Royal Tournament

Grand Military Tournament and Assault at ArmsBritish Military TournamentMilitary Tournament
The Royal Tournament had entered the history books as the First, Oldest and Biggest Military Tattoo in the World. Towards the end ticket sales were insufficient to cover costs; the 1998 Royal Tournament made a loss. On Monday 2 August 1999 the Royal Tournament closed for the final time to reduce military costs, following the 1998 Strategic Defence Review. Other military events such as Trooping the Colour, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo and the Royal International Air Tattoo remain an active part of British military pageantry, together with the various events organized by the Armed Forces and its three branches.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Prince WilliamWilliamDuke
the Garter (KG). 25 May 2012: Extra Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT). 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal. 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal.

David Dundas (British Army officer)

David DundasSir David DundasGeneral Dundas
On 31 August 1783 Dundas left regimental service and became an advocate of officer training in the British Army writing many manuals on the subject, the first being Principles of Military Movements published in 1788. He chose to play down the light infantry tactics that generals such as Lord Cornwallis or Willam Howe favoured during the American War of Independence. Instead Dundas, after witnessing Prussian army manoeuvres in Silesia in 1784, favoured the army model that Frederick the Great had created.

James Johnston (British Army officer, died 1795)

James JohnstonGeneral James JohnstonGeneral James Johnston (21 May 1721 – 26 November 1795)
Will of James Johnston, General in His Majesty's Army of Weston near Bath, Somerset. Date 12 January 1796. Catalogue reference PROB 11/1270. Edward Almack. The history of the Second dragoons : Royal Scots greys. Lieutenant-General James Johnston. Colonel, 1785. Died, 26 November 1795.

David Hope, Baron Hope of Craighead

Lord HopeLord Hope of CraigheadThe Lord Hope of Craighead
On St Andrew's Day, 30 November 2009, Lord Hope was appointed to the Order of the Thistle by Queen Elizabeth II. The Order of the Thistle is the highest chivalric honour in Scotland. In the UK as a whole it is second only to the Order of the Garter amongst chivalric orders. The order honours Scottish men and women who have held public office or who have contributed in some way to national life.

Euan Loudon

William Euan Buchanan Loudon
He became Chief Executive and Producer of the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 2007 and then Chief Executive of the St Andrews Links Trust in 2011. In 2012 he was appointed Chairman of St Andrews Links Limited and the following year he became Chairman of Tom Morris International. Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) - 2004 (OBE - 1991). Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service - 2002.

Jonathan Hall (British Army officer)

Jonathan Michael Francis Cooper HallJonathan HallJonathan M.F.C. Hall
Major-General Jonathan Michael Francis Cooper Hall (born 10 August 1944) is a retired British Army officer, who served as the General Officer Commanding Scotland and the Governor of Edinburgh Castle from 1995 to 1997. Educated at Taunton School and the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Hall was commissioned into the 3rd Carabiniers in 1965. He was appointed commanding officer of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards in 1984. He went on to be 12th Armoured Brigade in 1989 and Deputy Military Secretary in 1992. He was appointed General Officer Commanding Scotland and Governor of Edinburgh Castle in 1995 and retired in 1997.

Sir James Steuart Denham, 8th Baronet

Sir James Denham-Steuart, BtSir James Steuart Denham General '''Sir James Steuart''', Bart.
He saw no further military service, but was made full general in 1803, colonel of the 2nd (Royal North British) Regiment of Dragoons in 1815, and a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order. At the 1818 general election he was a noted supporter of Sir Alexander Cochrane against Hamilton in Lanarkshire, without success. Sir James Steuart Denham died at Cheltenham in his ninety-fifth year; at the time of his death he was the senior general in the British Army. He had married on 30 September 1772 Alicia, daughter of William Blacker of Carrick Blacker, County Armagh, but they had no children, so he was succeeded in the baronetcies by his second cousin Henry Steuart Barclay. G.E.C.

Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet

William RobertsonRobertsonSir William Robertson
He promoted Robertson to field marshal "as a consolation prize" on 29 March 1920, making him the only man ever to rise in the British army from private to field marshal. Wilson thought the promotion "very disgusting". On returning to the UK Robertson received no official welcome at Victoria Station and later recorded that "having secured a broken-down taxi I drove to my residence in Eccleston Square; and thereupon joined the long list of unemployed officers on half-pay". Robertson was colonel of the 2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys) from 9 March 1916 and colonel of the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards from 31 December 1925.

Charles II of England

Charles IIKing Charles IIPrince Charles
Charles raised a ragtag army from his exiled subjects; this small, underpaid, poorly-equipped and ill-disciplined force formed the nucleus of the post-Restoration army. The Commonwealth made the Treaty of Paris with France in 1657 to join them in war against Spain in the Netherlands. Royalist supporters in the Spanish force were led by Charles's younger brother James, Duke of York. At the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, as part of the larger Spanish force, Charles's army of around 2,000 clashed with Commonwealth troops fighting with the French.

William III of England

William IIIWilliam of OrangeKing William III
Although the Anglo-French fleet was disabled by the Battle of Solebay, in June the French army quickly overran the provinces of Gelderland and Utrecht. On 14 June, William withdrew with the remnants of his field army into Holland, where the States had ordered the flooding of the Dutch Water Line on 8 June. Louis XIV of France, believing the war was over, began negotiations to extract as large a sum of money from the Dutch as possible. The presence of a large French army in the heart of the Republic caused a general panic, and the people turned against De Witt and his allies. On 4 July, the States of Holland appointed William stadtholder, and he took the oath five days later.

Nine Years' War

War of the Grand AllianceWar of the League of Augsburgwar
The Army, James II and the Glorious Revolution. (Manchester University Press, 1980) online review. Childs, John. The British Army of William III 1698–1702. Manchester University Press, 1987. Clark, George. The Nine Years' War" in J.S. Bromley, ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, VI: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688–1725 (1970) pp 223–67. Clark, George. "From the Nine Years War to the War of the Spanish Succession." The New Cambridge Modern History VI: 1688-1725 pp 381–409. Lynn, John A. Giant of Grand the Siècle: The French Army 1610–1715. Cambridge University Press, 1997. Symcox, Geoffrey.

Seven Years' War

French and Indian WarSeven Year WarThird Silesian or Seven Years' War
This strategy was to a degree forced upon France: geography, coupled with the superiority of the British navy, made it difficult for the French navy to provide significant supplies and support to overseas colonies. Similarly, several long land borders made an effective domestic army imperative for any French ruler. Given these military necessities, the French government, unsurprisingly, based its strategy overwhelmingly on the army in Europe: it would keep most of its army on the continent, hoping for victories closer to home.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonicwar with FranceNapoleonic War
The British government paid out large sums of money to other European states, so that they could pay armies in the field against France. These payments are colloquially known as the Golden Cavalry of St George. The British Army provided long-term support to the Spanish rebellion in the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, assisted by Spanish guerrilla ('little war') tactics. Anglo-Portuguese forces under Arthur Wellesley supported the Spanish, which campaigned successfully against the French armies, eventually driving them from Spain and allowing Britain to invade southern France. By 1815, the British Army played the central role in the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo.

Glorious Revolution

Revolution of 1688Revolution1688
With the passage of the Bill of Rights, it stamped out once and for all any possibility of a Catholic monarchy, and ended moves towards absolute monarchy in the British kingdoms by circumscribing the monarch's powers. These powers were greatly restricted; he or she could no longer suspend laws, levy taxes, make royal appointments, or maintain a standing army during peacetime without Parliament's permission – to this day the Army is known as the "British Army" not the "Royal Army" as it is, in some sense, Parliament's Army and not that of the King.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican RevolutionAmerican War of Independence
British returns in 1783 listed 43,633 rank and file deaths across the British Armed Forces. A table from 1781 puts total British Army deaths at 9,372 soldiers killed in battle across the Americas; 6,046 in North America (1775–1779), and 3,326 in the West Indies (1778–1780). In 1784, a British lieutenant compiled a detailed list of 205 British officers killed in action during the war, encompassing Europe, the Caribbean and the East Indies. Extrapolations based upon this list puts British Army losses in the area of at least 4,000 killed or died of wounds.


In 1837, during the Battle of Jamrud near the Khyber Pass, Akbar Khan and the Afghan army failed to capture the Jamrud fort from the Sikh Khalsa Army, but killed Sikh Commander Hari Singh Nalwa, thus ending the Afghan-Sikh Wars. By this time the British were advancing from the east and the first major conflict during "The Great Game" was initiated. In 1838, the British marched into Afghanistan and arrested Dost Mohammad, sent him into exile in India and replaced him with the previous ruler, Shah Shuja.


Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleonic
His last words were, France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine ("France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine"). Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it. In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows. In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held.

Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Stabilisation ForceSFOROperation Joint Guard
Banja Luka MND(W) – American, British, Canadian, Czech, Dutch. The British code name for their activities in IFOR was Operation Resolute and SFOR was Operation Lodestar (to June 1998) and Operation Palatine (from Jun 1998). The Canadian mission was named Operation Palladium (1996 to 2004). Tuzla MND(N) – American, Turkish, Polish, Russian, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish.


KosovarRepublic of KosovoKosovan
By 1996, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an ethnic Albanian guerrilla paramilitary group that sought the separation of Kosovo and the eventual creation of a Greater Albania, had prevailed over the Rugova's non-violent resistance movement and launched attacks against the Yugoslav Army and Serbian police in Kosovo, resulting in the Kosovo War. By 1998, international pressure compelled Yugoslavia to sign a ceasefire and partially withdraw its security forces. Events were to be monitored by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) observers according to an agreement negotiated by Richard Holbrooke.


🇮🇶IraqiRepublic of Iraq
In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and initially suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut (1915–1916). However, subsequent to this the British began to gain the upper hand, and were further aided by the support of local Arabs and Assyrians. In 1916, the British and French made a plan for the post-war division of Western Asia under the Sykes-Picot Agreement. British forces regrouped and captured Baghdad in 1917, and defeated the Ottomans. An armistice was signed in 1918. The British lost 92,000 soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign.

Jacobite rising of 1715

Jacobite rising1715 Jacobite rising1715
On 22 October Mar received his commission from James appointing him commander of the Jacobite army. The Jacobite army outnumbered Argyll's forces by three-to-one and Mar decided to march on Stirling Castle. On 13 November at Sheriffmuir, the two forces joined in battle. The fighting was indecisive but nearing the end of the battle the Jacobites numbered 4,000 men, compared to Argyll's 1,000. Mar's army began to close in on Argyll's forces, who were poorly protected, but Mar did not order them to advance, possibly believing that he had won the battle already (Argyll had lost 660 men, three times as many as Mar). Mar then retreated to Perth.

Main battle tank

MBTmain battle tanksbattle tank
A British military document from 2001 indicated that the British Army would not procure a replacement for the Challenger 2 because of a lack of conventional warfare threats in the foreseeable future. The obsolescence of the tank has been asserted, but the history of the late 20th and early 21st century suggested that MBTs were still necessary. Main battle tanks remain a useful tool for internal security. States (such as Japan, Bangladesh and Indonesia) lacking expeditionary ambitions, or even credible land-based threats from abroad, are bolstering their ground forces with MBTs for the express purpose of maintaining internal security.


al-Basrahal-BasraBasra, Iraq
On 19 September 2005, two undercover British SAS soldiers disguised in Arab civilian clothes and headdresses opened fire on Iraqi police officers after having been stopped at a roadblock, killing at least one. After the two soldiers were arrested, the British Army raided the jail they were being held in to rescue them, killing several people from among their nominal allies – the Iraqi security forces. British troops transferred control of Basra province to the Iraqi authorities in 2007, four-and-a-half years after the invasion. A BBC survey of local residents found that 86% thought the presence of British troops since 2003 had had an overall negative effect on the province.

Battle of the Somme

SommeSomme Offensivethe Somme
No divisions were moved from the Sixth Army, despite it holding a shorter line with 17 1⁄2 divisions and three of the reserve divisions in the Sixth Army area. The maintenance of the strength of the Sixth Army, at the expense of the Second Army on the Somme, indicated that Falkenhayn intended the counter-offensive against the British to be made north of the Somme front, once the British offensive had been shattered.) If such Franco-British defeats were not enough, Germany would attack the remnants of both armies and end the western alliance for good.