lungspulmonaryright lung
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing.


Main article: Forensic toxicology Forensic toxicology is the discipline that makes use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilized, but rather the obtainment and interpretation of results. Computational toxicology is a discipline that develops mathematical and computer-based models to better understand and predict adverse health effects caused by chemicals, such as environmental pollutants and pharmaceuticals.


medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death, type of weapon used to inflict trauma, reconstruction of the facial features using remains of deceased (skull) thus aiding identification. Gender-based medicine studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. Hospice and Palliative Medicine is a relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure. Hospital medicine is the general medical care of hospitalized patients.

Scotland Yard

New Scotland YardMetropolitan PoliceBritish police
Scotland Yard (officially New Scotland Yard) is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), the territorial police force responsible for policing all 32 boroughs of London, excluding the City of London.


pornographicpornadult film industry
Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal. Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books, magazines, postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, phone calls, writing, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors or "porn stars", who perform in pornographic films.

Forensic anthropology

forensic anthropologistForensic archaeologyforensic anthropologists
Peri-mortem fractures will usually appear clean with rounded margins and equal discolouration after death, while post-mortem breaks will appear brittle. Post-mortem breaks will often be a different colour to the surrounding bone i.e. whiter as they have been exposed to taphonomic processes for a different amount of time. However, depending on how long there is between a post-mortem break and removal this may not be obvious i.e. through re-interment by a killer. Diseases such as bone cancer might be present in bone marrow samples and can help narrow down the list of possible identifications.


Bruce Gross of the Forensic Examiner described it as meaningless, saying a report could be marked as unfounded if there is no physical evidence or the alleged victim did not sustain any physical injuries. Other studies have suggested that the rate of false allegations in America may be higher. A nine-year study by Eugene J. Kanin of Purdue University in a small metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States claimed that 41% of rape accusations were false.

Crush fetish

Crush filmcrush videocrush videos
A crush fetish is a fetish and a paraphilia in which one is sexually aroused when someone crushes objects, food, and sometimes small animals (frequently insects) with their body, usually under their foot, or when crushed oneself. The term soft crush refers to the more common fetish surrounding videos involving inanimate objects (such as food) or small invertebrates (e.g. insects, snails, worms, arachnids) being crushed, while the term hard crush refers to such videos involving larger animals with vertebrae, and arguably more pain-susceptible animals (e.g. reptiles, birds, mammals).


Contemporary names include compulsive masturbation, compulsive sexual behavior, cybersex addiction, erotomania, "excessive sexual drive", hyperphilia, hypersexuality, hypersexual disorder, problematic hypersexuality, sexual addiction, sexual compulsivity, sexual dependency, sexual impulsivity, "out of control sexual behavior", and paraphilia-related disorder. There is little consensus among experts as to the causes of hypersexuality. Some research suggests that some cases can be linked to biochemical or physiological changes that accompany dementia.

Lateralization of brain function

right hemisphereleft hemispherelateralization
In Tan's autopsy, Broca determined he had a syphilitic lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. This left frontal lobe brain area (Broca's area) is an important speech production region. The motor aspects of speech production deficits caused by damage to Broca's area are known as expressive aphasia. In clinical assessment of this aphasia, it is noted that the patient cannot clearly articulate the language being employed. German physician Karl Wernicke continued in the vein of Broca's research by studying language deficits unlike expressive aphasia. Wernicke noted that not every deficit was in speech production; some were linguistic.

Nail (anatomy)

DNA profiling is a technique employed by forensic scientists on hair, fingernails, toenails, etc. The best way to care for nails is to trim them regularly. Filing is also recommended, as to keep nails from becoming too rough and to remove any small bumps or ridges that may cause the nail to get tangled up in materials such as cloth. Bluish or purple fingernail beds may be a symptom of peripheral cyanosis, which indicates oxygen deprivation. Nails can dry out, just like skin. They can also peel, break, and be infected.

Jack the Ripper

RipperologistsRipperThe Ripper
Bond's assessment was based on his own examination of the most extensively mutilated victim and the post mortem notes from the four previous canonical murders. He wrote: "All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right, in the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.


UVultraviolet lightultraviolet radiation
UV fluorescent dyes are used in many applications (for example, biochemistry and forensics). Some brands of pepper spray will leave an invisible chemical (UV dye) that is not easily washed off on a pepper-sprayed attacker, which would help police identify the attacker later. In some types of nondestructive testing UV stimulates fluorescent dyes to highlight defects in a broad range of materials. These dyes may be carried into surface-breaking defects by capillary action (liquid penetrant inspection) or they may be bound to ferrite particles caught in magnetic leakage fields in ferrous materials (magnetic particle inspection).

Forensic pathology

forensic pathologistforensic pathologistspathologist
Forensic science. Post-mortem chemistry. Bartos, Leah, "No Forensic Background? No Problem", ProPublica, April 17, 2012. "The Real CSI'', PBS Frontline documentary, April 17, 2012. "The Real CSI'', PBS Frontline documentary, April 17, 2012. "The Real CSI'', PBS Frontline documentary, April 17, 2012. "The Real CSI'', PBS Frontline documentary, April 17, 2012. "The Real CSI'', PBS Frontline documentary, April 17, 2012. "The Real CSI'', PBS Frontline documentary, April 17, 2012. National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME). American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Forensic Science Society. British Association in Forensic Medicine. British Association for Human Identification.


suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Post-mortem studies have found reduced levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, in those with and without psychiatric conditions. Serotonin, a brain neurotransmitter, is believed to be low in those who die by suicide. This is partly based on evidence of increased levels of 5-HT2A receptors found after death. Other evidence includes reduced levels of a breakdown product of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, in the cerebral spinal fluid. Direct evidence is however hard to gather. Epigenetics, the study of changes in genetic expression in response to environmental factors which do not alter the underlying DNA, is also believed to play a role in determining suicide risk.

Forensic limnology

If a body is placed in freshwater post mortem then diatoms cannot be used to evaluate time of death. Without the inhalation of water and some circulation present in the victim, the diatoms will not be able to enter the alveolar system and blood stream making it difficult to extract a reliable sample. Another issue with the use of diatoms in order to provide evidential support is that diatoms can also be found on clothes, in food and drink, or air. In a study conducted by Spitz and Schneider in 1964, 500 cubic meters of air was filtered for three days in April and there was between 662 and 1564 individual diatoms present on the filtrate.

Luka Magnotta

1 Lunatic 1 Ice PickEric Clinton Kirk NewmanLin Jun
Expert witnesses testified, including a forensic pathologist, a forensic toxicologist, a forensic odontologist, a bloodstain analyst, data recovery specialists and an Internet investigations officer. The prosecution also displayed video evidence. Both Magnotta and Lin physically collapsed at separate times during the proceedings. On April 12, 2013, Magnotta was indicted on charges of first-degree murder, offering indignities to a human body, distributing obscene materials, using the postal service to distribute obscene materials, and criminal harassment. Magnotta elected to be tried by judge and jury.

Thomas Bond (surgeon)

Thomas BondDr Thomas BondDr. Thomas Bond
Mary Jane Kelly had been killed the morning before in Dorset Street, and Bond had spent much of that day performing her autopsy. Bond's report said: In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right. In the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.

Forensic identification

forensic evidenceidentificationforensic testing
Computer forensics. Data remanence. Digital traces. Entomological evidence collection. Forensic anthropology. Forensic dentistry (odontology). Forensic engineering. Forensic profiling. Forensic science. Identification (biology). Mass surveillance. Privacy. Surveillance. Trace evidence. Questioned Document Examination., bioFORENSICS - Tools for forensic identification., Forensic Fingerprinting., Canadian Identification Society.

Body identification

identificationidentifyvictim's identity
Body identification is a subfield of forensic science wherein investigators need to identify a body. Forensic (literally, "for the courts") purposes are served by rigorous scientific forensic identification techniques, but these are generally preceded by simply asking bystanders or other persons for the victim's name. If a body is not badly decomposed or damaged, two persons (or one) who knew the deceased well should visually confirm the identity. Authorities will also compare supportive documents such as driver's license, passport, or other authoritative photo ID before accepting a personal identification with which to further their investigative and/or forensic purposes.

Forensic toxicology

forensic toxicologicalforensic toxicologisttoxicology examination
A urine sample is urine that has come from the bladder and can be provided or taken post-mortem. Urine is less likely to be infected with viruses such as HIV or Hepatitis B than blood samples. Many drugs have a higher concentration and can remain for much longer in urine than blood. Collection of urine samples can be taken in a noninvasive way which does not require professionals for collection. Urine is used for qualitative analysis as it cannot give any indication of impairment due to the fact that drug presence in urine only indicates prior exposure. A blood sample of approximately 10 ml is usually sufficient to screen and confirm most common toxic substances.

Forensic facial reconstruction

facial reconstructionreconstructedforensically reconstructed
Positive identification, one of the foremost goals of forensic science, is established when a unique set of biological characteristics of an individual are matched with a set of skeletal remains. This type of identification requires the skeletal remains to correspond with medical or dental records, unique ante mortem wounds or pathologies, DNA analysis, and still other means. Burns, Karen Ramey. Forensic Anthropology Training Manual. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999. Gerasimov, Michail M. The Face Finder. New York CRC Press, 1971. Helmer, Richard et al. Assessment of the Reliability of Facial Reconstruction.


craniumcranialhuman skull
Forensic scientists and archaeologists use metric and nonmetric traits to estimate what the bearer of the skull looked like. When a significant amount of bones are found, such as at Spitalfields in the UK and Jōmon shell mounds in Japan, osteologists can use traits, such as the proportions of length, height and width, to know the relationships of the population of the study with other living or extinct populations. The German physician Franz Joseph Gall in around 1800 formulated the theory of phrenology, which attempted to show that specific features of the skull are associated with certain personality traits or intellectual capabilities of its owner.

Minnesota Protocol

Particular guidance is offered on the techniques for collecting and sampling different types of evidence, including the following: Investigation of potentially unlawful deaths will almost always be aided by the conduct of an autopsy. In a section setting out the general principles of an autopsy the Protocol provides an overview of the duties of a forensic doctor in relation to a death investigation, and then establishes the basic aims of autopsy will assist in fulfilling those duties. The aims of the autopsy, principally are: In general, the Protocol establishes in various places the requirement of professional ethics for investigators, including forensic doctors.

Police procedural

police dramapolicecrime drama
Whatever the plot style, the defining element of a police procedural is the attempt to accurately depict the profession of law enforcement, including such police-related topics as forensic science, autopsies, gathering evidence, search warrants, interrogation and adherence to legal restrictions and procedure. The roots of the police procedural have been traced to at least the mid-1880s. Wilkie Collins's novel The Moonstone (1868), a tale of a Scotland Yard detective investigating the theft of a valuable diamond, has been described as perhaps the earliest clear example of the genre.