
interceptedgeneral U.S. rule
The same launcher carried French and Spanish scientific satellites and four Essaim ("Swarm") experimental ELINT satellites Germany launched their first reconnaissance satellite system, SAR-Lupe, on December 19, 2006. Further satellites were launched at roughly six-month intervals, and the entire system of this five-satellite synthetic aperture radar constellation achieved full operational readiness on 22 July 2008. SAR is usually considered a MASINT sensor, but the significance here is that Germany obtains access to French satellite ELINT. The joint French-Italian Orfeo Programme, a dual-use civilian and military satellite system, launched its first satellite on June 8, 2007.
A-6 IntruderA-6E IntruderA-6
The A-6F would have had totally new avionics, including a Norden AN/APQ-173 synthetic aperture radar and multi-function cockpit displays – the APQ-173 would have given the Intruder air-to-air capacity with provision for the AIM-120 AMRAAM. Two additional wing pylons were added, for a total of seven stations. Although five development aircraft were built, the U.S. Navy ultimately chose not to authorize the A-6F, preferring to concentrate on the A-12 Avenger II. This left the service in a quandary when the A-12 was canceled in 1991. Grumman proposed a cheaper alternative in the A-6G, which had most of the A-6F's advanced electronics, but retained the existing engines. This, too, was canceled.
F-15E Strike EagleF-15EF-15I
The F-15E was to be upgraded with the Raytheon APG-82 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar after 2007, and the first test radar was delivered to Boeing in 2010. It combines the processor of the APG-79 used on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet with the antenna of the APG-63(V)3 AESA being fitted on the F-15C. The new radar upgrade is to be part of the F-15E Radar Modernization Program. The new radar was named APG-63(V)4 until it received the APG-82 designation in 2009. The RMP also includes a wideband radome (to allow the AESA to operate on more radar frequencies), and improvements to the environment control and electronic warfare systems.
Guabonito was observed by the Cassini radar instrument's synthetic aperture radar imaging mode on April 30, 2006. This ringed features, 90 kilometers across, is located in Titan's Shangri-La dark region, near the boundary with Xanadu, and is centered at -10.9°N, -150.8°W. This feature is named after Guabonito, the Taíno Indian sea goddess who taught the use of amulets.
The prime contractor on the project is MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates and it was designed for three main uses: Its synthetic aperture radars (SAR) have a mass of 400 kg each, and a resolution of 1 × 3 m. As secondary payload, it includes Automatic Identification System for ships (AIS). * RADARSAT Constellation Mission - Canadian Space Agency Maritime surveillance (ice, surface wind, oil pollution and ship monitoring). Disaster management (mitigation, warning, response and recovery). Ecosystem monitoring (agriculture, wetlands, forestry and coastal change monitoring). RADARSAT. Technological and industrial history of Canada.
Side looking airborne radar (SLAR) made it possible to acquire images regardless of weather conditions. On November 4, 1995, Canada launched RADARSAT-1. Developed by the Canadian Space Agency, it provides images of Earth for scientific and commercial purposes. This system was the first to use synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which sends microwave energy to the ocean surface and records the reflections to track icebergs. The European Space Agency launched ENVISAT (an observation satellite that orbits the Earth's poles) on March 1, 2002. ENVISAT employs advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) technology, which can detect changes in surface height accurately.
Synthetic aperture radar.
The primary instruments aboard CryoSat-2 are SIRAL-2, the SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeters; which uses radar to determine and monitor the spacecraft's altitude in order to measure the elevation of the ice. Unlike the original CryoSat, two SIRAL instruments are installed aboard CryoSat-2, with one serving as a backup in case the other fails. A second instrument, Doppler Orbit and Radio Positioning Integration by Satellite, or DORIS, is used to calculate precisely the spacecraft's orbit. An array of retroreflectors are also carried aboard the spacecraft, and allow measurements to be made from the ground to verify the orbital data provided by DORIS.
Exploration of VenusVenusexploration
The images had a 1–2 kilometre (0.6–1.2 mile) resolution, comparable to those obtained by the best Earth radars. Venera 15 analyzed and mapped the upper atmosphere with an infrared Fourier spectrometer. From November 11, 1983 to July 10, 1984, both satellites mapped the northern third of the planet with synthetic aperture radar. These results provided the first detailed understanding of the surface geology of Venus, including the discovery of unusual massive shield volcanoes such as coronae and arachnoids. Venus had no evidence of plate tectonics, unless the northern third of the planet happened to be a single plate.
ground scanning radar systemair-to-ground radarairborne battlefield and ground
The earliest Airborne ground surveillance system was the H2S (radar). * NATO Alliance Ground Surveillance US Air Force Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS. Russian Air Force Tupolev Tu-204R. British Royal Air Force Raytheon Sentinel. US Air Force Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk. Tethered Aerostat Radar System. JLENS. Intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance. Alliance Ground Surveillance – a NATO programme to acquire an AGS capability. Unmanned aerial vehicle. Synthetic aperture radar.
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a radar technique used in geodesy and remote sensing. This geodetic method uses two or more synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to generate maps of surface deformation or digital elevation, using differences in the phase of the waves returning to the satellite. The technique can potentially measure centimetre-scale changes in deformation over timespans of days to years. It has applications for geophysical monitoring of natural hazards, for example earthquakes, volcanoes and landslides, and also in structural engineering, in particular monitoring of subsidence and structural stability.
This feature was observed by the Cassini radar instrument's SAR imaging mode on April 30, 2006. This new view reveals variations in roughness across Shikoku, including a circular patch of smooth terrain 35 kilometers across in northeastern Shikoku that may be an impact crater. This circular feature, along with another region of relatively smooth terrain in southcentral Shikoku, do not appear to have a counterpart in the near-infrared images taken by the Imaging Science Subsystem cameras. Shikoku Facula is named after Shikoku, the smallest of the four main Japanese islands.
speed sensordevicesIonizing radiation sensor
Ground-penetrating radar. Synthetic aperture radar. Radar tracker. Stretch sensor. Sensor array. Sensor fusion. Sensor grid. Sensor node. Soft sensor. Sonar. Staring array. Transducer. Ultrasonic sensor. Video sensor. Visual sensor network. Wheatstone bridge. Wireless sensor network. Wheel speed sensors. Speedometers. Pitometer logs. Pitot tubes. Airspeed indicators. Piezo sensors (e.g. in a road surface). LIDAR. Ground speed radar. Doppler radar. ANPR (where vehicles are timed over a fixed distance). Laser surface velocimeters for moving surfaces. Actigraphy. Air pollution sensor. Analog image processing. Atomic force microscopy. Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor.
For high resolution and speckle noise reduced reflectivity imaging Synthetic Aperture Focusing Techniques (SAFT), similar to radar's SAR and sonar's SAS, are widely used. Iterative wave equation inversion approaches as imaging method coming from the seismology are under academic research, but usage for real world applications is due to the enormous computational and memory burden still a challenge. Many USCT systems are designed for soft tissue imaging and for breast cancer diagnosis specifically. As ultrasound based method with low sound pressures, USCT is a harmless and risk-free imaging method, suitable for periodical screening.
Investigacion AplicadaINVAP S.E.
Sonar systems for Argentine Navy destroyers, frigates and future Nuclear Powered submarine. 3D radar prototype plus 6 in order for the Argentine Air Force. Maritime patrol simulators. Naval electronics and battle management systems for Argentine Navy Meko 360 type destroyers, MEKO 140 type frigates, and TR-1700 submarines. A synthetic aperture radar to replace the Bendix RDR-1500B on the maritime patrol aircraft Beechcraft Super King Air of the Argentine Naval Aviation. CONAE - National space agency. ARSAT - Government owned communication company. CEATSA - Environmental testing company owned in association with ARSAT. Official website Spanish - English.
Armed ForcesIndian militaryIndia
The DRDO's avionics programme has been a success story with its mission computers, radar warning receivers, high accuracy direction finding pods, synthetic aperture radar, Active Phased Array Radar, airborne jammers and flight instrumentation in use across a wide variety of Indian Air Force aircraft and satellites. DRDO labs have developed many electronic warfare systems for IAF and the Indian Army and high-performance Sonar systems for the navy. DRDO also developed other critical military hardware, such as the Arjun Main Battle Tank, and is engaged in the development of the future Infantry Combat Vehicle, the "Abhay".