The Troubles

TroublesNorthern Ireland conflictNorthern Ireland
Most killings took place within Northern Ireland, especially in Belfast and County Armagh. Most of the killings in Belfast took place in the west and north of the city. Dublin, London and Birmingham were also affected, albeit to a lesser degree than Northern Ireland itself.

Sinn Féin

SFProvisional Sinn FéinSinn Fein
Sinn Féin (, ; "[We] Ourselves", SF) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The original Sinn Féin organisation was founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith. It took its current form in 1970 after a split within the party (with the other side becoming the Workers' Party of Ireland) and has historically been associated with the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). Mary Lou McDonald has been party president since February 2018. Sinn Féin is one of the two largest parties in the Northern Ireland Assembly, currently holding the same number of seats there as the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP).


province of UlsterUlstermanMid-Ulster
Across the nine counties, according to the aggregate UK 2011 Census for Northern Ireland, and the ROI 2011 Census for counties Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan, there is a Roman Catholic majority over Protestant of 50.8% to 42.7%. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland, this is no longer the case in Northern Ireland. Since 1974, the traditional counties have a ceremonial role only. Local government in Northern Ireland is today demarcated by 11 districts. Counties shaded in grey are in the Republic of Ireland. Counties shaded in pink are in Northern Ireland.

Iarnród Éireann

Irish RailIrish Railways
Iarnród Éireann, also known as Irish Rail in English, is the operator of the national railway network of Ireland. Established on 2 February 1987, it is a subsidiary of Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ). It operates all internal InterCity, Commuter, DART and freight railway services in the Republic of Ireland, and, jointly with Northern Ireland Railways, the Enterprise service between Dublin and Belfast. In 2018, IÉ carried 48 million passengers, up from 45.5 million in 2017.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
Irish has been the dominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe. Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland. It is also among the official languages of the European Union. The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland.


Newry, County DownNewry TownDromantine
Newry is a city in Northern Ireland, divided by the Clanrye river in counties Armagh and Down, 34 mi from Belfast and 67 mi from Dublin. It had a population of 26,967 in 2011. Newry was founded in 1144 alongside a Cistercian monastery, although there are references to earlier settlements in the area, and is one of Ireland's oldest towns. The city is an entry to the "Gap of the North", 5 miles (8 km) from the border with the Republic of Ireland. It grew as a market town and a garrison and became a port in 1742 when it was linked to Lough Neagh by the first summit-level canal built in Ireland or Great Britain.

Counties of Ireland

CountycountiesIrish counties
Areas of the cities of Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Limerick, Derry and Waterford were carved from their surrounding counties to become county boroughs in their own right and given powers equivalent to those of administrative counties. Under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, the island was partitioned between Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. For the purposes of the Act, ... Northern Ireland shall consist of the parliamentary counties of Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, and the parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry, and Southern Ireland shall consist of so much of Ireland as is not comprised within the said parliamentary counties and boroughs.

President of Ireland

PresidentIrish PresidentPresidents of Ireland
(The Constitution of Ireland in Article 3 explicitly stated that "[p]ending the re-integration of the national territory" the authority of the Irish state did not extend to Northern Ireland. Presidents prior to the presidency of Mary Robinson were regularly refused permission by the Irish government to visit Northern Ireland.) However, since the 1990s and in particular since the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, the president has regularly visited Northern Ireland. President McAleese, who was the first president to have been born in Northern Ireland, continued on from President Robinson in this regard.

Irish Rugby Football Union

The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann) is the body managing rugby union in the island of Ireland (both Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). The IRFU has its head office at 10/12 Lansdowne Road and home ground at Aviva Stadium, where adult men's Irish rugby union international matches are played. In addition, the Union also owns the Ravenhill Stadium in Belfast, Thomond Park in Limerick and a number of grounds in provincial areas that have been rented to clubs.

Oceanic climate

Cfbmarine west coastmaritime influence
As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, and Norway have much milder winters (for their latitude) than would otherwise be the case. The lowland attributes of western Europe also help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden, Prague, and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur mostly in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe.

Republic of Ireland national football team

Republic of IrelandIrelandRepublic of Ireland national team
In Northern Ireland it is seen by Northern Ireland supporters as having the effect of dividing international football in their country along sectarian lines, whereby Nationalists will declare for the Republic of Ireland while Unionists continue to play for Northern Ireland. It has also been argued that it is actually the sectarian divisions, which already existed in Northern Irish football, that are a factor in a number of players switching to the Republic. Traditionally, those in Northern Ireland who identify as Irish, predominantly Catholics and nationalists, support the Republic of Ireland team.


Liverpool, EnglandLiverpudlianCity of Liverpool
At the 2001 Census, 1.17 per cent of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75 per cent were born in the Republic of Ireland, while 0.54 per cent were born in Northern Ireland, but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish ancestry. Other contemporary ethnicities include Indian, Latin American, Malaysian, and Yemeni. communities, which number several thousand each. The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through Liverpool resulted in a religious diversity that is still apparent today. This is reflected in the equally diverse collection of religious buildings, including two Christian cathedrals.

Partition of Ireland

partitionpartitionedpartitioned Ireland
History of Ireland (1801–1923). Crown of Ireland Act 1542. History of Northern Ireland. History of the Republic of Ireland. Irish Civil War. Partitionism. Repartition of Ireland. Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border. Denis Gwynn, The History of Partition (1912–1925). Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1950. Michael Laffan, The Partition of Ireland 1911–25. Dublin: Dublin Historical Association, 1983. Thomas G. Fraser, Partition in Ireland, India and Palestine: theory and practice.London: Macmillan, 1984. Clare O'Halloran, Partition and the limits of Irish nationalism: an ideology under stress. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1987.

M1 motorway (Republic of Ireland)

M1M1 motorwayN1
This is Transport Infrastructure Ireland's Exit numbering scheme for the M1. all junctions feature their number on road signs. The upgrade of the N1 is now complete in the Republic of Ireland, the first major route to be completely upgraded to motorway/dual carriageway standard (outside of Dublin city centre) as per the National Development Plan. The Northern Irish authorities have no plans to replace the A1 route (currently dual carriageway) with motorway, although many junctions have now been grade separated. Currently, to drive from Dublin city centre to Belfast, one travels along the M1 (Republic of Ireland), N1, A1 and M1 (Northern Ireland).

Provisional Irish Republican Army

Provisional IRAIRAPIRA
The Irish Republican Army (IRA; Óglaigh na hÉireann), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA or Provos), was an Irish republican paramilitary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate Irish reunification and bring about an independent republic encompassing all of Ireland. It was the most active republican paramilitary group during the Troubles. It saw itself as the successor to the original IRA and called itself simply the Irish Republican Army (IRA), or Óglaigh na hÉireann in Irish, and was broadly referred to as such by others.

Northern Ireland peace process

peace processceasefireJoint Framework Document
Tuesday 4 June 1996: The Northern Ireland Office invited nine political parties to attend initial talks at Stormont. Again, Sinn Féin were not invited to the talks. Mary Robinson, then President of the Republic of Ireland, began the first official state visit to Britain by an Irish head of state. Friday 7 June 1996: IRA members killed Jerry McCabe, a Detective in the Garda Síochána (the Irish police service), during a post office robbery in Adare, County Limerick, in the Republic. Monday 10 June 1996: All-party negotiations (the 'Stormont talks') began in Stormont. Sinn Féin were again refused entry. Friday 14 June 1996: The Northern Ireland Forum met for the first time in Belfast.


LondonderryDerry CityDerry, Northern Ireland
There is no direct motorway link with Dublin or Belfast. The rail link to Belfast has been downgraded over the years so that, presently, it is not a viable alternative to the roads for industry to rely on. There are currently plans for £1 billion worth of transport infrastructure investment in and around the district. Planned upgrades to the A5 Dublin road agreed as part of the Good Friday Agreement and St. Andrews Talks fell through when the government of the Republic of Ireland reneged on its funding citing the recent economic crisis. Most public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by the subsidiaries of Translink.

Patrick Pearse

Pádraig PearsePadraig PearsePadraic Pearse
A number of Gaelic Athletic Association clubs and playing fields in Ireland are named after Pádraic or both Pearses: So also are several outside Ireland: There are also soccer clubs named Pearse Celtic FC in Cork and in Ringsend, Dublin; and Liffeys Pearse FC, a south Dublin soccer club formed by the amalgamation of Liffey Wanderers and Pearse Rangers. A Pearse Rangers schoolboy football club remains in existence in Dublin. The building in Rathfarnham, on the south side of Dublin, that once housed Pearse's school, St Enda's, is now the Pearse Museum.

Irish Sea

IrishEast Irish Sea Basinsea
From Scotland, Cairnryan connects with both Belfast and Larne. There is also a connection between Liverpool and Belfast via the Isle of Man or direct from Birkenhead. The world's largest car ferry, Ulysses, is operated by Irish Ferries on the Dublin Port–Holyhead route; Stena Line also operates between Britain and Ireland. "Irish Sea" is also the name of one of the BBC's Shipping Forecast areas defined by the coordinates: Transport for Wales Rail, Iarnród Éireann, Irish Ferries, Stena Line, Northern Ireland Railways, Stena Line and Abellio ScotRail promote SailRail with through rail tickets for the train and the ferry.

Belfast–Dublin line

Dublin-Belfast railway lineDublin–Belfast railway lineBelfast-Dublin railway line
The BelfastDublin Main Line is a main and busiest railway route on the island of Ireland that connects Dublin Connolly station in the Republic of Ireland and station in Northern Ireland. The railway line was built by three separate companies. In 1837 the Ulster Railway began building a railway line between Belfast and Lisburn, which was extended in stages to Portadown in 1842 and as far as Clones by 1863. The Dublin and Drogheda Railway (D&D) built the line between Dublin and Drogheda. The Dublin and Belfast Junction Railway (D&B Jct) linked the Dublin and Drogheda with the Ulster Railway at Portadown. The D&D and the D&B Jct merged in 1875 to form the Northern Railway of Ireland.

The Emergency (Ireland)

The EmergencyEmergencythe state of emergency
In October 1941 on receiving a note from the Irish government asking for its intentions with regard to Northern Ireland on the stationing of personnel associated with lend-lease, the US State Department referred them to the British government as Northern Ireland was, they insisted, part of the UK. Meanwhile, Northern Ireland (as part of the United Kingdom) was at war and the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast were among the strategic targets for German attack. The Luftwaffe carried out a bombing raid on Belfast on 7 April 1941; eight people died. On 15 April 1941, 180 Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast. There was only one RAF squadron and seven anti-aircraft batteries to defend Belfast.

Irish War of Independence

War of IndependenceAnglo-Irish WarIrish War for Independence
They attacked Catholics in reprisal for IRA actions, and in Belfast a sectarian conflict raged in which almost 500 were killed, most of them Catholics. In May 1921, Ireland was partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act, which created Northern Ireland. Both sides agreed to a ceasefire (or 'truce') on 11 July 1921. The post-ceasefire talks led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921. This ended British rule in most of Ireland and, after a ten-month transitional period overseen by a provisional government, the Irish Free State was created as a self-governing Dominion on 6 December 1922. Northern Ireland remained within the United Kingdom.

Transport in Ireland

Transport in Northern IrelandTransport in the Republic of Irelandtransport infrastructure
These include Aircoach, a subsidiary of FirstGroup which provides services to Dublin Airport from Dublin city centre, South Dublin City, Greystones and Bray. They also operate two intercity express non-stop services service between Dublin Airport, Dublin City Centre, and Cork and also a non-stop route between Belfast City Centre, Dublin Airport and Dublin City. Other operators such as Irish Citylink and compete on the Dublin-Galway route. Matthews Coaches run a direct service from Bettystown, Laytown and Julianstown to Dublin whilst Dublin Coach operate services to Portlaoise and Limerick.

Bus Éireann

Bus EireannbusBus Éireann (Irish Bus)
As a result, Shane Ross, TD, the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport, mentioned the company "faces insolvency within 18 months". Bus Éireann concluded an all out strike on Thursday 13 April that lasted since Friday 24 March 2017. Bus Éireann's main services in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland in association with Ulsterbus include: expressway (intercity), commuter, local and school services. Additional services within Ireland include city services in Cork, Galway, Limerick and Waterford and town services in Athlone, Balbriggan, Drogheda, Dundalk, Navan and Sligo.

Ravensdale, County Louth

RavensdaleRavensdale Park
Ravensdale (Irish: Gleann na bhFiach. Also sometimes known in Irish as Dubhleargaidh or An Dúleargaidh, which can be anglicised as Doolargy) is a hamlet and area located at the foothills of the Cooley Mountains on the Cooley Peninsula in the north of County Louth in Ireland. It is positioned approximately 8 km to the north of Dundalk, County Louth. The dual carriageway between Dublin and Belfast runs past it. The district is heavily wooded and the housing is suburban/rural. Ravensdale is part of the parish of Ballymacscanlon and Lordship; however, the northern part of Ravensdale is part of the parish area of Jonesborough and Dromintee.