United Kingdom

Since the height of the British Empire in the late 19th century, Britannia has often been associated with British maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song "Rule, Britannia!". Up until 2008, the lion symbol was depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of the British ten pence coin. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. A second, less used, personification of the nation is the character John Bull.

Royal Scots Greys

2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys)2nd DragoonsScots Greys
Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. British Army Locations from 1945 British Army Locations from 1945. www.scotsatwar.org.uk The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. Scottish Military Historical Society: The Royal Scots Greys Lineage page. Early history of the Scots Greys, Excerpt from the Navy and Army Illustrated 15 January 1897 by G F Bacon. The Battle of Waterloo as seen by an ordinary British cavalryman. British cavalry of the Napoleonic Wars.

Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth IIthe QueenQueen
The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. According to Paul Martin, Sr., by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister. Tony Benn said the Queen found Trudeau "rather disappointing".

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
In addition to the honour of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours, including the following, chronologically: Churchill held substantive ranks in the British Army and in the Territorial Army since he was commissioned as a Cornet in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars until his retirement from the Territorial Army in 1924 with the rank of Major, having held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel during the Great War. In addition he held many honorary military appointments. In 1939, he was appointed as an Honorary Air Commodore in the Auxiliary Air Force and was awarded honorary wings in 1943.

Royal Regiment of Scotland

The Royal Regiment of Scotland3rd Battalion, The Black WatchGolden Highlanders
Structure of the British Army and its 2004 restructuring. Scots Guards. Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. The Royal Regiment of Scotland- on British Army official website. Amalgamation opposition site – R.O.A.R. MoD press release; Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon announces the regimental changes. Defence News: Royal Regiment of Scotland officially formed. Defence News: Uniforms of the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The Royal Regiment of Scotland and its Predecessors. The Royal Regiment of Scotland in the Scottish Military Heritage Centre.

History of the Scots Guards (1946–present)

2nd Battalion, The Scots Guards
In July 1953, the 2nd Battalion deployed to West Germany to join the 4th Guards Brigade at Hubbelrath, part of the British Army of the Rhine, and returned home in 1957. That year the 1st Battalion headed for Hubbelrath to join the 4th Guards Brigade and remained there until 1960 when it too returned home to the UK. In February 1962, the 2nd Battalion arrived in Kenya where it joined the 24th Infantry Brigade.

Edinburgh Castle

EdinburghCastleOne O'Clock Gun
The Army retains responsibility for these and for the Royal Scots Museum and Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Museum. A series of performances known as the Edinburgh Military Tattoo (since 2010 the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo) takes place on the Esplanade each year during August. The basis of each performance is a parade of the massed pipes and drums of the Scottish regiments, and since its inception in 1950 the tattoo has developed a complex format which includes a variety of performers invited from around the world, although still with a largely military focus.

Nemo me impune lacessit

Nemo me impune lacessetone possible source
The motto of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, the Scottish chivalrous order, is also that of the British Army regiments The Royal Regiment of Scotland, Scots Guards and Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. It was also the motto of several former units of the British Army, including the Royal Scots, Royal Scots Greys, Royal Highland Fusiliers and Black Watch, some of which went on to be amalgamated to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland in 2006. The motto is also that of the Royal Company of Archers and has been displayed upon the unit's second standard since 1713, following the grant of a Royal charter by Queen Anne.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns (1914). In Gallipoli, the Ottoman Empire successfully repelled the British, French, and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs). In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the defeat of the British defenders in the Siege of Kut by the Ottomans (1915–16), British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917. The British were aided in Mesopotamia by local Arab and Assyrian tribesmen, while the Ottomans employed local Kurdish and Turcoman tribes.


Edinburgh, ScotlandCity of EdinburghCity of Edinburgh council area
The best known of these events are the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. The longest established of these festivals is the Edinburgh International Festival, which was first held in 1947 and consists mainly of a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras.

British Armed Forces

Forcesarmed forcesBritish
British Army official website (army.mod.uk). Royal Air Force official website (raf.mod.uk).

Army Reserve (United Kingdom)

Territorial ArmyArmy ReserveTerritorial
TAVR II: Units with a NATO role, specifically support for the British Army of the Rhine. TAVR III: Home Defence units. TAVR IV: Consisting of bands and the University-based Officer Training Corps. List of Territorial Army units (2012). Auxiliary Territorial Service. Auxiliary Units (1940–1944). Home Guard (1940–1944). Exercise Cambrian Patrol. Home Service Force (1982–1993). Reserve Forces and Cadets Association. Royal Auxiliary Air Force. Royal Marines Reserve. Royal Naval Reserve. Territorial Decoration. The Territorial Army (British Rail). Volunteer Reserves Service Medal. Australian Army Reserve. Canadian Army Reserve. Indian Territorial Army. Territorial Force. Rejimen Askar Wataniah.

Royal Scots

1st Regiment of Foot1st Foot1st Royals
In 1964, they deployed to Aden, then back to England and a three-year spell in Germany with the British Army of the Rhine. 1970 to 1974 was spent in Britain as part of the Allied Command Europe Mobile Force, with the battalion undertaking two four-month tours of duty in Northern Ireland. The battalion was then posted to Cyprus in early 1974. Unfortunately, Turkey invaded the island and created the "Green Line", which still partitions the island. During the action of moving service families and holidaymakers to safety from Limassol, Piper Malcolm Halliday played at the roadside becoming known as "The piper of Cyprus".

Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane

Richard HaldaneLord HaldaneViscount Haldane
In 1888, he courted Emma Valentine Ferguson, sister of his Liberal party friend, Ronald Munro-Ferguson; she broke off the engagement and subsequently lampooned him in her novel "Betsy" in 1892. Haldane became firmly ensconced in the Imperialist wing of Liberalism, led by Sir Edward Grey. At the 1892 General Election, he received a shock, when nearly defeated by the Liberal Unionist Master of Polwarth. Beatrice Webb, the socialist who was a close intimate, remarked on how alone Haldane was in the world. Haldane added the preface to L T Hobhouse's The Labour Movement in 1893. Sadly Emma Ferguson died insane in 1897.

3rd Carabiniers

3rd Carabiniers (Prince of Wales's Dragoon Guards)3rd/6th Dragoon Guards3rd Carabinier
William Charles Walker Sloan, CBE. 1971: Regiment amalgamated with The Royal Scots Greys (2nd Dragoons) to form the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys).

Stable belt

gymnastic beltbeltpistol belt
The Danish Defense's close cooperation with the British Army of the Rhine in the 1950s created the interest in a similar belt, for the Guard Hussar Regiment, which was introduced in 1968. In the late 70s, it was decided to allow Stable belts for all regiments in Denmark. The design of the belt would be based on the colours of the regiment, and a colour to signify their role. To show the transition between role and regiment colours, a thin line was introduced, there is however no system with these. The Danish armed forces have had a total of 43 different stable belts, today there are only around sixteen in use.

7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

7th Armoured Brigade7 Armoured BrigadeBritish 7th Armoured Brigade
Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. 1st Battalion, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. 4th Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland. 3rd Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery. 32 Engineer Regiment, Royal Engineers. 29 (Armored) Combat Support Medical Squadron, Royal Army Medical Corps. 2nd Battalion, Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. 111 Provost Company, Royal Military Police. British Armoured formations of World War II. 1st Armoured Division. 7th Armoured Division. 4th Armoured Brigade.

Duncan Carter-Campbell of Possil

Colonel Duncan Carter-Campbell of PossilCol. Duncan Carter-Campbell of PossilDuncan Maclachlan Carter-Campbell
As a Staff Officer, he was then posted to the British Middle East Land Forces to support operations in Palestine/Transjordan between 1945-1947. At the end of the second world war he served with the British Army of the Rhine from 1947 to 1948 under occupied Germany. In 1952 he went on to command the Cameronians 1st Battalion and, for services in Malaysia, was Mentioned in Despatches on 21 October 1952. He also served in Bahrain and Trucial Oman. In 1958 he became Secretary to the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Scottish command and Governor of Edinburgh Castle; Lieutenant-General Sir George Collingwood. He was the Director Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo before retiring in 1962.

John Wilfred Stanier

John StanierSir John Stanier
He was the first person after the Second World War to become the professional head of the British Army without having seen active service in that war or any subsequent campaign. He was promoted to field marshal on 10 July 1985 on retirement from the British Army. He was also Colonel of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards from 18 January 1979 to 6 May 1984, and Colonel Commandant of the Royal Armoured Corps from 1 April 1982 to 1 August 1985. In retirement he served as chairman of the Royal United Service Institution from 1986 to 1989. He was Constable of the Tower of London from 1990 to 1996. His book War and the Media, co-authored with Miles Hudson, was published in 1997.

Scots Guards

3rd Foot Guards3rd Regiment of Foot GuardsScots Fusilier Guards
The Scots Guards (SG), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. Their origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and Scotland. Its lineage can be traced back to 1642, although it was only placed on the English Establishment (thus becoming part of what is now the British Army) in 1686. The Regiment is the oldest formed Regiment in the Regular Army in service today. The regiment now known as the Scots Guards traces its origins to the Marquis of Argyll's Royal Regiment, a unit raised in 1642 by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll in response to the 1641 Irish Rebellion.


The Northern Ireland government requested the British Army to aid the police and protect the Irish Nationalist population. In 1969, the paramilitary Provisional IRA, which favoured the creation of a united Ireland, emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the "British occupation of the six counties". Other groups, on both the unionist side and the nationalist side, participated in violence and a period known as the Troubles began. Over 3,600 deaths resulted over the subsequent three decades of conflict. Owing to the civil unrest during the Troubles, the British government suspended home rule in 1972 and imposed direct rule.

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Division2nd Infantry Division2nd
List of British divisions in World War I. List of British divisions in World War II. British Army Order of Battle (September 1939). Chappel M. (1986) British Battle Insignia (1). 1914-18 Osprey Publishing ISBN: 9780850457278. Joslen, Lt-Col H.F. (2003) [1960]. Orders of Battle: Second World War, 1939–1945. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press. ISBN: 978-1-84342-474-1. Latimer, Jon, (2004) Burma: The Forgotten War, London: John Murray, ISBN: 0-7195-6576-6. Pakenham, Thomas, (1979),The Boer War, New York: Random House. History. British Unit History Site. The British Army in the Great War: The 2nd Division. British Military History: 2 Division (1930–38).

Pipe band

pipes and drumspipe bandspipe and drum
Unlike musicians, who belong to the Corps of Army Music, the pipers and drummers belong to the regiment in which they serve and are soldiers first and foremost. The British Army runs its own pipes and drums training facility, the Army School of Bagpipe Music and Highland Drumming, in Edinburgh, Scotland. To be qualified as a pipe major or drum major in the pipes and drums of a regiment of the British Army, candidates must successfully pass a series of courses at the school.


Although Scotland has a long military tradition predating its union with England, its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces. Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Royal Regiment of Scotland, the Scots Guards, the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the 154 (Scottish) Regiment RLC, an Army Reserve Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps. More than 4,000 Scots serve in the British Army around the world. A single front-line Royal Air Force base is located in Scotland. RAF Lossiemouth, located in Moray, is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon.

Edward VIII

Prince of WalesKing Edward VIIIEdward, Prince of Wales
(First World War, Flanders and Italy). 10 March 1916: Captain, British Army. 1918: Temporary Major, British Army. 15 April 1919: Colonel, British Army. 8 July 1919: Captain, Royal Navy. 5 December 1922: Group Captain, Royal Air Force. 1 September 1930: Vice-Admiral, Royal Navy; Lieutenant-General, British Army; Air Marshal, Royal Air Force. 1 January 1935: Admiral, Royal Navy; General, British Army; Air Chief Marshal, Royal Air Force. 21 January 1936: Admiral of the Fleet, Royal Navy; Field Marshal, British Army; Marshal of the Royal Air Force. 3 September 1939: Major-General, British Army. KG: Knight of the Garter, 1910. ISO: Companion of the Imperial Service Order, 1910.