Sylhet Division

SylhetJalalabad DistrictSylhet region
By the 15th century, Sylhet became a centre of the Assam and Bangla languages. In the official documents and historical papers, Sylhet was often referred to as Jalalabad during the era of the Muslim rule. Sylhet is home to two of the fifty-one body parts of Sati, a form of Goddess Durga, that fell on Earth according to accepted legends. Shri Shail in Jainpur village near Gotatikar in south Surma and Jayanti at Kalajore Baurbhag village of Jaintia are where the neck and left palm of Sati fell on this Earth. In addition, the 16th century Krishna Chaitanya's's ancestral homes are in Golapganj and Habiganj.


Chittagong, BangladeshChattagram
However, the local name of the city (in Bengali or Chittagonian) Chatga, which is a corruption of Chatgao or Chatigao, and officially Chottogram bears the meaning of "village or town of Chatta (possibly a caste or tribe)." The port city has been known by various names in history, including Chatigaon, Chatigam, Chattagrama, Islamabad, Chattala, Chaityabhumi and Porto Grande De Bengala. In April 2018, the Bangladesh government decided that the English spelling would change from Chittagong to Chattogram to make the name sound similar to the Bangla spelling.

Alaler Gharer Dulal

Alaler Gharer Dulal (Bengali: আলালের ঘরের দুলাল, published in 1857) is a Bengali novel by Peary Chand Mitra (1814-1883). The writer used the pseudonym Tekchand Thakur for this novel. The novel describes the society of the nineteenth century Calcutta (also known as Kolkata), and the bohemian lifestyle of the protagonist named Matilal. The novel is a landmark in the history of Bengali language and Bengali literature, as it used Cholitobhasa (colloquial form of the Bengali language) for the first time in print. The novel also happens to be one of the earliest Bengali novels. The simple prose style introduced in the novel came to be known as "Alali language".

Magadhi Prakrit

MagadhiArdhamagadhiArdha Magadhi
Magadhi Prakrit later evolved into the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, including Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Chakma, Chittagonian, Maithili, Magahi, Odia, Rajbangsi, Rohingya and Sylheti among others. Out of all of its offshoots, Bengali is the most spoken, with over 240 million speakers, followed by Odia and Maithili (both with over 40 million speakers) and Bhojpuri, (with over 30 million speakers, and generally considered to be a dialect of Hindi). Jain Agams. Jainism in Buddhist Literature.

Odia language

John Beames, a British author and civil servant in British India who stayed for a considerable time in Odisha and worked for the survival of Odia language quotes: At a period when Odia was already a fixed and settled language, Bengali did not exist. The Bengalis spoke a vast variety of corrupt forms of Eastern Hindi. It is not till quite recent times that we find anything that can with propriety be called a Bengali language. Dialects have bit of variety from the literary language, and Bengal circulated in a vast region so that it have some varieties, called dialects.

Peary Chand Mitra

Peary Chand MittraTek Chand Thakur
Ramtanu Lahiri O Tatkalin Banga Samaj in Bengali by Sivanath Sastri, page 87. Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) in Bengali edited by Subodh Chandra Sengupta and Anjali Bose, page 292.


OrissaKalingaOdisha State
Other minority languages of the state are Hindi, Telugu, Santali, Kui, Urdu, Bengali and Ho. Some of the important tribes are Ho, Santhal, Bonda, Munda, Oraon, Kandha, Mahali and Kora. The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate, according to the 2011 census. The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000 was 47.15% which is nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%. Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years.


Penchartal, TripuraTripura StateTripuri
The dominant ethnic groups are Bengali, Tripuri (Debbarma, Tripura, Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Mizo, Uchoi, Dhamai, Roaza, Mogh), and other tribal groups such as Munda, Oraon and Santhal who migrated in Tripura as a tea labourers. Bengali people represent the largest ethno-linguist community of the state. Bengali culture, as a result, is the main non-indigenous, non-Tripura culture. The Tripuri Maharajas were great patrons of Bengali culture, especially literature; Bengali language replaced Kokborok as the language of the court.


Karachi, PakistanKurracheeRambagh
Large numbers of Bengalis also migrated from Bangladesh to Karachi during periods of economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s. Karachi is now home to an estimated 2.5 to 3 million ethnic Bengalis living in Pakistan. Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, who speak a dialect of Bengali and are sometimes regarded as Bengalis, also live in the city. Karachi is home to an estimated 400,000 Rohingya residents. Large scale Rohingya migration to Karachi made Karachi one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas in the world outside of Myanmar. Central Asian migrants from Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan have also settled in the city.

Bengali alphabet

BengaliBengali scriptBangla
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system, originating in the Indian subcontinent, for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world. The script is used for other languages like Maithili, Meithei and Bishnupriya Manipuri, and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal. From a classificatory point of view, the Bengali script is an abugida, i.e. its vowel graphemes are mainly realised not as independent letters, but as diacritics modifying the vowel inherent in the base letter they are added to.

Sena dynasty

SenaSenasSena Empire
During the Pala dynasty and the Sena dynasty, major growth in Bengali was witnessed. Some Bengali authors believe that Jayadeva, the famous Sanskrit poet and author of Gita Govinda, was one of the Pancharatnas (five gems) in the court of Lakshmana Sena. Dhoyin – himself an eminent court poet of Sena dynasty – mentions nine gems (ratna) in the court of Lakshmana Sena, among whom were: After the Sena dynasty, the Deva dynasty ruled in eastern Bengal. The Deva dynasty was probably the last independent Hindu dynasty of Bengal. Sources * Early History of India 3rd and revised edition by Vincent A Smith Govardhana. Sarana. Jayadeva. Umapati. Dhoyi/ Dhoyin Kaviraja.

Bangladeshis in Italy

Bangladeshis form one of the largest immigrant populations in Italy. As of 2016, there were more than 100,000 Bangladeshis living in Italy. Most of the Bangladeshis in Italy are based in the regions of Lazio, Lombardy and Veneto with large concentrations in the cities of Rome, Milan and Venice.

Eastern Nagari script

Eastern NagariBengaliAssamese
While efforts at standardizing the script for the Bengali language continue in such notable centers as the Bangla Academy at Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi at Kolkata (West Bengal, India). It is still not quite uniform as yet, as many people continue to use various archaic forms of letters, resulting in concurrent forms for the same sounds. Among the various regional variations within this script, only the Bengali and Assamese variations exist today in the formalized system. It seems likely that the standardization of the script will be greatly influenced by the need to typeset it on computers.

Bangladeshi Canadians

Bangladeshi Canadians are Canadian citizens of Bangladeshi descent or a Bangladesh-born permanent resident who resides in Canada.

Voiceless glottal fricative

h h ''' [hglottal fricative
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is, although has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:

Assamese language

Assamese, Odia, and Bengali, in contrast to other Indo-Aryan languages, use the velar nasal (the English ng in sing) extensively. In many languages, while the velar nasal is commonly restricted to preceding velar sounds, in Assamese it can occur intervocalically. This is another feature it shares with other languages of Northeast India, though in Assamese the velar nasal never occurs word-initially. Eastern Indic languages like Assamese, Bengali, Sylheti, and Odia do not have a vowel length distinction, but have a wide set of back rounded vowels.

Near-open front unrounded vowel

ænear-open front vowel
The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is simply an open or low front unrounded vowel. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, a lowercase of the ligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".