George W. Bush

BushPresident BushPresident George W. Bush
During his campaign, Bush criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over gun control and taxation. When the election returns were tallied on November 7, Bush had won 29 states, including Florida. The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount. The initial recount also went to Bush, but the outcome was tied up in lower courts for a month until eventually reaching the U.S. Supreme Court. On December 9, in the controversial Bush v.

Republican Party (United States)

RepublicanRepublican PartyR
In 2006, then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger broke from Republican orthodoxy to sign several bills imposing caps on carbon emissions in California. Then-President George W. Bush opposed mandatory caps at a national level. Bush's decision not to regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant was challenged in the Supreme Court by 12 states, with the court ruling against the Bush administration in 2007. Bush also publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols which sought to limit greenhouse gas emissions and thereby combat climate change; his position was heavily criticized by climate scientists. The Republican Party rejects cap-and-trade policy to limit carbon emissions.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)International Panel on Climate Change
The objectives of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Program are: The 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Investories provide the methodological basis for the estimation of national greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Over time these guidelines have been completed with good practice reports: Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. The 1996 guidelines and the two good practice reports are to be used by parties to the UNFCCC and to the Kyoto Protocol in their annual submissions of national greenhouse gas inventories.

Greenhouse effect

greenhouse warminggreenhousegreenhouse gases
Top contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Climate tipping point.

Kyoto Protocol

Climate Change-Kyoto ProtocolKyoto AccordKyoto
The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (Article 2). The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), Methane (CH 4 ), Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ).

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Many of the countries that have contributed least to global greenhouse gas emissions are among the most vulnerable to climate change, which raises questions about justice and fairness with regard to mitigation and adaptation. Climate change can be mitigated through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions or the enhancement of the capacity of carbon sinks to absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Carbon footprint

carbon impactcarbon footprintsCarbon thumbprint
In a 2014 study by Scarborough et al., the real-life diets of British people were surveyed and their dietary greenhouse gas footprints estimated. Average dietary greenhouse-gas emissions per day (in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent) were: The precise carbon footprint of different textiles varies considerably according to a wide range of factors.

Renewable energy

renewablesrenewable energiesrenewable
Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are usually much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels. In 2017, the United States led the world in geothermal electricity production with 12.9 GW of installed capacity. The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California. The Philippines follows the US as the second highest producer of geothermal power in the world, with 1.9 GW of capacity online.

An Inconvenient Truth

Inconvenient TruthA Convenient Causea film starring himself
Gore's use of long ice core records of CO 2 and temperature (from oxygen isotope measurements) in Antarctic ice cores to illustrate the correlation between the two drew some scrutiny; Schmidt, Steig and Michael E. Mann back up Gore's data. "Gore stated that the greenhouse gas levels and temperature changes over ice age signals had a complex relationship but that they 'fit'. Both of these statements are true," said Schmidt and Mann.

Chicago Climate Exchange

Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX)
The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) was North America’s only voluntary, legally binding greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and trading system for emission sources and offset projects in North America and Brazil. CCX employed independent verification, included six greenhouse gases, and traded greenhouse gas emission allowances from 2003 to 2010. The companies joining the exchange committed to reducing their aggregate emissions by 6% by 2010. CCX had an aggregate baseline of 680 million metric tons of CO 2 equivalent. CCX ceased trading carbon credits at the end of 2010 due to inactivity in the U.S. carbon markets, although carbon exchanges were intended to still be facilitated.

Environmental activism of Al Gore

environmentalenvironmental activist movement
Transcript of Al Gore's speech at the Sierra Summit, September 9, 2005. (archived from the original on 2006-02-10). The Digital Earth: Understanding our planet in the 21st Century, by Vice President Al Gore, Given at the California Science Center, Los Angeles, California, on January 31, 1998. Vice President Al Gore's introduction to Earthwatch: 24 Hours In Cyberspace. February 8, 1996. 24 Hours in Cyberspace''. " Understanding Earth: Retrospectives and Visions post conferences report." GeoJournal, Volume 37, Number 3 / November 1995. " Introduction. In Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. 1994. New York : Houghton-Mifflin. The Climate Change Action Plan.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
Democrats, most notably former Vice President Al Gore, have pressed for stern regulation of greenhouse gases. On October 15, 2007, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to build greater knowledge about man-made climate change and laying the foundations for the measures needed to counteract these changes asserting that "the climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity". Democrats have supported increased domestic renewable energy development, including wind and solar power farms, in an effort to reduce carbon pollution.

Presidency of Bill Clinton

Clinton administrationClintonBill Clinton administration
Nevertheless, Clinton's claims to a lasting, positive legacy for the Democratic Party have been severely undermined by two realities: the shift in control of Congress to the Republican Party on his watch and the loss by his would-be successor, Vice President Al Gore, in the 2000 presidential election.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
York (board member). 2007: Al Gore (board member in honor of his Nobel Peace Prize). 2005: Rosa Parks. 2003: Gregory Hines. 2001: George Harrison. Arthur D. Levinson (chairman). Tim Cook (executive director and CEO). James A. Bell (non-executive director). Al Gore (non-executive director). Andrea Jung (non-executive director). Ronald Sugar (non-executive director). Susan Wagner (non-executive director). Tim Cook (CEO). Luca Maestri (senior vice president and CFO). Jeff Williams (chief operating officer (COO)). Jonathan Ive, KBE (chief design officer (CDO)) (outgoing). Katherine L. Adams (senior vice president and general counsel).

Dick Cheney

CheneyRichard B. CheneyRichard Cheney
They defeated their Democratic opponents, incumbent Vice President Al Gore and Senator Joe Lieberman. In 2004 Cheney was reelected to his second term as Vice President with Bush as President, defeating their Democratic opponents Senators John Kerry and John Edwards. During Cheney's tenure as Vice President, he played a leading behind-the-scenes role in the George W. Bush administration's response to the September 11 attacks and coordination of the Global War on Terrorism. He was an early proponent of invading Iraq and defender of the Administration's anti-terrorism record. He became at odds with President Bush's position against same-sex marriage in 2004.

Time (magazine)

TimeTime MagazineTime'' magazine
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and for many years it was run by its influential co-founder Henry Luce. A European edition (Time Europe, formerly known as Time Atlantic) is published in London and also covers the Middle East, Africa, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition.

Fortune 500

Fortune 100Fortune 500 companiesFortune'' 500
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along with privately held companies for which revenues are publicly available. The concept of the Fortune 500 was created by Edgar P. Smith, a Fortune editor, and the first list was published in 1955. The Fortune 500 is more commonly used than its subset Fortune 100 or superset Fortune 1000.

School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Chicago Academy of Fine ArtsThe School of the Art Institute of ChicagoArt Institute of Chicago
The School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC) is a private university associated with the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois. Tracing its history to an art students' cooperative founded in 1866, which grew into the museum and school, SAIC has been accredited since 1936 by the Higher Learning Commission, by the National Association of Schools of Art and Design since 1944 (charter member), and by the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design (AICAD) since the associations founding in 1991. Additionally it is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.

Smithsonian Institution

SmithsonianUnited States National MuseumSmithsonian Museum
The Smithsonian Institution, also known simply as the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. It was founded on August 10, 1846, "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. It was originally organized as the "United States National Museum", but that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.

Brooklyn College

BrooklynBrooklyn College, City University of New YorkInstitute for Studies in American Music
Brooklyn College is a public college in Brooklyn, New York City. It is part of the City University of New York.

International Center of Photography

International Center for PhotographyInfinity AwardICP
The International Center of Photography (ICP) in Manhattan, New York City, consists of a museum for photography and visual culture at Mana Contemporary in Jersey City, New Jersey, and a photography school in Midtown Manhattan. It was founded in 1974.

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection AgencyEPAU.S. Environmental Protection Agency
These reduce the use or creation of hazardous chemicals, save water, and reduce greenhouse gas release. The Section 404 Program regulates the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. Permits are to be denied if they would cause unacceptable degradation or if an alternative doesn't exist that does not also have adverse impacts on waters. Permit holders are typically required to restore or create wetlands or other waters to offset losses that can't be avoided. The State Revolving Loan Fund Program replaced the Construction Grants Program, which was phased out in 1990.


State of IsraelIsraeliISR
Israel, also known as the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, DCWashington D.C.District of Columbia
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington; D.C.; or the district, is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.


National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory CouncilU.S. space program
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, ) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.