first-degree murderfirst degree murdersecond-degree murder
Despite the immense improvements in forensics in the past few decades, the fraction of murders solved has decreased in the United States, from 90% in 1960 to 61% in 2007. Solved murder rates in major U.S. cities varied in 2007 from 36% in Boston, Massachusetts to 76% in San Jose, California. Major factors affecting the arrest rate include witness cooperation and the number of people assigned to investigate the case. According to scholar Pieter Spierenburg homicide rates per 100,000 in Europe have fallen over the centuries, from 35 per 100,000 in medieval times, to 20 in 1500 AD, 5 in 1700, to below two per 100,000 in 1900.

Index of law articles

Forensic medicine – Forensic testimony – Forensics – Foreseeability – Foreseeable risk – Forfeit – Forger – Forgery – Formal contract – Fornication – forum conveniens – forum non conveniens – Forum shopping – Foster child – Four Cardinal Virtues – Four corners of an instrument – Franc-tireur – Franchise – Franchise tax – Franchising – Fraud – Fraud in the inducement – Fraudulent conveyance – Fraudulent trading – Free and clear – Free economic zone – Free on board – Free port – Free software license – Free speech – Free will – Freedom of assembly – Freedom of association – Freedom of expression – Freedom of Information Act – Freedom of religion – Freedom of speech – Freedom of speech by country


Forensic pathology focuses on determining the cause of death by post-mortem examination of a corpse or partial remains. An autopsy is typically performed by a coroner or medical examiner, often during criminal investigations; in this role, coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. The requirements for becoming a licensed practitioner of forensic pathology varies from country to country (and even within a given nation ) but typically a minimal requirement is a medical doctorate with a specialty in general or anatomical pathology with subsequent study in forensic medicine.

Manner of death

natural causes#Unnatural Death
Coroners are independent judicial officers who investigate deaths reported to them, and subsequently whatever inquiries are necessary to discover the cause of death, this includes ordering a post-mortem examination, obtaining witness statements and medical records, or holding an inquest. In the unified legal jurisdiction of England and Wales, most deaths are certified by doctors without autopsy or coroner involvement. Almost all deaths certified by the coroner involve an autopsy but most do not involve a formal inquest. In England and Wales, a specific list of choices for verdicts is not mandated, and "narrative verdicts" are allowed, which are not specifically classified.

Human sexual activity

sexual activitysexual behaviorsex
Sexual activity can be regarded as conventional or as alternative, involving, for example, fetishism, paraphilia, or BDSM activities. Fetishism can take many forms ranging from the desire for certain body parts, for example large breasts, navels or foot worship. The object of desire can often be shoes, boots, lingerie, clothing, leather or rubber items. Some non-conventional autoerotic practices can be dangerous. These include erotic asphyxiation and self-bondage.


Lee Mellor (2016) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498731522. Lee Mellor (2016) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498731522. Lee Mellor (2016) Homicide: A Forensic Psychology Casebook. CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498731522. Lisa Downing, Desiring the Dead: Necrophilia and Nineteenth-Century French Literature. Oxford: Legenda, 2003. Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis. New York: Stein & Day, 1965. Originally published in 1886. Gabrielle Wittkop, The Necrophiliac, 1972. Barbara Gowdy, We So Seldom Look on Love, 1992. Frank O'Hara, Ode on Necrophilia, 1960.


poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
In modern society, cases of suspicious death elicit the attention of the Coroner's office and forensic investigators. Of increasing concern since the isolation of natural radium by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898—and the subsequent advent of nuclear physics and nuclear technologies—are radiological poisons. These are associated with ionizing radiation, a mode of toxicity quite distinct from chemically active poisons. In mammals, chemical poisons are often passed from mother to offspring through the placenta during gestation, or through breast milk during nursing.

Gunshot residue

paraffin testGSRFDR
Forensic Sci. Int. 231 (2013), 219-228. F.S. Romolo. Advances in Analysis of Gunshot Residue. In Emerging Technologies for the analysis of forensic traces, Edited by Simona Francese, Springer Publishing Company, pagine 183-202, ISBN: 978-3-030-20541-6. A.J. Schwoeble, D.L. Exline, Current Methods in Forensic Gunshot Residue Analysis, (2000) CRC Press LLC. J.S. Wallace, J. McQuillan, Discharge residues from cartridge-operated industrial tools, J. Forens. Sci. Soc. 24 (1984) 495-508. J.S. Wallace, Chemical Analysis of Firearms, Ammunition, and Gunshot Residue, (2008) CRC Press LLC. G.M. Wolten, R.S. Nesbitt, A.R. Calloway, G.L. Loper, P.F.


Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans. Less extensive dissection of plants and smaller animals preserved in a formaldehyde solution is typically carried out or demonstrated in biology and natural science classes in middle school and high school, while extensive dissections of cadavers of adults and children, both fresh and preserved are carried out by medical students in medical schools as a part of the teaching in subjects such as anatomy, pathology and forensic medicine. Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab. Dissection has been used for centuries to explore anatomy.

Medical examiner

Chief Medical ExaminerM.E.medical examiners
In the United States, there are less than 500 board-certified pathologists, but the National Commission on Forensic Science estimates the country needs 1100-1200 to perform the needed number of autopsies. The shortage is attributed to the nature of the work and the higher pay in other medical specialties.

Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified

a pioneering workEgy kínai halottkém feljegyzéseiWashing Away of Wrongs
The author combined many historical cases of forensic science with his own experiences and wrote the book with an eye to avoiding injustice. The book was esteemed by generations of officials, and it was eventually translated into English, German, Japanese, French and other languages. It is the first ever written book of forensic science. Different versions of the book exist, but the earliest existing version was published during the Yuan Dynasty, containing fifty-three chapters in five volumes. The first volume describes the imperial decree issued by Song Dynasty on the inspection of bodies and injuries. The second volume contains notes and methods on post-mortem examinations.

Song dynasty

SongSouthern Song dynastyNorthern Song dynasty
Shen Kuo's Dream Pool Essays argued against traditional Chinese beliefs in anatomy (such as his argument for two throat valves instead of three); this perhaps spurred the interest in the performance of post-mortem autopsies in China during the 12th century. The physician and judge known as Song Ci (1186–1249) wrote a pioneering work of forensic science on the examination of corpses in order to determine cause of death (strangulation, poisoning, drowning, blows, etc.) and to prove whether death resulted from murder, suicide, or accidental death.

Marek said that he had received testimonies from readers stating that viewing the images on his site had convinced them to avoid speeding, darting between traffic on motorcycle, horseplay with forklifts, even from committing suicide, and that the government itself recognized the utility of shocking images by requiring them on cigarette packaging. LiveLeak. Stile Project. "Political Prisoner Mark Marek".


fingerprintingfingerprint recognitionfingerprint sensor
In forensic science a partial fingerprint lifted from a surface, is called a latent fringerprint. Moisture and grease on fingers result in latent fingerprints on surfaces such as glass. But because they are not clearly visible their detection may require chemical development through powder dusting, the spraying of ninhydrin, iodine fuming, or soaking in silver nitrate. Depending on the surface or the material on which a latent fingerprint has been found, different methods of chemical development must be used. Forensic scientists use different techniques for porous surfaces, such as paper, and nonporous surfaces, such as glass, metal or plastic.


Assist with Post Mortem Examinations. Preparation and Operation of a Mortuary. Prepare for Post Mortem Examinations. Team Working. Viewing of the Dead.


web sitewebsitesonline
A website or web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are,, and

Murder book

Typically, murder books include crime scene photographs and sketches, autopsy and forensic reports, transcripts of investigators' notes, and witness interviews. The murder book encapsulates the complete paper trail of a murder investigation, from the time the murder is first reported through the arrest of a suspect. Law enforcement agencies typically guard murder books carefully, and it is unusual for civilians to be given unfettered access to these kinds of records, especially for unsolved cases.


According to Anil Aggrawal, in forensic science, levels of sexual sadism and masochism are classified as follows: Sexual masochists: Sexual sadists: The difference between I–II and III–IV is consent. The term BDSM is commonly used to describe consensual activities that contain sadistic and masochistic elements. Masochists tend to be very specific about the types of pain they enjoy, preferring some and disliking others. Many behaviors such as spanking, tickling, and love-bites contain elements of sadomasochism. Even if both parties legally consent to such acts this may not be accepted as a defense against criminal charges.

Richard von Krafft-Ebing

Krafft-EbingRichard Freiherr von Krafft-EbingKrafft-Ebbing
After leaving his work in asylums, he pursued a career in psychiatry, forensics, and hypnosis. He died in Graz in 1902. He was recognized as an authority on deviant sexual behavior and its medicolegal aspects. Krafft-Ebing's principal work is Psychopathia Sexualis: eine Klinisch-Forensische Studie (Sexual Psychopathy: A Clinical-Forensic Study), which was first published in 1886 and expanded in subsequent editions. The last edition from the hand of the author (the twelfth) contained a total of 238 case histories of human sexual behaviour.


A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs. A disease may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions. For example, internal dysfunctions of the immune system can produce a variety of different diseases, including various forms of immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, allergies and autoimmune disorders.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by Medieval Greek.


Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain. Fatal strangling typically occurs in cases of violence, accidents, and is one of two main ways that hanging causes death (alongside breaking the victim's neck).


Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion. This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. At the other extreme is evidence that is merely consistent with an assertion but does not rule out other, contradictory assertions, as in circumstantial evidence.


Forensic diagnosis of drowning is considered one of the most difficult in forensic medicine. External examination and autopsy findings are often non-specific, and the available laboratory tests are often inconclusive or controversial. The purpose of investigation is generally to distinguish whether the death was due to immersion, or whether the body was immersed post mortem. The mechanism in acute drowning is hypoxemia and irreversible cerebral anoxia due to submersion in liquid.