Evening Standard

London Evening StandardThe Evening StandardThe Standard
In the 1960s, the paper was upstaged by The Evening News, which sold over 1 million copies nightly. During the decade, the paper also began to publish the comic strip Modesty Blaise, which bolstered its sales throughout the 1970s. The Evening Standard ceased publishing on Saturdays on 30 Nov 1974, when it still produced six editions daily. In 1980, Express Newspapers merged the Standard with Associated Newspapers' Evening News in a Joint Operating Agreement. The new paper was known as the New Standard until 1985, when Associated Newspapers bought out the remaining stake, turning it into The Standard.

Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe

Lord NorthcliffeAlfred HarmsworthNorthcliffe
He began with The Evening News during 1894, and then merged two Edinburgh papers to form the Edinburgh Daily Record. That same year he funded an expedition to Franz Joseph Land in the Arctic with the intention of making attempts to travel to the North Pole. On 4 May 1896 he began publishing the Daily Mail in London, which was a success, having the world record for daily circulation until Harmsworth's death; taglines of the Daily Mail included "the busy man's daily journal" and "the penny newspaper for one halfpenny". Prime Minister Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury, said it was "written by office boys for office boys".

Harold Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere

Lord RothermereHarold HarmsworthRothermere
In 1888 he joined his elder brother Alfred's newspaper company, and in 1894 he and his brother purchased the Evening News for £25,000. In 1896 Harmsworth and his brother Alfred together founded the Daily Mail, and subsequently also launched the Daily Mirror. In 1910 Harmsworth bought the Glasgow Record and Mail, and in 1915 the Sunday Pictorial. By 1921 he was owner of the Daily Mirror, Sunday Pictorial, Glasgow Daily Record, Evening News, and Sunday Mail, and shared ownership of the company Associated Newspapers with his brother Alfred, who had been made Viscount Northcliffe in 1918. His greatest success came with the Daily Mirror, which had a circulation of three million by 1922.

Harry Marks

Harry Hananel MarksMarks, Harry
Whilst still editing the Daily Mining News, Marks founded the London halfpenny Evening News in 1881 in partnership with Coleridge Kennard; although initially successful, the paper lost most of its circulation by the early 1890s and was eventually sold to Alfred Harmsworth for £25,000 in 1894. Shortly after his return to London, Marks founded the Financial and Mining News (later simply the Financial News) on 23 January 1884, with financial backing from an American, Colonel Edward McMurdo. He later floated the paper on the stock market in 1885 at a valuation of £50,000, reconstructing the company in 1890 to raise £100,000, whilst retaining a controlling interest throughout.

Charles Wallace Richmond

RichmondCharles Richmond
This led him to meet Robert Ridgway. He subsequently met Ridgway often and this early influence was very strong. His work in the House of Representatives let him use the library there which had a good collection of books on birds. In 1888, Richmond took part in a United States Geological Survey expedition to Montana. He became an ornithological clerk at the United States Department of Agriculture. After a collecting trip to Nicaragua he joined the staff of the United States National Museum in Washington, D.C. as a nightwatchman. He was promoted to Aid, followed by Assistant in the birds department. He became Associate Curator of Birds in 1894. Richmond then became Associate Curator in 1918.

American Ornithological Society

American Ornithologists' UnionSACCAOU
Past Presidents of the AOU Joel Asaph Allen, 1883–1890 Daniel Giraud Elliot, 1890–1892 Elliott Coues, 1892–1895 William Brewster, 1895–1898 Robert Ridgway, 1898–1900 Clinton Hart Merriam, 1900–1903 Charles Barney Cory, 1903–1905 Charles Foster Batchelder, 1905–1908 Edward William Nelson, 1908–1911 Regular membership in the AOS is open to any dues paying person with an interest in birds. Student rates are available for full-time students. Student Membership Awards of a no-cost membership are available to qualified undergraduate and graduate students who wish to pursue a career in ornithology. There are three higher classes of membership, Elective Member, Honorary Fellow and Fellow.

Coleridge Kennard (Salisbury MP)

Coleridge KennardColeridge John Kennard
He was a managing director of Heywood, Kennard and Co. bank, and co-founder of the Evening News. Kennard married Ellen Georgiana Rowe, daughter of Captain John Wilkinson Rowe, H.E.I.C.S. in 1858. Together, they had at least two children: Meredyth Sophia Frances, and Hugh Coleridge Downing. *

Kennedy Jones (journalist)

Kennedy JonesWilliam Kennedy Jones
He worked as a reporter and sub-editor for local newspapers, including The News and the Evening News. Moving south in the late 1880s, he worked for papers in Leicester and Birmingham before moving to London in search of employment there. Though his contribution to starting a new newspaper, The Evening, in 1892 proved futile, he remained convinced that a halfpenny morning daily would be economically viable. After working for a time for The Sun as chief sub-editor, in 1894 he took a gamble along with The Sun's assistant editor, Louis Tracy and acquired an option to purchase the Evening News.

José Castulo Zeledón

Jose ZeledonJosé Cástulo ZeledónZeledon
It was here that he began a lifelong friendship with Robert Ridgway. In 1872 Zeledon returned to Costa Rica as zoologist on an expedition led by William More Gabb. During this expedition Zeledon made the first collection of birds in Talamanca. Zeledon took over the pharmacy set up by Frantzius, and this eventually made him a wealthy man. He continued to collect birds when time allowed, donating his collection to the Costa Rican National Museum when it was founded, mainly due to his own efforts. This collection was Zeledon's main contribution to ornithology, as it contained many new species, although these were often described by others.

Thomas Mayo Brewer

Thomas M. BrewerMayo
However, Brewer is best known as a joint author, with Spencer Fullerton Baird and Robert Ridgway, of A History of North American Birds (3 volumes, 1874), which was the first attempt since John James Audubon's (thirty years prior) to complete the study of American ornithology. Brewer also contributed to a number of ornithological publications, including John James Audubon's Ornithological Biography. Brewer was a companion to Audubon, who gave Brewer's name to a duck, a blackbird, and a small mammal (Brewer's shrew mole) found on Martha's vineyard.

Mount Carmel, Illinois

Mount CarmelMt. CarmelMt. Carmel, Illinois
Robert Ridgway, author and ornithologist. Samuel Williams, judge and politician (1851–1913). Frederick Hinde Zimmerman, established Grand Rapids Hotel. Jacob Zimmerman, legislator, newspaper editor and owner. Peter Jacob Hinde Zimmerman, son of Frederick Zimmerman, owner of Grand Rapids Hotel. City website. Wabash County Chamber of Commerce. Mount Carmel Register.

Spencer Fullerton Baird

BairdS. F. BairdBaird SF
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the Year 1856. p. 235-253. with Robert Ridgway and Thomas Mayo Brewer. A History Of North American Birds. ISBN: 1286040981. with Charles Frédéric Girard. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part I.—Serpents. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. xvi + 172 pp. (1853). Allard, Dean C. Spencer Fullerton Baird and the U. S. Fish Commission: A Study in the History of American Science. Washington: The George Washington University (1967). Belote, Theodore T. "The Secretarial Cases." Scientific Monthly. 58 (1946): 366-370. Cockerell, Theodore D.A. "Spencer Fullerton Baird."

Harriman Alaska expedition

Harriman Expeditionexpedition to Alaskaexploratory voyage
Robert Ridgway, ornithologist. William H. Averell. Leon J. Cole, ornithologist. W. B. Devereux, mining engineer. Benjamin Emerson, geologist. Henry Gannett, geographer. Grove Karl Gilbert, geologist. Charles Palache, geologist. Edward Curtis, photographer. Frederick Dellenbaugh, artist. Louis Agassiz Fuertes, bird artist. R. Swain Gifford, artist. D. G. Inverarity, photographer (Curtis’ assistant). George Bird Grinnell, expert on Native American culture (Editor, Forest and Stream). John Burroughs, Author. Vol I: Narrative, Glaciers, Natives. Vol II: History, Geography, Resources. Vol III: Glaciers and Glaciation. Vol IV: Geology and Paleontology. Vol V: Cryptogamic Botany.

William Matthew Scott

Will Scott
He wrote over 2,000 stories; he specialised in the short, short story and contributed many of these to the magazines Pan, 20-Story, The Passing Show, John Bull, Illustrated, Everybody's Magazine, John O' London's Weekly, London Opinion, The Humorist, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine and The Star as well as The Strand Magazine and The Evening News to which he contributed 94 stories. His stories were also published in summer and Christmas annuals. The short, short stories tend to rely for effect on the audience's expectation being trumped by a clever twist at the end.

John L. Ridgway

RidgwayJohn Livzey RidgwayJohn Livsey Ridgway
John Livzey Ridgway (28 February 1859, Mount Carmel, Illinois – 27 December 1947, Glendale, California) (also known as John Livsey Ridgway or John Livesy Ridgway) was an American scientific illustrator and brother of ornithologist Robert Ridgway. Ridgway collaborated with his brother on ornithological illustration and published his own works. Ridgway was born in Mount Carmel, Illinois to David and Henrietta Reed Ridgway, and attended public schools in Illinois. Robert Ridgway brought him to work as a copyist and draftsman for the United States National Museum in the 1880s.

Olney, Illinois

OlneyOlney, ILOlney (Richland)
Bird Haven is a bird and plant sanctuary that was bought and developed by the ornithologist Robert Ridgway. This also is the burial place of Ridgway and his wife Julia. Bower Park: Originally named Tower Park, in 1880 a 125-foot brick water tower was built on the site. The water tower was demolished in 1941. This is a very small park with flowers and a few benches to sit on located in downtown. Terry L. Bruce, Illinois State Senator and United States Congressman; born in Olney. Glenn Brummer, catcher for the St. Louis Cardinals and Texas Rangers. Glenn Goodart, hotel manager and politician; died in Olney in 1948. Reginald C.

Charles Frederick Williams

Charles Williams
From 1860 until 1863, he worked as a first editor for the London Evening Standard; and from 1882 until 1884, as editor of The Evening News. Williams was best known for being a war correspondent. He was described as an admirable war correspondent, a daring rider as well as writer. For The Standard, he was at the headquarters of the Armée de la Loire, a French army, during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He was also one of the first correspondents in Strasbourg, where the French forces were defeated. In the summer and autumn of 1877, he was a correspondent to Ahmed Muhtar Pasha who commanded the Turkish forces in Armenia during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 and 1878.

News Chronicle

Daily NewsThe News ChronicleChronicle
As part of the same takeover, the London evening paper The Star was incorporated into the Evening News. Notable contributors to the News Chronicle and its predecessors included: Stephen G. Barber - foreign correspondent, World War II, Greek Civil War, Korean War, Indochina, Cyprus Crisis, Sharpeville Massacre, decolonization in Africa. Also worked for The Daily Telegraph in India and Bureau Chief in Washington, D.C. 1963-1980. Frank D. Barber - foreign correspondent, later Head of Central Current Affairs & Talks, BBC World Service, and father of Financial Times editor Lionel Barber. Vernon Bartlett – diplomatic correspondent. Stanley Bishop - crime reporter.

London Daily News

The Standard’s owners, Associated Newspapers, responded by reviving the Evening News at a lower price to squeeze the London Daily News out of the market. A price war ensued finishing with the London Daily News selling at 10p and the Evening News at 5p. Maxwell was dismissive when he heard about the cut-price Evening News. He told the BBC: "The Evening Standard and Lord Rothermere are so worried about their monopoly - which the London Daily News is finally breaking - and so scared about the huge demand for our paper, that they've brought out a cheapo Evening News, which is really a joke."

Brewster Medal

William Brewster Memorial AwardWilliam Brewster Award
Established in 1919, the award was first given in 1921, to Robert Ridgway. From 1921 to 1937, it was given biennially; since then it has usually been made annually. Source: AOU List of ornithology awards. List of science and technology awards.


Pandion haliaetusospreysWestern osprey
Its scientific name commemorates American ornithologist Robert Ridgway. P. haliaetus cristatus – (Vieillot, 1816) : coastline and some large rivers of Australia and Tasmania. The smallest and most distinctive subspecies, also non-migratory. Some authorities have assigned it full species status as Pandion cristatus, known as the eastern osprey. reversible outer toes. sharp spicules on the underside of the toes. closable nostrils to keep out water during dives. backwards-facing scales on the talons which act as barbs to help hold its catch. dense plumage which is oily and prevents its feathers from getting waterlogged. UK Osprey Information Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Frank Harris

Harris first came to general notice as the editor of a series of London papers including the Evening News, the Fortnightly Review and the Saturday Review, the last-named being the high point of his journalistic career, with H. G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw as regular contributors. From 1908 to 1914 Harris concentrated on working as a novelist, authoring a series of popular books such as The Bomb, The Man Shakespeare, and The Yellow Ticket and Other Stories. With the advent of World War I in the summer of 1914, Harris decided to return to the United States.

Ridgway's hawk

Buteo ridgwayi
Ridgway's hawk (Buteo ridgwayi) is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, native to the island of Hispaniola. It was named after the American ornithologist Robert Ridgway. It is a brownish-grey bird with barred tail and underparts. It feeds mainly on reptiles, but also consumes small birds and mammals. It nests high in a tree in spring. Populations of this bird have been declining because of habitat destruction and human persecution in the Dominican Republic and is classified as "critically endangered". This is a medium-sized, compact hawk, 36–41 cm long.

Louis Kirby

Kirby became editor of the London daily, the Evening News in 1974, and completed its transformation from broadsheet to tabloid. Negotiations to merge the Evening News with its competitor, the Evening Standard began in 1976, but failed to make progress due to a dispute over who should edit a merged paper. Circulation of the Evening News continued to fall under Kirby's editorship, and in 1979, the paper stopped publishing a Saturday edition. Kirby was born in Liverpool and grew up in Coalbrookdale. His first job was as a reporter on the Wolverhampton Express and Star, then in 1949 he moved to Bermuda where he worked at The Royal Gazette.

Aztec thrush

RidgwayiaRidgwayia pinicolaZoothera pinicola
The genus name honors ornithologist Robert Ridgway. It is also placed in the genus Zoothera. Two subspecies are recognized: ''R. p. maternalis found in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and R. p. pinicola'' in southwestern Mexico. The Aztec thrush is 21.5 - 24 cm long and weighs 67 - 88 g. The adult male has a dark brown hood, the head, neck and upper mantle being dark brown, with pale flecks or streaks. There may be a pale brown supercilium. The back, scapulars, median coverts and greater coverts are dark brown, the greater coverts having white edges. The primary coverts are black, with grey tips. The flight feathers are black, with some white patches.