Universal Genève

Universal Genève SA is a Swiss luxury watch company, founded in 1894 as Universal Watch. Since its beginnings, the company has produced complete watches with in-house movements, and throughout the 20th century, distributed many notable and important timepieces. Along with neighboring Geneva companies Audemars Piguet, Girard-Perregaux, Patek Philippe and Rolex, Universal is internationally regarded for its style of craftsmanship and manufacture. In addition, the brand also makes historical claim for creating the first-ever chronographic wristwatch in 1917.

Breguet (brand)

BreguetBreguet S. A.Breguet" company
Breguet, along with 7 other manufacturers including Patek Philippe, Audemars Piguet and Rolex, was given the lowest environmental rating as "Latecomers/Non-transparent", suggesting that the manufacturer has taken very few actions addressing the impact of its manufacturing activities on the environment and climate change. There are concerns over the lack of transparency in manufacturing activities and the sourcing of precious raw materials such as gold, which is a major cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation.


wristwatchwatchesdigital watch
In 1970, 18 manufacturers exhibited production versions of the beta 21 wristwatch, including the Omega Electroquartz as well as Patek Philippe, Rolex Oysterquartz and Piaget. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which hit the shelves on 25 December 1969, swiftly followed by the Swiss Beta 21, and then a year later the prototype of one of the world's most accurate wristwatches to date: the Omega Marine Chronometer.


Geneva is the birthplace of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the Geneva Conventions and, since 2006, hosts the United Nations Human Rights Council. Even though Switzerland is one of the most recent countries to have joined the United Nations, the Palace of Nations in Geneva is the second biggest centre for the United Nations after New York, and Switzerland was a founding member and home to the League of Nations.


One major Swiss watch brand – Rolex – now pre-qualifies independent watchmakers before they provide them with spare parts. This qualification may include, but is not limited to, holding a modern training certificate from one of several reputable schools; having a workshop environment that meets Rolex's standards for cleanliness; using modern equipment; and being a member of the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute. The Omega brand has the same approach. However, the vast majority of modern Swiss brands do not sell parts to independent watchmakers, irrespective of the watchmaker's expertise, training or credentials.

List of watch manufacturers

Patek Philippe & Co. Perrelet. Pequignet. Petrodvorets Watch Factory (Russian: Петродворцовый часовой завод). Philip Zepter. Piaget SA. Adrien Philippe. Henry Pitkin. Pobeda (Победа, Victory). Poljot. Prada. Pulsar (watch). Rado. Raketa (Ракета, Rocket). David Ramsay. Razer Inc. Regina. Reguladora. Ressence. Revue Thommen. Richard Mille. Roamer. Rodania. Rolex. Ronda AG. Rotary Watches. Daniel Roth. Sandoz watches. Schwarz Etienne. Sector. Seiko. Seiko Instruments. Seikosha. Sekonda. Shinola Detroit. Sinn (watchmaker). SSIH previous holding company, now integrated into Swatch Group. Skagen Designs. Alexander Shorokhoff. Slava watches. Roger W. Smith.

List of most expensive watches sold at auction

most expensive watch ever sold at auctionmost expensive watches ever sold at auctionmost expensive watches ever sold at auctions
Europe: The most expensive watch ever sold at auction in Europe is the Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication, reaching a final price of 23.98 million US dollars in Geneva on November 11th, 2014 (by Sotheby's). North America: The most expensive watch ever sold at auction in North America is the Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona, reaching a final price of 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26th, 2017 (by Phillips). List of watch manufacturers. Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication. Patek Philippe Calibre 89. Rolex Daytona.

Vallée de Joux

valley of Joux
The Vallée de Joux is, along with Neuchâtel, the birthplace of Swiss horology and it is still the home of the most famous Swiss watch factories, like Audemars Piguet, Blancpain, Breguet, Patek Philippe & Co., Vacheron Constantin, and Jaeger-LeCoultre. * www.valleedejoux.ch Official Website Reymond, Lucien ; Notice sur la vallée du Lac de Joux, 1864 ; Les Charbonnières : Le Pèlerin, 1995. Devicque, Julien-Hippolyte and Rochat, Rémy ; Merveilleuse vallée du Lac-de-Joux ; Les Charbonnières : Editions Le Pèlerin, 1992.

Gérald Genta

Gérald Charles Genta, better known by his short name (Gérald Genta) (Geneva 1931 - Monaco 2011) was a luxury watch designer and artist. He is one of the few watch designers that we know by name as he created and designed some of the most iconic and precious mechanical timepieces of the contemporary history; currently highly demanded by watch enthusiasts and collectors. He is noted for his eponymous line of timepieces as well as his design work with other high-end watch Manufacturers. These including IWC, Universal Genève, Patek Philippe and Audemars Piguet, among others.

Complication (horology)

In particular, the Patek Philippe Henry Graves Supercomplication currently holds the title of the most expensive watch ever sold at auction, with a final price of 24 million US dollars (23,237,000 CHF) sold in Geneva on November 11th, 2014. Two Patek Philippe Calibre 89 also currently rank among the top 10 most expensive watches ever sold at auction, with final prices over 5 million US dollars. The Franck Muller Aeternitas Mega 4 is the world's most complicated wristwatch. It has 36 complications, 25 of them visible, 1483 components and 1000-year calendar. The Hybris Mechanica Grande Sonnerie is the world's second most complicated wristwatch.

Swiss franc

The local Swiss currencies included the Basel thaler, Berne thaler, Fribourg gulden, Geneva thaler, Geneva genevoise, Luzern gulden, Neuchâtel gulden, St. Gallen thaler, Schwyz gulden, Solothurn thaler, Valais thaler, and Zürich thaler. In 1798, the Helvetic Republic introduced the franc, a currency based on the Berne thaler, subdivided into 10 batzen or 100 centimes. The Swiss franc was equal to 6 3⁄4 grams of pure silver or 1 1⁄2 French francs. This franc was issued until the end of the Helvetic Republic in 1803, but served as the model for the currencies of several cantons in the Mediation period (1803–1814).

World Wide Fund for Nature

WWFWorld Wildlife FundWorld Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.

Climate change

climatic changeclimatechanging climate
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years). Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions and certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often referred to as global warming. There is no general agreement in scientific, media or policy documents as to the precise term to be used to refer to anthropogenic forced change; either "global warming" or "climate change" may be used.

Gold and Company

goldAugold dust
Gold and Company (Gold's) was a department store located in downtown Lincoln, Nebraska. The store was founded in 1915 and quickly grew into one of Lincoln's dominant retailers throughout the 20th century. Gold's merged with the Brandeis department store in 1964 and closed in 1980.


pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world.

Soil retrogression and degradation

soil degradationdegradationdegradation of soils
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state. Degradation is an evolution, different from natural evolution, related to the local climate and vegetation. It is due to the replacement of primary plant communities (known as climax vegetation) by the secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus composition and amount, and affects the formation of the soil. It is directly related to human activity.


deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.

Manufacture d'horlogerie

manufacturermanufacturewatch manufacturer
Audemars Piguet. Blancpain. Breguet. Breitling SA. Chopard. Citizen Holdings. Frédérique Constant (some models). F. P. Journe. Girard-Perregaux. Moritz Grossman. Hublot. IWC. Jaeger-LeCoultre. Lang & Heyne. Maurice Lacroix. Moser & Cie. Nomos Glashütte. Omega SA. Panerai. Parmigiani Fleurier. Patek Philippe & Co. Piaget SA. Roger Dubuis. Rolex. Seiko. The Swatch Group. Ulysse Nardin. Vacheron Constantin. Vostok. Vulcain Watches. Zenith. Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry. Ébauche. ETA SA.

United Kingdom

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New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian. Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water tower. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes.

Omega SA

OmegaOmega WatchesOmega brand
Omega, along with 7 other manufacturers including Patek Philippe, Breguet and Rolex, was given the lowest environmental rating as "Latecomers/Non-transparent", suggesting that the manufacturer has taken very few actions addressing the impact of its manufacturing activities on the environment and climate change. There are concerns over the lack of transparency in manufacturing activities and the sourcing of precious raw materials such as gold, which is a major cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation.

Eleven James

Eleven James offered vintage watch styles as well as popular luxury brands including Rolex, Patek Philippe, Audemars Piguet, Breitling and more. Eleven James was often referred to as the "Netflix of watches" due to their subscription model which operated much like the disc rental plans from Netflix. Eleven James was founded in 2013 by Randy Brandoff, former NetJets CMO. Brandoff also helped to launch Tequila Avion, a leading spirits brand made popular by the HBO series “Entourage,” where he was a co-founder and principal prior to the company’s sale to Pernod Ricard in 2014.

Watch Valley

Some of the famous watchmakers currently producing in the Watch Valley include Breitling, Corum, Gallet, Girard-Perregaux, Movado, Patek Philippe, Rolex, TAG Heuer, Tissot, Ulysse Nardin, Chopard and others. The distance across the watch Valley, traveling from Geneva to Basel, is approximately 200 km. Both Le Locle and its geographical twin town La Chaux-de-Fonds have now been recognised as an UNESCO World Heritage Site, for their horological and related cultural past. Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH. Vaud. canton Berne. canton of Jura. Basel-Country. Canton of Neuchâtel. UNESCO World Heritage List: La Chaux-de-Fonds / Le Locle, Watchmaking Town Planning.

List of watchmakers

Calabrese, VincentChristophe Claret
Powell (born 1954), American born watchmaker at Patek Philippe.''. Antoine Preziuso (born 1957), ((AHCI)), Swiss watchmaker, Patek Philippe, Antiquorum, tourbillon. Franck Muller (born 1958), Swiss watchmaker, Genthod, Franck Muller SA. Christophe Claret (born 1962), Swiss watchmaker, Christophe Claret SA. Beat Haldimann (born 1964), (AHCI), Swiss watchmaker, double regulator, tourbillon. Giulio Papi (born 1965), Swiss watchmaker, former Renaud & Papi SA, today Audemars Piguet. Thomas Prescher (born 1966), (AHCI), German watchmaker, Triple-Achs-Tourbillon. Andreas Strehler (born 1971), (AHCI), Swiss watchmaker, Pendule Sympathique, moon phase, complication (horology).

Prawit Wongsuwan

Prawit Wongsuwan (ประวิตร วงษ์สุวรรณ; IPA:; born 11 August 1945) is the Minister of Defence of Thailand, serving since 31 August 2014, and the deputy chairman of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO). He also holds the post of deputy prime minister. From 2004 to 2005 he was the commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army (RTA). From 2008 to 2011 he was Thailand's defence minister.