List of watch manufacturers

List of watch manufacturesmanufacture
Omega SA. Orfina. Orient Watch Co., Ltd. Oris. O bag. Panerai. Parmigiani Fleurier. Parnis Watches. Antoni Patek. Patek Philippe & Co. Perrelet. Pequignet. Petrodvorets Watch Factory (Russian: Петродворцовый часовой завод). Philip Zepter. Piaget SA. Adrien Philippe. Henry Pitkin. Pobeda (Победа, Victory). Poljot. Prada. Pulsar (watch). Rado. Raketa (Ракета, Rocket). David Ramsay. Razer Inc. Regina. Reguladora. Ressence. Revue Thommen. Richard Mille. RJ. Roamer. Rodania. Rolex. ROMAGO. Ronda AG. Rotary Watches. Daniel Roth. Sandoz watches. Schwarz Etienne. Sector. Seiko. Seiko Epson. Seiko Instruments. Seikosha. Sekonda. Shinola Detroit. Sinn (watchmaker).

Manufacture d'horlogerie

manufacturemanufacturerwatch manufacturer
Audemars Piguet. Blancpain. Breguet. Breitling SA. Chopard. Citizen Holdings. Frédérique Constant (some models). F. P. Journe. Girard-Perregaux. Moritz Grossman. H. Moser & Cie. Hublot. IWC. Jaeger-LeCoultre. Lang & Heyne. Maurice Lacroix. Nomos Glashütte. Omega SA. Panerai. Parmigiani Fleurier. Patek Philippe & Co. Piaget SA. Roger Dubuis. Rolex. Seiko. The Swatch Group. Tudor. Ulysse Nardin. Vacheron Constantin. Vostok. Vulcain Watches. Zenith. Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry. Ébauche. ETA SA.

Watch

wristwatchwatcheswristwatches
In 1970, 18 manufacturers exhibited production versions of the beta 21 wristwatch, including the Omega Electroquartz as well as Patek Philippe, Rolex Oysterquartz and Piaget. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which hit the shelves on 25 December 1969, swiftly followed by the Swiss Beta 21, and then a year later the prototype of one of the world's most accurate wristwatches to date: the Omega Marine Chronometer.

Quartz crisis

quartz revolutionadventCentre Electronique Horloger
On the other hand, the quartz revolution drove many Swiss manufacturers to seek refuge in (or be winnowed out to) the higher end of the market, such as Patek Philippe, Vacheron Constantin, Audemars Piguet and Rolex. Mechanical watches have gradually become luxury goods appreciated for their elaborate craftsmanship, aesthetic appeal and glamorous design, sometimes associated with the social status of their owners, rather than simple timekeeping devices. Since 2010s, smartwatches have begun to significantly increase their shares in global watch market, especially after the launch of Apple Watch in 2015.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern. Switzerland is a landlocked country bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41285 km2, and land area of 39997 km2.

Movement (clockwork)

movementmovementswatch movement
In horology, a movement, also known as a caliber, is the mechanism of a watch or timepiece, as opposed to the case, which encloses and protects the movement, and the face, which displays the time. The term originated with mechanical timepieces, whose clockwork movements are made of many moving parts. It is less frequently applied to modern electronic or quartz timepieces, where the word module is often used instead.

Watchmaker

watchmakingwatchmakerswatch-maker
One major Swiss watch brand – Rolex – now pre-qualifies independent watchmakers before they provide them with spare parts. This qualification may include, but is not limited to, holding a modern training certificate from one of several reputable schools; having a workshop environment that meets Rolex's standards for cleanliness; using modern equipment; and being a member of the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute. The Omega brand has the same approach. However, the vast majority of modern Swiss brands do not sell parts to independent watchmakers, irrespective of the watchmaker's expertise, training or credentials.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
At the end of the conservative reign of Nicolas I (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War. Between 1847 and 1851, about one million people died of Asiatic cholera. Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes in the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861. These Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War. The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia.

Universal Genève

Along with neighboring Geneva companies Audemars Piguet, Girard-Perregaux, Patek Philippe and Rolex, Universal is internationally regarded for its style of craftsmanship and manufacture. In addition, the brand also makes historical claim for creating the first-ever chronographic wristwatch in 1917. Started and briefly based in Le Locle, co-founder Ulysse Perret would relocate Universal to Geneva in 1919, solidifying the company's status as a Genève brand. During the company's tenure in much smaller Le Locle (Neuchâtel region), Perret had conceptualized the company as Universal Watch in 1894 with classmate Numa-Emile Descombes, both of whom were horology students at the time.

Repeater (horology)

repeaterminute repeaterrepeating clock
The watches are Audemars Piguet, Bvlgari, Corum, Franck Muller, IWC, Jaeger LeCoultre, Piaget and Vacheron Constantin. The recordings were made in an anechoic chamber. What is a Minute Repeater?. High quality audio files of 8 modern minute repeaters watches. For each watch, there are 2 recording conditions (repeater on the wrist or on a table), and 2 recording quality (MP3 and Lossless). The watches are Audemars Piguet, Bvlgari, Corum, Franck Muller, IWC, Jaeger LeCoultre, Piaget and Vacheron Constantin. The recordings were made in an anechoic chamber. What is a Minute Repeater?.

The Swatch Group

Swatch GroupSwatchSwatch Group USA
Swatch subsidiary ETA SA, which is based in Grenchen, Switzerland, furnishes many OEM brands, such as LVMH (which markets TAG Heuer, Hublot and Zenith watch lines) and Richemont (which markets amongst others, Baume & Mercier, IWC, Jaeger-LeCoultre, Montblanc, Officine Panerai, Piaget SA and Vacheron Constantin). The Swatch Group Electronic System includes: In 1998, Swatch invented "Swatch Internet Time", intended as a global time system, which divides the day into 1000 "beats" in a single worldwide time zone. In October 2004, Swatch introduced its first smart watch, the Paparazzi, based on Microsoft Corporation's SPOT (Smart Personal Objects Technology.)

Chronograph

chronographschronographic wristwatchtimer
Patek Philippe Chronograph Comparison Gray & Sons NOV 2014. A technical perspective, the chronograph, Monochrome-watches, Xavier Markl, February 2016. TAG Heuer’s 01 chronograph watch movement explained with videos WatchTime June 2016. Cronosurf - The online chronograph.

World Wide Fund for Nature

World Wildlife FundWWFWorldwide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Global warming is the long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system. It is a major aspect of climate change, and has been demonstrated by direct temperature measurements and by measurements of various effects of the warming. The terms global warming and climate change are often used interchangeably. However, speaking more accurately, global warming denotes the mainly human-caused increase in global surface temperatures and its projected continuation, but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes in precipitation.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium.

Environmental impact of mining

major cause of environmental issuesMiningEnvironmental issues with mining
Environmental impacts of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining practices. Impacts can result in erosion, sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, or the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by the chemicals emitted from mining processes. These processes also have an impact on the atmosphere from the emissions of carbon which have effect on the quality of human health and biodiversity.

Pollution

pollutedenvironmental pollutionpollution control
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world.

Soil retrogression and degradation

soil degradationdegradationSoils retrogression and degradation
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state. Degradation is an evolution, different from natural evolution, related to the local climate and vegetation. It is due to the replacement of primary plant communities (known as climax vegetation) by the secondary communities. This replacement modifies the humus composition and amount, and affects the formation of the soil. It is directly related to human activity.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
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South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 km of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 24th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 58 million people, is also the world's 24th-most populous nation.

Environmentally friendly

eco-friendlygreenenvironmentally friendlier
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment. Companies use these ambiguous terms to promote goods and services, sometimes with additional, more specific certifications, such as ecolabels. Their overuse can be referred to as greenwashing.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
China (undefined), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9600000 km2, it is the third largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Breguet (brand)

BreguetBreguet (watch)Breguet S. A.
Breguet, along with 7 other manufacturers including Patek Philippe, Audemars Piguet and Rolex, was given the lowest environmental rating as "Latecomers/Non-transparent", suggesting that the manufacturer has taken very few actions addressing the impact of its manufacturing activities on the environment and climate change. There are concerns over the lack of transparency in manufacturing activities and the sourcing of precious raw materials such as gold, which is a major cause of environmental issues such as pollution, soil degradation and deforestation. The situation is especially serious in the developing countries which are top producers of gold, including China, Russia and South Africa.

Automatic watch

automaticself-windingself-winding watch
The Rolex Watch Company improved Harwood's design in 1930 and used it as the basis for the Rolex Oyster Perpetual, in which the centrally mounted semi-circular weight could rotate through a full 360° rather than the about 200° of the 'bumper' winder. Rolex's version also increased the amount of energy stored in the mainspring, allowing it to run autonomously for up to 35 hours. Information about 18th-century rotor watches was not published until 1949. Although the Oyster Perpetual was probably an original invention, the company may have known of Coviot's 1893 patent that re-invented the 18th-century design. The next development for automatic watches came in 1948 from Eterna Watch.