List of laser articles

Synthetic aperture radar. Synthetic diamond. TEA laser. TIALD, Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator Pod. Tactical High Energy Laser. Tactical light. Talbot cavity. Targeting (warfare). Targeting pods. Taser. Terahertz radiation. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Terra-3. Tetracene. Theatrical smoke and fog. Theodolite. Thermal blooming. Thermal laser stimulation. Thermal shock parameter in the physics of solid-state lasers. Thermople laser sensors. Thin film. Three-level lasers. Ti-sapphire laser. Time-of-flight camera. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Time-resolved spectroscopy. Time of flight. Titan laser. Toda oscillator. Toner. Toner cartridge. Toner refill. Tophat beam.

Fast Fourier Transform Telescope

This technique is already being used in radar applications. This paper refers to an earlier telescope design from 1993 which took direct images of the Crab nebula at radio wavelengths using an eight-by-eight-pixel two-dimensional spatial FFT processor. Aperture synthesis. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Inverse synthetic aperture radar. List of telescope types. Synthetic aperture radar. Jan Hamann, Steen Hannestad, Martin S. Sloth, Yvonne Y. Y. Wong (2008), "Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes", Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, arxiv 0807.4528. Jonathan R.

Weather radar

Doppler weather radarradarDoppler radar
Thus 10 cm (S-band) radar is preferred but is more expensive than a 5 cm C-band system. 3 cm X-band radar is used only for short-range units, and 1 cm Ka-band weather radar is used only for research on small-particle phenomena such as drizzle and fog. W band weather radar systems have seen limited university use, but due to quicker attenuation, most data are not operational. Radar pulses spread out as they move away from the radar station. Thus the volume of air that a radar pulse is traversing is larger for areas farther away from the station, and smaller for nearby areas, decreasing resolution at far distances.

Acronym

initialismacronymsinitials
Just as the words laser and radar function as words in syntax and cognition without a need to focus on their acronymic origins, terms such as "RARS" and "CHA2DS2–VASc score" are irreducible in natural language; if they are purged, the form of language that is left may conform to some imposed rule, but it cannot be described as remaining natural.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
The letter system had its origin in World War 2 in a top secret U.S. classification of bands used in radar sets; this is the origin of the oldest letter system, the IEEE radar bands. One set of microwave frequency bands designations by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), is tabulated below: P band is sometimes used for K u Band. "P" for "previous" was a radar band used in the UK ranging from 250 to 500 MHz and now obsolete per IEEE Std 521. When radars were first developed at K band during World War II, it was not known that there was a nearby absorption band (due to water vapor and oxygen in the atmosphere).

Marine radar

marine search radarRadar Surveillanceradar systems
*Radar Calculatoredge.com. Radartutorial.eu. Earth.esa.int. Alphalpha.org. Macuait.com. Radar in the 21st Century.

Radar astronomy

radarRadar observationsplanetary radar
Radar, on the other hand, directly measures the distance to the object (and how fast it is changing). The combination of optical and radar observations normally allows the prediction of orbits at least decades, and sometimes centuries, into the future. There are two radar astronomy facilities that are in regular use, the Arecibo Planetary Radar and the Goldstone Solar System Radar. The maximum range of astronomy by radar is very limited, and is confined to the Solar System. This is because the signal strength drops off very steeply with distance to the target, the small fraction of incident flux that is reflected by the target, and the limited strength of transmitters.

Transmitter

radio transmittertransmittersradio transmitters
Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters.

Lidar

laser altimeterlaser radarlight detection and ranging
Although now most sources treat the word "lidar" as an acronym, the term originated as a combination of "light" and "radar". The first published mention of lidar, in 1963, makes this clear: "Eventually the laser may provide an extremely sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by 'lidar' (light radar) ..." The Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology.

3D reconstruction

3D imagingreconstruction3-D virtual reconstruction
Digital elevation models can be reconstructed using methods such as airborne laser altimetry or synthetic aperture radar. Active methods, i.e. range data methods, given the depth map, reconstruct the 3D profile by numerical approximation approach and build the object in scenario based on model. These methods actively interfere with the reconstructed object, either mechanically or radiometrically using rangefinders, in order to acquire the depth map, e.g. structured light, laser range finder and other active sensing techniques. A simple example of a mechanical method would use a depth gauge to measure a distance to a rotating object put on a turntable.

Digital signal processing

DSPsignal processingdigital signal processing (DSP)
Applications of DSP include audio signal processing, audio compression, digital image processing, video compression, speech processing, speech recognition, digital communications, digital synthesizers, radar, sonar, financial signal processing, seismology and biomedicine.

Christian Hülsmeyer

Hollmann, Martin; “Christian Huelsmeyer, the inventor,” in Radar World; http://www.radarworld.org/huelsmeyer.html. Kern, Ulrich; Die Entstehung des Radarverfahrens: Zur Geschichte der Radartechnik bis 1945 (The Origin of the Radar Procedure: Also the History of the Radar Technology to 1945), Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Stuttgart, 1984. Watson, Raymond C., Jr.; Radar Developments Worldwide: History of Its Evolution in 13 Nations Through World War II, Trafford Publishing, 2009.

Direction finding

radio direction findingradio direction-findingdirection-finding
Early British radar sets were referred to as RDF, which is often stated was a deception. In fact, the Chain Home systems used large RDF receivers to determine directions. Later radar systems generally used a single antenna for broadcast and reception, and determined direction from the direction the antenna was facing. Direction finding requires an antenna that is directional (more sensitive in certain directions than in others). Many antenna designs exhibit this property. For example, a Yagi antenna has quite pronounced directionality, so the source of a transmission can be determined simply by pointing it in the direction where the maximum signal level is obtained.

Robert Watson-Watt

Robert Watson WattRobert WattRobert Alexander Watson Watt
*History of radar *Lem, Elizabeth, The Ditton Park Archive In 1945 Watson-Watt was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on Wireless. In 1949 a Watson-Watt Chair of Electrical Engineering was established at University College, Dundee. In 2013 he was one of four inductees to the Scottish Engineering Hall of Fame. Sir Robert Watson-Watt bio. The Royal Air Force Air Defence Radar Museum at RRH Neatishead, Norfolk. The Watson-Watt Society of Brechin, Angus, Scotland. Deflating British Radar Myths of World War II A comparison of contemporary British and German radar inventions and their use. Radar Development In England. Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt's biography.

Inverse synthetic-aperture radar

inverse synthetic aperture radarinverse SARISAR
Synthetic aperture radar. aperture synthesis. beamforming. phased array. Optical heterodyne detection. Inverse Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar by Dan Slater 1985. 2D and 3D UWB Radar Imaging systems developed in Geozondas. Advanced Radar Systems.

Arnold Wilkins

Arnold "Skip" WilkinsArnold F. 'Skip' WilkinsArnold F. Wilkins
History of radar. Aeronautical Research Committee (Tizard Committee).

Lawrence A. Hyland

L.A. "Pat" HylandHyland, Lawrence A.
He is one of three individuals, with whom are credited in major contributions to the invention of radar, but is probably best known as the man who transformed Hughes Aircraft from Howard Hughes' aviation "hobby shop" into one of the world's leading technology companies. Hyland was born in Nova Scotia, Canada, but his family moved to the U.S. in 1899, where he was raised in Massachusetts. He served in the U.S. Army during World War I, and then in the U.S. Navy until 1926. Hyland then joined the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory as a radio engineer.

Robert Morris Page

Robert M. Page
Ronald Reagan, in 1986, wrote to him remarking that 50 years after his initial radar work "our nation's scientists continue to rely on your research.". Brown, Louis; A Radar History of World War II, Institute of Physics Publishing, 1999. Chiles, James R., "The Road to Radar," Invention & Science Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 3 (Spring), 1987. Watson, Raymond C., Jr.; Radar Origins Worldwide, Trafford Publishing, 2009. Robert Morris Page via Minnesota Inventors Hall of Fame. Naval Research Laboratory Seventy-Five Years of High Stakes Science and Technology.

Albert H. Taylor

A. Hoyt TaylorHoyt TaylorTaylor, Albert H.
By 1937, his team had developed a practical shipboard radar that became known as CXAM radar, a technology very similar to that of Britain's Chain Home radar system. In 1929 Taylor was President of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE), and from 1936 to 1942 he served on the Communication Committee of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Both of these organizations were predecessors to what is now the IEEE. Taylor remained at NRL until his retirement in 1948.

Pavel K. Oshchepkov

P.K. Oshchepkov
Vovshin; “Radar in the Soviet Union and Russia: A Brief Historical Outline,” IEEE AES Magazine, Vol. 19, December, p. 8, 2003. Erickson, John; “Radio-location and the air defense problem: The design and development of Soviet Radar 1934-40,” Social Studies of Science, Vol. 2, p. 241, 1972. Kostenko, A. A., A. I. Nosich., and I. A. Tishchenko; “Radar Prehistory, Soviet Side,” Proceedings of IEEE APS International Symposium 2001, Vol. 4, p. 44, 2002. Siddiqi, Asif A.; “Rockets Red Glare: Technology, Conflict, and Terror in the Soviet Union," Technology & Culture, Vol. 44, p. 470, 2003. Watson, Raymond C., Jr.; Radar Origins Worldwide, Trafford Publishing, 2009.

Chain Home

early warning Chain Home radar systemBritish CH
., Britain's Shield: Radar and the Defeat of the Luftwaffe, Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud, 2001., ISBN: 0-7509-1799-7. Early Radar Memories Memories of Sgt. Jean Semple, one of Britain's pioneer radar operators. RAF Bawdsey Chain Home Radar Station at Subterranean Britain. RAF Radar Museum. RAF High Street picture. Life at Darsham – BBC. Great Baddow Chain Home Mast & Radar Anniversary. Early radar development in the UK. 60 (Signals) Group, Fighter Command (pdf).

Antenna (radio)

antennaantennasradio antenna
These can be used to give the antenna a different behavior on receiving than it has on transmitting, which can be useful in applications like radar. The majority of antenna designs are based on the resonance principle. This relies on the behaviour of moving electrons, which reflect off surfaces where the dielectric constant changes, in a fashion similar to the way light reflects when optical properties change. In these designs, the reflective surface is created by the end of a conductor, normally a thin metal wire or rod, which in the simplest case has a feed point at one end where it is connected to a transmission line.

MIT Radiation Laboratory

Radiation LaboratoryMIT Radiation LabRad Lab
Among their notable products were the SCR-584, the finest gun-laying radar of the war, and the SCR-720, an airborne interception radar that became the standard late-war system for both US and UK night fighters. They also developed the H2X, a version of the British H2S bombing radar that operated at shorter wavelengths in the X band. The Rad Lab also developed Loran-A, the first worldwide radio navigation system, which originally was known as "LRN" for Loomis Radio Navigation.

Anti-aircraft warfare

anti-aircraftanti-aircraft gunair defense
Multiple transmitter radars such as those from bistatic radars and low-frequency radars are said to have the capabilities to detect stealth aircraft. Advanced forms of thermographic cameras such as those that incorporate QWIPs would be able to optically see a Stealth aircraft regardless of the aircraft's Radar Cross-Section (RCS). In addition, Side looking radars, High-powered optical satellites, and sky-scanning, high-aperture, high sensitivity radars such as radio telescopes, would all be able to narrow down the location of a stealth aircraft under certain parameters.

Monopulse radar

monopulsemonopulse technique
Monopulse radar is a radar system that uses additional encoding of the radio signal to provide accurate directional information. The name refers to its ability to extract range and direction from a single signal pulse. Monopulse radar avoids problems seen in conical scanning radar systems, which can be confused by rapid changes in signal strength. The system also makes jamming more difficult. Most radars designed since the 1960s are monopulse systems. The monopulse method is also used in passive systems, such as electronic support measures and radio astronomy. Monopulse radar systems can be constructed with reflector antennas, lens antennas or array antennas.