Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
The Darod have separate paternal traditions of descent through Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Sheikh Darod), who is said to have Arabian Banu Hashim origins through Aqiil Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib arriving at a later date from the Arabian peninsula, in the 10th or 11th centuries. The Isaaq clan traces paternal descent to the Islamic leader Sheikh Isaaq Bin Ahmed Al Hashimi (Sheikh Isaaq), who is held to have married into the Magaadle subclan of the Dir in the northwestern Somaliland area. The Rahanweyn or Sab trace their stirp to the patriarch Sab. Both Samaale and Sab are supposed to have ultimately descended from a common lineage originating in the Arabian peninsula.

Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadMohammedMohammad
In Muhammad al-Bukhari's book Sahih al-Bukhari, in Chapter 61, Hadith 57 & Hadith 60, Muhammad is depicted by two of his companions thus: The description given in Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi's book Shama'il al-Mustafa, attributed to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hind ibn Abi Hala is as follows: The "seal of prophecy" between Muhammad's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
About 85% of local residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. They have traditionally been organized into nomadic pastoral clans, loose empires, sultanates and city-states. Civil strife in the early 1990s greatly increased the size of the Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left the country. Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up the remainder of Somalia's population, and are largely concentrated in the southern regions. They include Bravanese, Bantus, Bajuni, Ethiopians (especially Oromos), Yemenis, Indians, Persians, Italians and Britons.

Darod

HartiDaroodAbsame
Darod is believed to be the son of the famous Arabian Sheikh, Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti, who is buried in the Zabid District of Yemen who is believed to have descendant of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib who in turn hails from the Quraysh, a historically significant Arab tribe that the final prophet of Islam, Muhammed hails from. In 2009, former President of Somalia, Abdullahi Yusuf visited the grave of Ismail bin Ibrahim Al-Jabarti in Yemen According to many medieval and modern Islamic historians, Darod is descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of Muhammad and brother of Ali ibn Abi Talib.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could be Imams. As a result, they believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn al-Affan and Umar ibn al-Khattab. Other points of contention include certain practices viewed as innovating the religion, such as the mourning practice of tatbir, and the cursing of figures revered by Sunnis.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
This contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor, most notably at Ghadir Khumm. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism. The adherents of Sunni Islam are referred to in Arabic as ' ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or ' for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah.

Dir (clan)

DirDir clanBajimaal
The Biimaal mainly lives in Southern Somalia, the Somali region of Ethiopia, which their Gaadsen sub-clan mainly inhabits and in the NEP region of Kenya. The Biimaal are pastoralists. They were also successful merchants and traders in the 19th century. In the 19th century they have engaged in multiple wars with the Geledi clan, which they were victorious in. I.M. Lewis and many sources maintain that the Dir, a Proto-Somali, together with the Hawiye trace ancestry through Irir son of Samaale. Dir is regarded as the father-in-law of Darod, the progenitor of the Darod clan Although some sources state it was the daughter of Hawiye who Darod married.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
The phoneme is represented by the Arabic letter and has many standard pronunciations. is characteristic of north Algeria, Iraq, and most of the Arabian peninsula but with an allophonic in some positions; occurs in most of the Levant and most North Africa; and is used in most of Egypt and some regions in Yemen and Oman. Generally this corresponds with the pronunciation in the colloquial dialects. In some regions in Sudan and Yemen, as well as in some Sudanese and Yemeni dialects, it may be either or, representing the original pronunciation of Classical Arabic.

Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti

According to many medieval and modern Islamic historians, Darod is descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of Muhammad and brother of Ali ibn Abi Talib. An ancient Islamic history book, called Aqeeliyoon by Al-Masudi, talks in detail about the descendants of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, wherein Darod is also mentioned. The book gives Sheikh Darod's lineage as Abdurahmaan Bin Ismaa'iil Bin Ibraahim Bin Abdurahmaan Bin Muhammed Bin AbduSamad Bin Hanbal Bin Mahdi Bin Ahmad Bin Abdallah Bin Muhammed Bin Aqeel Bin Abu-Talib Bin Abdul-Mutalib Bin Hashim.

Mecca

MakkahMecca, Saudi ArabiaMakka
Historic sites of religious importance which have been destroyed by the Saudis include five of the renowned "Seven Mosques" initially built by Muhammad's daughter and four of his "greatest Companions": Masjid Abu Bakr, Masjid Salman al-Farsi, Masjid Umar ibn al-Khattab, Masjid Sayyida Fatima bint Rasulullah and Masjid Ali ibn Abu Talib. It has been reported that there are now fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad.

Hawadle

XawaadlehawaadleHawadleSomali
Besides their genealogical descent and true abtirsi, the Hawadle are politically aligned with the Hawiye, especially the Hiraab in the borders of Somalia. Hiraab consists of the Mudulood, Habar Gidir and Duduble The Imam of both Mudulood and Hiraab traditionally hails from the Abgaal. Currently Imam Mohamed Yusuf is the Imam of Mudulood and also carries the dual position of the Imam of Hiraab. The Abgaal are also a sub-clan of the Hawiye. The descend from Irir Samaale who was one of the sons of Samaale. Due to this the Abgaal have kinship with the Dir (Irir) and the other Samaale sub-clans that are the Ajuran, Degoodi, and Gaalje'el clan groups.

Quraysh

QuraishQuraysh tribeBanu Quraish
According to the traditional sources, Fihr led the warriors of Kinana and Khuzayma in defense of the Ka'aba, at the time a major pagan sanctuary in Mecca, against tribes from Yemen; however, the sanctuary and the privileges associated with it continued to be in the hands of the Yemeni Khuza'a tribe. The Quraysh gained their name when Qusayy ibn Kilab, a sixth-generation descendant of Fihr ibn Malik, gathered together his kinsmen and took control of the Ka'aba. Prior to this, Fihr's offspring lived in scattered, nomadic groups among their Kinana relatives. All medieval Muslim sources agree that Qusayy unified Fihr's descendants, and established the Quraysh as the dominant power in Mecca.

Ajuran (clan)

AjuranAjuuraan
The Ajuran (Arabic: أجران) is a Somali clan. Group members largely inhabit Kenya as well as Ethiopia; considerable numbers are also found in Somalia. The Ajuran clan's origins are found in the Ajuran Sultante, a Somali Muslim sultanate that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages. Today they largely live in Kenya, the North Eastern Province and the Somali region of Ethiopia, but also in Somalia. The Ajuraan largely speak the Somali language, but a big portion also speak the Borana language. The Ajuran are descendants of Alama who in turn is a son of Bal'ad who traces descent from Harmalle Samaale.

Abgaal

HartiAbgal
Ali Jimale Ahmed outlines the Hawiye clan genealogical tree in The Invention of Somalia: 1-Agoonyar 2- Owbakar Samaale. Irir. Hawiye. Gugundhabe. Baadicade. Jiidle. Murulle. Jijeele. Gorgate. Hiraab. Mudulood. Abgaal. Harti. [maxamed caroone]. Agoonyar. Cabdale Agoonyar. Reer aadan. Buraale Muuse. Celi Agoonyar. Gabale Muuse. Owbakar. cabdalla caroone. Warsangali Abgaal. Ciise Harti. Habar Nugaal. Wacbuudhan. Dauud. Kabaale. Galmaax Yoonis. Reer Mataan. Mohamed Muse. Celi Cumar. Warculus Abgaal(Waceysle). Harun. Faqay. Abdirahman. Absuge. Moalim dhiblawe. Aligaaf. dhagaweyne. Wacdaan. Moobleen. Ujajeen. Hawadle. Duduble. Habar Gidir. Sacad. Saleebaan. Cayr. Saruur. Silcis. Wadalaan.

Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr as-SiddiqSayyadna '''Abu Bakr SiddiqAbu Bakr Siddique
Abu Bakr, feeling distressed, set out for Yemen and then to Abyssinia from there. He met a friend of his named Ad-Dughna (chief of the Qarah tribe) outside Mecca, who invited Abu Bakr to seek his protection against the Quraysh. Abu Bakr went back to Mecca, it was a relief for him, but soon due to the pressure of Quraysh, Ad-Dughna was forced to renounce his protection. Once again the Quraysh were free to persecute Abu Bakr. In 620, Muhammad's uncle and protector, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, and Muhammad's wife Khadija died. Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha was engaged to Muhammad, however it was decided that the actual marriage ceremony would be held later.

History of Islam

Islamic historyMuslim historyhistory
After the sermon, Muhammad ordered the Muslims to pledge allegiance to Ali; the future Sunni leaders Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were among those who pledged allegiance to Ali at this event. After Muhammad died, a series of four Caliphs governed the Islamic state: Abu Bakr (632–634), Umar ibn al-Khattab (Umar І, 634–644), Uthman ibn Affan, (644–656), and Ali ibn Abi Talib (656–661). These leaders are known as the "Rashidun" or "rightly guided" Caliphs in Sunni Islam. They oversaw the initial phase of the Muslim conquests, advancing through Persia, Levant, Egypt, and North Africa.

Culture of Somalia

Somali culturecultureCulture of Somaliland
The clan groupings of the Somali people are important social units, and clan membership plays a central part in Somali culture and politics. Clans are patrilineal and are divided into sub-clans and sub-sub-clans, resulting in extended families. Major Somali clans include: For more about clan structure visit the Demographics of Somalia When not dressed in Westernized clothing such as jeans and t-shirts, Somali men typically wear the macawis (ma'awiis), which is a sarong-like garment worn around the waist and a large cloth wrapped around the upper part of their body. On their heads, they often wrap a colorful turban or wear the koofiyad, an embroidered taqiyah.

Somali language

SomalisomAf Soomaali
Somali is the best-documented Cushitic language, with academic studies of the language dating back to the late 19th century. Somali is spoken by Somalis in Somalia, Somaliland, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Yemen, Kenya, and by the Somali diaspora. It is also spoken as an adoptive language by a few ethnic minority groups and individuals in these areas. Somali is the second most widely spoken Cushitic language after Oromo. As of 2006, there were approximately 16.6 million speakers of Somali, of which around 8.3 million resided in Somalia. The language is spoken by an estimated 95% of the country's inhabitants, and also by a majority of the population in Djibouti.

Fatimah bint Asad

Fatima bint Asad(see below)Fatima bint al-Asad
Fatimah bint Asad (c. undefined 555–626 CE) was the mother of Ali bin Abi Talib. She was the daughter of Asad ibn Hashim and Fatimah bint Qays, hence a member of the Hashim clan of the Quraysh. The maternal grandfather of Muhammad's wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Za'ida ibn al-Asamm ibn Rawaha, was the cousin of Fatimah's mother. She married her paternal cousin, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib. Their marriage was notable for being the first between two members of the Banu Hashim.

Hejaz

HijazHedjazList of notable Hijazis
Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and Caliph. Hamzah, son of Abdul-Muttalib, and a paternal uncle of Muhammad, and other Muhajirun or Meccan followers of Muhammad, including Ubaydah and Sa'd. Abu Talib, son of Abdul-Muttalib, Chief of Banu Hashim, paternal uncle of Muhammad, and the father of Ali. Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Chief of Bani Hashim, and the paternal grandfather of Muhammad. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ibn Asad ibn Abdul-Uzza ibn Qusai, and other Meccan wives of Muhammad. Fatimah, other daughters of Muhammad, and other Muhajir women.

Isaaq

Habar JecloArapSheikh Isaaq Bin Ahmed Al Hashimi
The Isaaq (also Isaq, Ishaak, Isaac) (Reer Sheekh Isaxaaq, إسحاق) is a Somali clan. It is one of the major Somali clans in the horn of Africa, with a large and densely populated traditional territory. The populations of five major cities in Somaliland – Hargeisa, Burao, Berbera, Erigavo and Gabiley – are predominantly Isaaq. According to some genealogical books and Somali tradition, the Isaaq clan was founded in the 13th or 14th century with the arrival of Sheikh Isaaq Bin Ahmed Bin Mohammed Al Hashimi (Sheikh Isaaq) from Arabia, a descendant of Ali ibn Abi Talib in Maydh.

Arabian Peninsula

ArabiaArabianArab Peninsula
This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy". Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr became leader of the Muslims as the first Caliph. After putting down a rebellion by the Arab tribes (known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy"), Abu Bakr attacked the Byzantine Empire.

Kaaba

Ka'abaKa'baKa'bah
Ibn Kathir regarded this tradition as weak and preferred instead the narration by Ali ibn Abi Talib that although several other temples might have preceded the Kaaba, it was the first "House of God", dedicated solely to Him, built by His instruction and sanctified and blessed by Him as stated in Quran 22:26–29. A Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the First Mosque on Earth, and the Second Mosque was the Temple in Jerusalem. While Abraham was building the Kaaba, an angel brought to him the Black Stone which he placed in the eastern corner of the structure.

Ammar ibn Yasir

Ammar bin YasirAmmarAmmar b. Yasir
It was only those who brought him here".Ali ibn abi Talib is said to have responded that if he killed Ammar then Muhammad is the one who killed Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib. Mohammad willed 'Ammar ibn Yasir as one of the four Sahabas whose guidance should be heeded by Muslims and also being those promised paradise. When Ammar 'died, Muʿāwiya referred to him as "one of ʿAlī's two right hands" with the other being Malik al-Ashtar. Madelung quotes Al-Tabari by reporting what Muʿāwiya said to his followers after killing Imam Ali's other loyal companion, Malik al-Ashtar: "Ali b. Abi Talib had two right hands. One of them was cut at Siffin', meaning ʻAmmār b.

Abd al-Muttalib

Abdul MuttalibAbdul-MuttalibAbdul Mutallib
He died before Islam, leaving two sons and daughters. 2) Abu Talib, born as Abdmanaf, father of the future Caliph Ali. He later became chief of the Hashim clan. 3) Abdullah, the father of Muhammad. 4) Umm Hakim al-Bayda, the maternal grandmother of the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan. 5) Barra, the mother of Abu Salama. 6) Arwa. 7) Atika, a wife of Abu Umayya ibn Al-Mughira. 8) Umama, the mother of Zaynab bint Jahsh and Abdullah ibn Jahsh. 1) Ḥamza, who died at Uhud. 2) Ṣafiyyah. 3) Abdulkaaba, also known as al-Muqawwim. 4) al-Mughira, also known as Hajl, who had the byname al-Ghaydaq. 1) al-'Abbas, ancestor of the Abbasid caliphs. 2) Ḍirār, who died before Islam. 3) Quthum.