Arabic-languageArabArabic language
Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations.

Bengali Americans

United StatesIndian American
Bengali Americans are Americans of Bengali ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and identity. They trace their ancestry to the historic ethno-linguistic region of Bengal in South Asia (now divided between Bangladesh and India). Bengali American usually refers to Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Buddhists, Bengali Jains, and Bengali Christians. Bengali American are also a subgroup of Bangladeshi Americans and Indian Americans. Bengali Muslims are also classified under Bangladeshi Americans, or American Muslim.

Pala Empire

PalaPala dynastyPalas
The Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history. The Palas brought stability and prosperity to Bengal after centuries of civil war between warring divisions. They advanced the achievements of previous Bengali civilisations and created outstanding works of art and architecture. They laid the basis for the Bengali language, including its first literary work, the Charyapada. The Pala legacy is still reflected in Tibetan Buddhism. According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. The Ramacharitam attests that Varendra (North Bengal) was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas.


Another wave of tatsamas entered the then Bengali language by Sanskrit scholars teaching at Fort William College in Kolkata at the start of the 19th century. The textbooks used in these courses paved the way for more tatsamas words entering common usage. Bengali's lexicon is about 40% tatsama (with about 58% tadbhava vocabulary inherited from Old Indo-Aryan via the Prakrit languages such as Apabhramsha and Avahațțha). Writers such as Rabindranath Tagore, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Ramram Basu, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay introduced a large number of tatsamas into Bengali.


Assam, IndiaAssam StateAssamese
Assamese and Bodo are the major indigenous and official languages while Bengali is the official language in the three districts in the Barak Valley where Sylheti is the most spoken indigenous language. Bengali is the second most widely spoken language of the state, although a significant portion of those who are recorded speaking Bengali in the census do not actually speak Bengali, but instead speak closely related languages normally treated as dialects of Bengali, like Sylheti and Rangpuri. According to the language census of 2011 in Assam, out of a total population of around 31 million, Assamese is spoken by around half that number: 15 million.

Vande Mataram

Bande MataramNational SongNational Song of India
Chattopadhyay was very interested in recent events in Indian and Bengali history, particularly the Revolt of 1857 and the previous century's Sanyasi Rebellion. Around the same time, the administration was trying to promote "God Save the Queen" as the anthem for Indian subjects, which Indian nationalists disliked. It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official, around 1876. He wrote Vande Mataram at Chuchurah, there is a white colour house of Adhya Family near river Hooghly (near Mallik Ghat). Chattopadhyay wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali.

Jana Gana Mana

national anthemIndian National AnthemNational Anthem of India
Amar Shonar Bangla, the National Anthem of Bangladesh. O Osman, National Anthem of Hyderabad. Indian National Army. Capt. Ram Singh Thakur. Know India: National anthem, Government of India website. English translation of the hymn "Jana Gana Mana" in Tagore's handwriting.

Bihari languages

BihariBihari dialectsBhojpuri- speaking districts
Some linguists dispute the inclusion of Maithili within the Bihari languages grouping, stating that it shares more similarities with neighbouring Bengali as compared to other Bihari languages. A Comparative dictionary of the Bihārī language, Volume 1 By August Friedrich Rudolf Hoernle, Sir George Abraham Grierson (1885). Translation of useful phrases in Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithili. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: bih, on Nalanda Open University offers courses on Bihari languages (Magahi, Bhojpuri, Maithili). Angika Language Wikipedia (incubator).

Barak Valley

Main community in this region are Bengali Hindus and Bengali Muslims who constitute the majority and they speak the Sylheti language. Others communities include gurkhas, biharis, Nagas, Khasi, koch rajbonshi, Manipuri, Marwari and Punjabis. Hinduism is the majority religion in the Barak Valley. According to the 2011, the religious composition of the valley population is as follows: Hindus 50.1% (1,812,141), Muslims 48.1% (1,744,958), Christians 1.6% (58,675), and others 0.2%. Hindus are the majority in Cachar district (59.83%), while Muslims are the majority in Hailakandi district (60.31%) and Karimganj district (56.26%). Bengali and English are the official languages of the district.


Chandidas (Rami)Baḍu, ChandidasCaṇḍidāsa
According to Banglapedia, Chandidas was the first Bengali-language poet to be a humanist. He asserted "Shobar upor manush shotto tahar upore nai" ("Above all is humanity, none else"). Later literature has also often eulogized Chandidas' love for a Rajakini (a female cloth washer), whether this has any historical basis is not known. * Gaudiya Vaishnavism Vaishnava-Sahajiya Bengal. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Jayadeva Goswami. Radha Krishna.

Rarhi dialect

Rarhi or Central Standard Bengali is a dialect of Bengali language spoken in the southeastern part of West Bengal, in and around the Bhagirathi River basin of Nadia district and the presidency division in West Bengal. It forms the basis of the standard variety of Bengali. Extensive use of Obhishruti (অভিশ্রুতি, /obʱisrut̪i/). E.g. old Bengali Koriya (করিয়া, /koria/, meaning - having done) > Beng. Koira (কইরা, /koira/) > Beng. Kore (করে, /kore/). Obhishruti (অভিশ্রুতি, /obʱisrut̪i/) and Opinihiti (অপিনিহিতি, /opinihit̪i/) are two phonological phenomena that occur in spoken Bengali.

East Bengal

Eastern BengalEastGovernment of East Bengal
As a result of the Bengali Language Movement, East Bengal was a center of Bengali cultural activities. The University of Dacca was hotbed of political thought. The East Bengal Regiment was formed on 15 February 1948 following Pakistan's independence and transition from post British rule. The infantry of the new Pakistan Army was made up exclusively of men from the western part of the country. It was consequently necessary to raise a regiment in the east. Two companies of Bengali pioneers from the Bihar Regiment were regimented into the 1st Battalion under Lieutenant Colonel VJ Patterson as Commanding Officer (C.O.) and Major Abdul Waheed Choudhury as Officer Commanding (O.C.) Training Coy.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman & NicobarAndaman & Nicobar IslandsAndaman and Nicobar
Bengali is the most spoken language in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Hindi is the official language of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, while English is declared an additional official language for communication purposes. As of 2011 census, Bengali is spoken as the first language by 28.49 percent of the Union Territory's population followed by Hindi (19.29%), Tamil (15.20%), Telugu (13.24%), Nicobarese (7.65) and Malayalam (7.22%). The majority of people of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are Hindus (69.44%), with Christians forming a large minority of 21.7% of the population, according to the 2011 census of India. There is a small but significant Muslim (8.51%) minority.

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Bankim Chandra ChattopadhyayBankimBankim Chandra Chatterji
His first attempt was a novel in Bengali submitted for a declared prize. He did not win the prize, and the novelette was never published. His first fiction to appear in print was Rajmohan's Wife. It was written in English and is regarded as the first Indian novel to be written in English. He couldn't gain any praise by writing his novel in English, realizing the fact that he couldn't have a smooth literary career if he wrote in English, he turned his attention towards Bengali literature. Durgeshnondini, his first Bengali romance and the first ever novel in Bengali, was published in 1865. Kapalkundala (1866) is Chattopadhyay's first major publication.

Official languages of the United Nations

six official languagesOfficial languages United Nations
Other UN documents and websites are already translated into Bengali (referred to as Bangla), Hindi, Urdu, Malay, French Creole, Portuguese, and Swahili but not on an official or consistent basis. Bengali is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world, ranking seventh, with over 240 million speakers. In April 2009, Prime Minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina argued in front of the United Nations General Assembly that the Bengali language should be made one of the official languages of the UN. This was backed by a resolution adopted unanimously by the assembly of the Indian state of West Bengal in December, and support was also given by the states of Assam and Tripura.

Varendri dialect

Varendri or Borendri is a dialect of Bengali, spoken in the Varendra region (primarily consisting of the Rajshahi Division in Bangladesh and the districts of Malda and Dakshin Dinajpur in India). Varendri is tonal, and its vocabulary & phonology have a great deal of influence from Maithili & other Bihari languages.

Bangladeshis in Malaysia

Today, there are estimated that around 230,000 people of Bengali ancestry in Malaysia. Among the legacy of the pioneers is the Bengali Mosque in Penang which was built in 1803. The first migrant workers from modern-day Bangladesh are believed to have been a group of 500 who came in 1986 to work on plantations; the two countries concluded a governmental-level agreement on manpower exports in 1992, following which migration expanded sharply. Bangladesh is one of five countries, along with Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand, which have such agreements with Malaysia for manpower exports.

British Bangladeshi

BangladeshiBangladeshisBangladeshi community
The secular group show nationalism through monuments, or through the introduction of Bengali culture, and the Islamic group mainly through dawah. One symbol of Bengali nationalism is the Shaheed Minar, which commemorates the Bengali Language Movement, present in Altab Ali Park – the park is also the main venue for rallies and demonstrations, and also in Westwood, Oldham. The monuments are a smaller replica of the one in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and symbolises a mother and the martyred sons.


sadhu bhasa
Sadhu Bhasha is a literary variation of the Bengali language. It is used only in writing, unlike Cholito-bhasa, it is the colloquial form. This Sanskritised form of Bengali is notable for its variations in verb forms and the vocabulary which is mainly composed of Sanskrit or tatsama words. It was mainly a vocabulary making it easier for literary works in Sanskrit to be translated and understood at that time. Notable among them was Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, who standardised the alphabets and paved the path for literary works.

Sylhet Division

SylhetJalalabad DistrictSylhet region
By the 15th century, Sylhet became a centre of the Assam and Bangla languages. In the official documents and historical papers, Sylhet was often referred to as Jalalabad during the era of the Muslim rule. Sylhet is home to two of the fifty-one body parts of Sati, a form of Goddess Durga, that fell on Earth according to accepted legends. Shri Shail in Jainpur village near Gotatikar in south Surma and Jayanti at Kalajore Baurbhag village of Jaintia are where the neck and left palm of Sati fell on this Earth. In addition, the 16th century Krishna Chaitanya's's ancestral homes are in Golapganj and Habiganj.

Saayoni Ghosh

Sayani GhoshSayoni Ghosh
Proloy Aschhe Sananda Tv. Josh Sananda Tv. Care Kori Na Star Jalsha. Bhasha Star Jalsha. Bodhu Kon AAlo Laaglo Chokhe Star Jalsha. Saayoni's film inspires TV series on single mothers. Saayoni Ghosh's Interview with The Times of India. Saayoni Ghosh's Interview on Shooting Rajkahini with The Times of India.


Chittagong, BangladeshChattagram
However, the local name of the city (in Bengali or Chittagonian) Chatga, which is a corruption of Chatgao or Chatigao, and officially Chottogram bears the meaning of "village or town of Chatta (possibly a caste or tribe)." The port city has been known by various names in history, including Chatigaon, Chatigam, Chattagrama, Islamabad, Chattala, Chaityabhumi and Porto Grande De Bengala. In April 2018, the Bangladesh government decided that the English spelling would change from Chittagong to Chattogram to make the name sound similar to the Bangla spelling.

Alaler Gharer Dulal

Alaler Gharer Dulal (Bengali: আলালের ঘরের দুলাল, published in 1857) is a Bengali novel by Peary Chand Mitra (1814-1883). The writer used the pseudonym Tekchand Thakur for this novel. The novel describes the society of the nineteenth century Calcutta (also known as Kolkata), and the bohemian lifestyle of the protagonist named Matilal. The novel is a landmark in the history of Bengali language and Bengali literature, as it used Cholitobhasa (colloquial form of the Bengali language) for the first time in print. The novel also happens to be one of the earliest Bengali novels. The simple prose style introduced in the novel came to be known as "Alali language".

Magadhi Prakrit

MagadhiArdhamagadhiArdha Magadhi
Magadhi Prakrit later evolved into the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, including Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Chakma, Chittagonian, Maithili, Magahi, Odia, Rajbangsi, Rohingya and Sylheti among others. Out of all of its offshoots, Bengali is the most spoken, with over 240 million speakers, followed by Odia and Maithili (both with over 40 million speakers) and Bhojpuri, (with over 30 million speakers, and generally considered to be a dialect of Hindi). Jain Agams. Jainism in Buddhist Literature.

Chittagonian language

ChittagonianChatgayaChittagonian dialect
Chittagonian or Chittagong Bangla, also Satgaya is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh, and in much of the southeast of the country. It is closely related to Bengali and is often considered to be a nonstandard dialect of Bengali, but the two are not mutually intelligible. It is estimated (2009) that Chittagonian has 13–16 million speakers, principally in Bangladesh. Chittagonian is a member of the Bengali-Assamese sub-branch of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages, a branch of the wider Indo-European language family. Its sister languages include Sylheti, Rohingya, Chakma, Assamese, and Bengali.