Odia language

John Beames, a British author and civil servant in British India who stayed for a considerable time in Odisha and worked for the survival of Odia language quotes: At a period when Odia was already a fixed and settled language, Bengali did not exist. The Bengalis spoke a vast variety of corrupt forms of Eastern Hindi. It is not till quite recent times that we find anything that can with propriety be called a Bengali language. Dialects have bit of variety from the literary language, and Bengal circulated in a vast region so that it have some varieties, called dialects.

Peary Chand Mitra

Peary Chand MittraTek Chand Thakur
Ramtanu Lahiri O Tatkalin Banga Samaj in Bengali by Sivanath Sastri, page 87. Sansad Bangali Charitabhidhan (Biographical dictionary) in Bengali edited by Subodh Chandra Sengupta and Anjali Bose, page 292.


OrissaKalingaOdisha State
Other minority languages of the state are Hindi, Telugu, Santali, Kui, Urdu, Bengali and Ho. Some of the important tribes are Ho, Santhal, Bonda, Munda, Oraon, Kandha, Mahali and Kora. The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate, according to the 2011 census. The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000 was 47.15% which is nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%. Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years.


Penchartal, TripuraTripura StateTripuri
The dominant ethnic groups are Bengali, Tripuri (Debbarma, Tripura, Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Mizo, Uchoi, Dhamai, Roaza, Mogh), and other tribal groups such as Munda, Oraon and Santhal who migrated in Tripura as a tea labourers. Bengali people represent the largest ethno-linguist community of the state. Bengali culture, as a result, is the main non-indigenous, non-Tripura culture. The Tripuri Maharajas were great patrons of Bengali culture, especially literature; Bengali language replaced Kokborok as the language of the court.


National Capital Territory of DelhiNational Capital TerritoryDelhi, India
Other famous religious sites include Lal Mandir, Laxminarayan Temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid and ISKCON Temple. Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. Connaught Place, Chandni Chowk, Sarojini Nagar, Khan Market and Dilli Haat are some of the major retail markets in Delhi. Major shopping malls include Select Citywalk, DLF Promenade, DLF Emporio, Metro Walk and Ansal Plaza.

University of Karachi

Karachi UniversityUoKDr. Mahmud Hussain Library
The University of Karachi (UoK) (undefined; ڪراچي يونيورسٽي; informally Karachi University (KU)) is a public university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan being established as a federal university in 1951.Its chief architect was Khan Bahadur Mirza Mohsin Baig.


Karachi, PakistanKurracheeRambagh
Large numbers of Bengalis also migrated from Bangladesh to Karachi during periods of economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s. Karachi is now home to an estimated 2.5 to 3 million ethnic Bengalis living in Pakistan. Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, who speak a dialect of Bengali and are sometimes regarded as Bengalis, also live in the city. Karachi is home to an estimated 400,000 Rohingya residents. Large scale Rohingya migration to Karachi made Karachi one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas in the world outside of Myanmar. Central Asian migrants from Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan have also settled in the city.

Bengali alphabet

BengaliBengali scriptBangla
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system, originating in the Indian subcontinent, for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world. The script is used for other languages like Maithili, Meithei and Bishnupriya Manipuri, and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal. From a classificatory point of view, the Bengali script is an abugida, i.e. its vowel graphemes are mainly realised not as independent letters, but as diacritics modifying the vowel inherent in the base letter they are added to.

Languages with official status in India

official languages of Indiaofficial languagesEighth Schedule
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English. There is no national language as declared by the Constitution of India. Hindi is used for official purposes such as parliamentary proceedings, judiciary, communications between the Central Government and a State Government. States within India have the liberty and powers to specify their own official language(s) through legislation and therefore there are 22 officially recognized languages in India of which Hindi is the most used.

Kamtapuri language

Kamtapuri, Rangpuri or Rajbangshi is a Bengali-Assamese language spoken by the Koch-Rajbonshi people people in India, Rajbanshi and Tajpuria in Nepal, and in Bangladesh. Many are bilingual in either Bengali or Assamese. Rangpuri goes by numerous names. In Bangladesh, these include Rangpuri, Bahe Bangla, Ancholit Bangla, Kamta, Polia. In India, there is Kamtapuri, Dutta, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi, Rajbanshi, Rajbongshi, Goalparia, surjapuri, Koch Rajbanshi. Another name of the language is Tajpuri. In Assam it is known as Kochrajbongshi and Goalparia (which is also known as Deshi bhasha and Uzani). In Bihar it is known as Surjapuri.

Sena dynasty

SenaSenasSena Empire
During the Pala dynasty and the Sena dynasty, major growth in Bengali was witnessed. Some Bengali authors believe that Jayadeva, the famous Sanskrit poet and author of Gita Govinda, was one of the Pancharatnas (five gems) in the court of Lakshmana Sena. Dhoyin – himself an eminent court poet of Sena dynasty – mentions nine gems (ratna) in the court of Lakshmana Sena, among whom were: After the Sena dynasty, the Deva dynasty ruled in eastern Bengal. The Deva dynasty was probably the last independent Hindu dynasty of Bengal. Sources * Early History of India 3rd and revised edition by Vincent A Smith Govardhana. Sarana. Jayadeva. Umapati. Dhoyi/ Dhoyin Kaviraja.

Brahmic scripts

BrahmicIndic scriptsIndic
As of Unicode version 11.0, the following Brahmic scripts have been encoded: Each consonant has an inherent vowel which is usually a short 'a' (in Bengali, Assamese and Oriya it is a short 'ô' due to sound shifts). Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark, known in Sanskrit as a virama/halant, can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel. Each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not part of a consonant, and a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, above, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant.

Bangladeshis in Italy

Bangladeshis form one of the largest immigrant populations in Italy. As of 2016, there were more than 100,000 Bangladeshis living in Italy. Most of the Bangladeshis in Italy are based in the regions of Lazio, Lombardy and Veneto with large concentrations in the cities of Rome, Milan and Venice.

Eastern Nagari script

Eastern NagariBengaliAssamese
While efforts at standardizing the script for the Bengali language continue in such notable centers as the Bangla Academy at Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi at Kolkata (West Bengal, India). It is still not quite uniform as yet, as many people continue to use various archaic forms of letters, resulting in concurrent forms for the same sounds. Among the various regional variations within this script, only the Bengali and Assamese variations exist today in the formalized system. It seems likely that the standardization of the script will be greatly influenced by the need to typeset it on computers.

Velar nasal

ŋ ng ''' [ŋvelar
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for 'fragment', is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is the sound of ng in English sing. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is. The IPA symbol is similar to, the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem, and to, the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem. Both the IPA symbol and the sound are commonly called 'eng' or 'engma'.

Bangladeshi Canadians

Bangladeshi Canadians are Canadian citizens of Bangladeshi descent or a Bangladesh-born permanent resident who resides in Canada.

Voiceless glottal fricative

h h ''' [hglottal fricative
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is, although has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:

Assamese language

Assamese, Odia, and Bengali, in contrast to other Indo-Aryan languages, use the velar nasal (the English ng in sing) extensively. In many languages, while the velar nasal is commonly restricted to preceding velar sounds, in Assamese it can occur intervocalically. This is another feature it shares with other languages of Northeast India, though in Assamese the velar nasal never occurs word-initially. Eastern Indic languages like Assamese, Bengali, Sylheti, and Odia do not have a vowel length distinction, but have a wide set of back rounded vowels.

Near-open front unrounded vowel

ænear-open front vowel
The near-open front unrounded vowel, or near-low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is simply an open or low front unrounded vowel. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is, a lowercase of the ligature. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "ash".


longhandcursive writingcursive script
In Bengali cursive script (also known in Bengali as "professional writing") the letters are more likely to be more curvy in appearance than in standard Bengali handwriting. Also, the horizontal supporting bar on each letter (matra) runs continuously through the entire word, unlike in standard handwriting. This cursive handwriting often used by literature experts differs in appearance from the standard Bengali alphabet as it is free hand writing, where sometimes the alphabets are complex and appear different from the standard handwriting. Roman cursive is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.

Bangladeshi Australians

PriyoAustralia.com.au The gateway for information on all aspects of the growing Bengali community in Australia. (1st community news portal in Australia). Bangla-Sydney.com (News and views of Bangladeshi community in Sydney). Gaan Baksho (Australia's 24/7 HD Bangla radio & Event platform).

Dominion of Pakistan

PakistanDominionBritish monarchy
Pakistan (পাকিস্তান অধিরাজ্য '; undefined '), also called the Dominion of Pakistan, was an independent federal dominion in South Asia that was established in 1947 as a result of the Pakistan movement, followed by the simultaneous partition of British India to create a new country called Pakistan. The dominion, which included much of modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was conceived under the two-nation theory as an independent country composed of the Muslim-majority areas of the former British India.

States and union territories of India

StateIndian statestates
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.


Languages that have SOV structure include Ainu, Akkadian, Amharic, Armenian, Assamese, Assyrian, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bengali, Burmese, Burushaski, Cherokee, Dakota, Dogon languages, Elamite, Ancient Greek, Gujarati, Hajong, Hindi, Hittite, Hopi, Ijoid languages, Itelmen, Japanese, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Korean, Kurdish, Classical Latin, Lakota, Manchu, Mande languages, Marathi, Mongolian, Navajo, Nepali, Newari, Nivkh, Nobiin, Pāli, Pashto, Persian, Punjabi, Quechua, Senufo languages, Seri, Sicilian, Sindhi, Sinhalese, Sunuwar and most other Indo-Iranian languages, Somali and virtually all other Cushitic languages, Sumerian, Tibetan and nearly all other Tibeto-Burman languages, Kannada, Malayalam

Bengali consonant clusters

English and other foreign (বিদেশী bideshi) borrowings add even more cluster types into the Bengali inventory, further increasing the syllable capacity to CCCVCCCC, as commonly used loanwords such as ট্রেন ṭren "train" and গ্লাস glash "glass" are now even included in leading Bengali dictionaries. Final consonant clusters are rare in Bengali. Most final consonant clusters were borrowed into Bengali from English, as in লিফ্‌ট lifṭ "lift, elevator" and ব্যাংক bêngk "bank". However, final clusters do exist in some native Bengali words, although rarely in standard pronunciation.