Barefoot running

barefootrunning barefootran barefoot
The 1970s, in particular, saw a resurgent interest in jogging in western countries and modern running shoes were developed and marketed. Since then, running shoes have been blamed for the increased incidence of running injuries and this has prompted some runners to go barefoot. However, the American Podiatric Medical Association has stated that there is not enough evidence to support such claims and has urged would-be barefoot runners to consult a podiatrist before doing so. The American Diabetes Association has urged diabetics and other people with reduced sensation in their feet not to run barefoot, citing an increased likelihood of foot injury.

Exercise

physical exerciseexercisingphysical activity
Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, dancing, playing tennis, continuous training, and long distance running. Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density, balance, and coordination. Examples of strength exercises are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, squats, bench press. Anaerobic exercise also include weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength. Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles.

Vibram FiveFingers

FiveFingersToe shoeToe shoes
Lieberman stated that "People who wear conventional running shoes tend to run with a significantly different strike than those who run in minimalist shoes or barefoot. More specifically, the ball of the foot should strike the ground before the heel when running (or walking) barefoot or in minimalist shoes. By landing on the middle or front of the foot, barefoot runners have almost no impact collision." Lieberman et al.'s study was an experiment that involved five groups of runners from Kenya and the United States.

Gait

gallopleaping gaitsaction
In spite of the differences in leg number shown in terrestrial vertebrates, according to the inverted pendulum model of walking and spring-mass model of running, "walks" and "runs" are seen in animals with 2, 4, 6, or more legs. The term 'gait' has even been applied to flying and swimming organisms that produce distinct patterns of wake vortices. * Bipedal gait cycle. Gait analysis. Gait abnormality. Gait (dog). Gait (human). Horse gait. Parkinsonian gait.

Bipedalism

bipedalbipedbipeds
A larger number of modern species intermittently or briefly use a bipedal gait. Several lizard species move bipedally when running, usually to escape from threats. Many primate and bear species will adopt a bipedal gait in order to reach food or explore their environment, though there are a few cases where they walk on their hindlimbs only. Several arboreal primate species, such as gibbons and indriids, exclusively walk on two legs during the brief periods they spend on the ground. Many animals rear up on their hind legs whilst fighting or copulating.

Aerobic exercise

aerobiccardiocardiovascular exercise
When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking. British physiologist Archibald Hill introduced the concepts of maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen debt in 1922. German physician Otto Meyerhof and Hill shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their independent work related to muscle energy metabolism. Building on this work, scientists began measuring oxygen consumption during exercise.

Terrestrial locomotion

locomotionterrestrialTerrestrial locomotion in animals
Animals show a vast range of gaits, the order that they place and lift their appendages in locomotion. Gaits can be grouped into categories according to their patterns of support sequence. For quadrupeds, there are three main categories: walking gaits, running gaits, and leaping gaits. In one system (relating to horses), there are 60 discrete patterns: 37 walking gaits, 14 running gaits, and 9 leaping gaits. Walking is the most common gait, where some feet are on the ground at any given time, and found in almost all legged animals. In an informal sense, running is considered to occur when at some points in the stride all feet are off the ground in a moment of suspension.

Power walking

fitwalkingspeed walkingPower Walk
Power Walking or speed walking is the act of walking with a speed at the upper end of the natural range for the walking gait, typically 7 to 9 km/h (4.5 to 5.5 mph). To qualify as power walking as opposed to jogging or running, at least one foot must be in contact with the ground at all times (see walking for a formal definition). Power Walking was founded in 1990s of 20th century. In 1999, Berlin Marathon included Power Walking division. Power Walking is often confused with racewalking, as the two techniques are very similar. Power Walking technique: Also, Power Walking has been recommended (for example, by Kenneth H.

Outline of running

Running
Tower running. Cross country running. Fell running. Mountain running. Trail running. Multi-discipline sports of which running is a part:. Multisports that include running:. Adventure racing. Aquathlon. Duathlon. Triathlon – which includes running as its final, third component. Quadrathlon. Tetrathlon. Modern pentathlon. Heptathlon. Octathlon. Decathlon. Tower running. Decathlon. Tower running. Footwear. Athletic shoe. Racing flats. Socks. Track spikes. Cheetah Flex-Foot. Running shorts. Timing transponder. Stretching. Cross-training. Achilles tendon. Achilles tendinitis. Achilles tendon rupture. Foot blisters. Iliotibial band syndrome. Pulled muscle. Pulled hamstring. Runner's knee.

Achilles tendon

AchillesAchilles' tendoncalcaneal tendon
It provides elastic energy storage in hopping, walking, and running. Computer models suggest this energy storage Achilles tendon increases top running speed by >80% and reduces running costs by more than three-quarters. It has been suggested that the "absence of a well-developed Achilles tendon in the nonhuman African apes would preclude them from effective running, both at high speeds and over extended distances." The oldest-known written record of the tendon being named for Achilles is in 1693 by the Flemish/Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyen. In his widely used text Corporis Humani Anatomia he described the tendon's location and said that it was commonly called "the cord of Achilles."

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendonitis
During the loading phase of the running and walking cycle, the ankle and foot naturally pronate and supinate by approximately 5 degrees. Excessive pronation of the foot (over 5 degrees) in the subtalar joint is a type of mechanical mechanism that can lead to tendinitis. An overuse injury refers to repeated stress and strain, which is likely the case in endurance runners. Overuse can simply mean an increase in running, jumping or plyometric exercise intensity too soon. Another consideration would be the use of improper or worn-down footwear, which lack the necessary support to maintain the foot in the natural/normal pronation.

Hiking

Hikehikershiker
Trail runningrunning on trails. Fell running – the sport of running over rough mountainous ground, often off-trail. Amata, Joseph, On Foot, A History of Walking. New York: New York University Press, 2004. Gros, Frédéric. A Philosophy of Walking, trans. by John Howe. London, New York: Verso, 2014. Solnit, Rebecca, Wanderlust: A History of Walking. London: Penguin Books, 2001.

Knee

knee injuryknee jointknees
Overuse injuries of the knee include tendonitis, bursitis, muscle strains, and iliotibial band syndrome. These injuries often develop slowly over weeks or months. Activities that induce pain usually delay healing. Rest, ice and compression do help in most cases. Once the swelling has diminished, heat packs can increase blood supply and promote healing. Most overuse injuries subside with time but can flare up if the activities are quickly resumed. Individuals may reduce the chances of overuse injuries by warming up prior to exercise, by limiting high impact activities and keep their weight under control.

Flat feet

pes planusflat footflat-footed
It is generally assumed by running professionals (primarily including some physical trainers, podiatrists, and shoe manufacturers) that a person with flat feet tends to overpronate in the running form. However, some also assert that persons with flat feet may have an underpronating if they are not a neutral gait. With standard running shoes, these professionals claim, a person who overpronates in his or her running form may be more susceptible to shin splints, back problems, and tendonitis in the knee. Running in shoes with extra medial support or using special shoe inserts, orthoses, may help correct one's running form by reducing pronation and may reduce risk of injury.

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

patellofemoral syndromePatellofemoral painPatellofemoral disorders
PFPS is one of a handful of conditions sometimes referred to as runner's knee; the other conditions being chondromalacia patellae, iliotibial band syndrome, and plica syndrome. Chondromalacia patellae is a term sometimes used synonymously with PFPS. However, there is general consensus that PFPS applies only to individuals without cartilage damage, thereby distinguishing it from chondromalacia patellae, a condition with softening of the patellar articular cartilage. Despite this distinction, the diagnosis of PFPS is typically made based only on the history and physical examination rather than on the results of any medical imaging.

Animal locomotion

locomotionlocomotor activitylocomotor
In terrestrial animals, the cost of transport is typically measured while they walk or run on a motorized treadmill, either wearing a mask to capture gas exchange or with the entire treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. For small rodents, such as deer mice, the cost of transport has also been measured during voluntary wheel running.

Limb (anatomy)

limblimbsextremities
Many animals use limbs for locomotion, such as walking, running, or climbing. Some animals can use their front limbs (or upper limbs in humans) to carry and manipulate objects. Some animals can also use hind limbs for manipulation. Human legs and feet are specialized for two-legged locomotion – most other mammals walk and run on all four limbs. Human arms are weaker, but very mobile allowing us to reach at a wide range of distances and angles, and end in specialized hands capable of grasping and fine manipulation of objects.

Plantar fascia

plantar aponeurosisplantar aponeuroses
When the toes are dorsiflexed in the propulsive phase of gait, the plantar fascia becomes tense, resulting in elevation of the longitudinal arch and shortening of the foot (see 3A). One can liken this mechanism to a cable being wound around the drum of a windlass (see 3B); the plantar fascia being the cable, the metatarsal head the drum, and the handle, the proximal phalanx. * [http://patient.info/health/heel-and-foot-pain-plantar-fasciitis Heel Pain Symptoms. Plantar Fasciitis diagnosis and treatment | Patient]; plantar fasciitis at Patient.info Plantar fasciitis is an often painful degenerative process of the plantar fascia.

Physical fitness

fitnessphysical trainingphysical
. * JoggingRunning at a steady and gentle pace. This form of exercise is great for maintaining weight. Elliptical training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints. This form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips, knees, and ankles. Walking – Moving at a fairly regular pace for a short, medium or long distance. Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offer numerous different workout plans. One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between running and walking.

Anatomical terms of motion

flexionextensionabduction
For example, when walking on the heels the ankle is described as being in dorsiflexion. Plantar flexion or plantarflexion is the movement which decreases the angle between the sole of the foot and the back of the leg; for example, the movement when depressing a car pedal or standing on tiptoes. Palmarflexion and dorsiflexion refer to movement of the flexion (palmarflexion) or extension (dorsiflexion) of the hand at the wrist.

New Zealand

NZLNZKiwi
Other outdoor pursuits such as cycling, fishing, swimming, running, tramping, canoeing, hunting, snowsports, surfing and sailing are also popular. The Polynesian sport of waka ama racing has experienced a resurgence of interest in New Zealand since the 1980s. New Zealand has competitive international teams in rugby union, rugby league, netball, cricket, softball, and sailing. New Zealand participated at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1912 as a joint team with Australia, before first participating on its own in 1920. The country has ranked highly on a medals-to-population ratio at recent Games.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
Several terms redirect here. For the song by Ed Sheeran, see Bloodstream (song). For the album by Youves, see Cardio-Vascular.

Stress fracture

hairline fracturestress fracturesstress reaction
Stress fractures commonly occur in sedentary people who suddenly undertake a burst of exercise (whose bones are not used to the task) They may also occur in athletes completing high volume, high impact training, such as running or jumping sports. Stress fractures are also commonly reported in soldiers who march long distances. Muscle fatigue can also play a role in the occurrence of stress fractures. In a runner, each stride normally exerts large forces at various points in the legs. Each shock—a rapid acceleration and energy transfer—must be absorbed. Muscles and bones serve as shock absorbers.

Sports medicine

sport medicinesports doctorsports medical
Sports medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise. Although most sports teams have employed team physicians for many years, it is only since the late 20th century that sports medicine has emerged as a distinct field of health care.

Shoe

shoessoleinsole
Even the gods and heroes were primarily depicted barefoot, the hoplite warriors fought battles in bare feet and Alexander the Great conquered his vast empire with barefoot armies. The runners of Ancient Greece are also believed to have run barefoot. Pheidippides, the first marathoner, ran from Athens to Sparta in less than 36 hours. After the Battle of Marathon, he ran straight from the battlefield to Athens to inform the Athenians of the news. The Romans, who eventually conquered the Greeks and adopted many aspects of their culture, did not adopt the Greek perception of footwear and clothing.